New Formulations (new + formulations)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Review article: new drug formulations, chemical entities and therapeutic approaches for the management of ulcerative colitis

S. C. NG
Summary Background, Treatment options for ulcerative colitis (UC) are expanding with the development of novel drug formulations and dosing regimens and new chemical entities. Although the goals of medical therapy for UC remain unchanged, that is to induce and to maintain remission, focus has also centred on improving patient compliance, modifying the natural course of disease and healing the mucosa. Aim, To examine novel formulations, new chemical entities and novel therapeutic approaches to the management of UC. Methods, Searches for all studies related to UC treatment in Medline and abstracts from major national and international meetings published in the last 10 years. Results, 5-Aminosalicylic acids (5-ASA) remain the standard first-line treatment for patients with mild to moderately active UC. New formulations with altered delivery, and new dosing regimens have demonstrated possible improvements in efficacy compared with historically available preparations and dosing patterns. Once-daily dosing, micropellet formulations, and high-dose tablets offer enhanced efficacy and improved compliance. 5-ASA is now recognized as a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-, (PPAR-,) and it has a role as a chemo-preventive agent in long-standing UC. New colonic release corticosteroid formulations help to limit systemic toxicity; turmeric, tacrolimus and infliximab have shown promising results. New anti-inflammatory targeted therapies include an anti-CD3 antibody, selective integrin blockers, anti-IL-2 antibody and PPAR-, agonists. Conclusion, The evolution of novel oral 5-ASA formulations and dosage regimens, and recent development of new molecules have expanded the therapeutic armamentarium of UC. [source]

New therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: an update

C Day PhD Visiting Fellow
Abstract In type 2 diabetes, several lesions have been identified and drugs are being developed that target these lesions. This review considers agents that have been introduced to Europe since 2006, particularly the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (gliptins) that represent new classes of agent, both of which target the enteroinsular axis. The GLP-1 analogues and gliptins reduce hyperglycaemia without promoting weight gain, with the former being associated with weight loss. Agents advanced in development, new fixed-dose combination tablets and new formulations of established agents are also considered. Copyright © 2009 FEND [source]

Complete correlation, detection loophole and Bell's theorem

A. Shafiee
Two new formulations of Bell's theorem are given here. First, we consider a definite set of two entangled photons with only two polarization directions, for which Bell's locality assumption is violated for the case of perfect correlation. Then, using a different approach, we prove an efficient Bell-type inequality which is violated by some quantum mechanical predictions, independent of the efficiency factors. [source]

The Aqualon SLT: A novel device for measuring hair stiffness and lubricity

K. A. Vaynberg
J. Cosmet. Sci., 60, 135,141 (March/April 2009) Synopsis The ability to quantify hair property changes in response to treatment is essential to the successful development of new formulations and benefiting agents. In the attempt to expand the toolbox of hair tress testing tools, we developed a device that allows hair scientists to measure hair tress changes in stiffness and lubricity. The tool is based on a system of pins mounted on free rotating bearings and is operated in two modes: rotating and stationary. The hair attributes are measured by threading a hair tress through the pin assembly and measuring the total work of pulling through in rotational and stationary modes (the latter mode is obtained by immobilizing pins by a retaining plate). The data thus obtained is de-convoluted into the work of apparent stiffness (rotational mode) and the work of the friction-on-pins or lubricity (stationary mode minus the apparent stiffness). The data can be further reduced to produce an apparent friction coefficient defined as a ratio of the apparent lubricity to the apparent stiffness. This work demonstrates the utility of the parameters measured by the Aqualon SLT and illustrates how the device can be used to predict and understand the impacts of various hair treatments. [source]

Development and evaluation of a laboratory scale conch for chocolate production

Andrea Bordin Schumacher
Summary In this study a laboratory scale conch was developed with the purpose of testing new formulations using small amounts of chocolate mass. The equipment was built with working parts of others machines and the chocolate manufactured with the conch was evaluated in relation to the viscosity, moisture, acidity and polyphenol concentration. The resulting chocolate was tempered and then evaluated by a sensory panel. The results were always compared with an industrial conching process. The material used in the assays was dark chocolate (40% cocoa). Data were submitted to variance analysis (anova) and when there was significant difference among the averages, the Tukey's test was applied. It was verified that the reduction of moisture and viscosity of the mass in the laboratory scale was similar to industrial scale. The parameters acidity and polyphenols showed no significant alterations when comparing both process scales. However, in the sensory analysis a flavour difference between the processing scales was perceptible. [source]

Itraconazole oral solution and intravenous formulations: a review of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

L. Willems
Itraconazole is a triazole antifungal agent with a broad spectrum of activity. It is well tolerated and highly efficacious, particularly because its main metabolite, hydroxy-itraconazole, also has considerable antifungal activity. Two new formulations of itraconazole, an oral solution and an intravenous formulation, have recently been developed, which combine lipophilic itraconazole with cyclodextrin. These formulations have improved the solubility of itraconazole, leading to enhanced absorption and bioavailability compared with the original capsule formulation, without having an impact on the tolerability profile of itraconazole. The oral solution and intravenous formulations of itraconazole produce consistent plasma concentrations and are ideal for the treatment of systemic fungal infections in a wide range of patient populations. The additional flexibility offered by the different routes of administration means that itraconazole treatment can be specifically tailored for use in all patients, including children and those requiring intensive care. [source]

Sonophoresis: recent advancements and future trends

Rekha Rao
Abstract Objectives Use of ultrasound in therapeutics and drug delivery has gained importance in recent years, evident by the increase in patents filed and new commercial devices launched. The present review discusses new advancements in sonophoretic drug delivery in the last two decades, and highlights important challenges still to be met to make this technology of more use in the alleviation of diseases. Key findings Phonophoretic research often suffers from poor calibration in terms of the amount of ultrasound energy emitted, and therefore current research must focus on safety of exposure to ultrasound and miniaturization of devices in order to make this technology a commercial reality. More research is needed to identify the role of various parameters influencing sonophoresis so that the process can be optimized. Establishment of long-term safety issues, broadening the range of drugs that can be delivered through this system, and reduction in the cost of delivery are issues still to be addressed. Summary Sonophoresis (phonophoresis) has been shown to increase skin permeability to various low and high molecular weight drugs, including insulin and heparin. However, its therapeutic value is still being evaluated. Some obstacles in transdermal sonophoresis can be overcome by combination with other physical and chemical enhancement techniques. This review describes recent advancements in equipment and devices for phonophoresis, new formulations tried in sonophoresis, synergistic effects with techniques such as chemical enhancers, iontophoresis and electroporation, as well as the growing use of ultrasound in areas such as cancer therapy, cardiovascular disorders, temporary modification of the blood-brain barrier for delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents, hormone replacement therapy, sports medicine, gene therapy and nanotechnology. This review also lists patents pertaining to the formulations and techniques used in sonophoretic drug delivery. [source]

Structure,activity relationship study of alkynyl ether insecticide synergists and the development of MB-599 (verbutin),

Béla Bertók
Abstract Structure,activity relationships of aryl alkynyl synergists of the general formula of Ar,Q,R, where Q represents a bridging structure, were studied using a standardised testing system and Relative Potency values. Ethers, esters, oxime ethers, amides and amines were prepared and evaluated. The length of the R-alkynyl chain, the role of the bridge and the substitution of the aromatic ring were examined systematically. The most potent compounds possessed an aromatic ring connected via a bridge of three atoms to an alkynyl chain, forming together a linear side-chain of six atoms. Several highly potent compounds were synthesised of which one (MB-599; proposed common name verbutin) was selected for development as a selective insecticide synergist in crop protection. Its high potential at practical insecticide:synergist ratios makes possible the reduction of the total amount of insect-control chemicals applied, and its use as an additive to produce new formulations of existing insecticides makes it highly advantageous in resistance management, giving a new tool to sustain the effectiveness of a wide range of insecticides. A product containing a (1,+,1) mixture of verbutin and beta-cypermethrin was launched in Hungary in 2002. © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Post-discharge nutrition for the preterm infant

Richard J Schanler
Abstract Newly designed, ,enriched,' formulas are now available for the formula feeding premature infant after hospital discharge. These new formulations add to the array of milks from which to choose when the discharge of the premature infant is approaching. However, the data to support optimal or reference nutrient intakes to use for the premature infant in the post-discharge are lacking. Breastfeeding should be encouraged as its beneficial effects may be related to the duration in which it is fed. Infants at risk for growth failure in the post-discharge period, such as infants unable to consume ad libitum intakes of milk, and who already have growth faltering or abnormal nutritional indices, may benefit for the addition of enriched formula. This review summarizes the recent data and comments on recommendations on post-discharge nutrition for premature infants. [source]