Network Type (network + type)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Knowledge, Market Structure, and Economic Coordination: Dynamics of Industrial Districts

Ron A. Boschma
The industrial rise of the Third Italy has been characterized by the growth of dynamic networks of flexible small and medium,sized enterprises (SMEs) that are spatially concentrated in specialized industrial districts. This network type of coordination has been associated with horizontal, trust,based relations rather than vertical relations of power and dependency between local organizations. This would lower transaction costs (essential for local systems with an extreme division of labor), facilitate the transmission and exchange of (tacit) knowledge (and thus, learning and innovation), encourage cooperation mechanisms (such as the establishment of research centers), and stimulate political,institutional performance (e.g. through regulation of potential social conflicts). From an evolutionary perspective, the focus is on the dynamics of industrial districts drawing from current experiences in Italy. In this respect, this paper concentrates on two main features of industrial districts that have largely contributed to their economic success in the past, that is, their network organization and the collective learning process. The evolution of industrial districts is described in terms of organizational adjustments to structural change. The way in which the size distribution of firms has changed is discussed (in particular the role of large companies), how the (power) relationships between local organizations have evolved, what are the current sources and mechanisms of learning, and to what extent institutional lock,in has set in. Finally, a number of trajectories districts may go through in the near future are presented. [source]

A new three-dimensional cobalt(II) coordination polymer with a 4-connected CdSO4 -like topology

Zhan-Lin Xu
The title cobalt(II) coordination polymer, poly[[diaquacobalt(II)]-,4 -3,3,-(p -phenylene)diacrylato], [Co(C12H8O4)(H2O)2]n, was obtained by reaction of Co(NO3)26H2O and 3,3,-(p -phenylene)diacrylic acid (H2L) under hydrothermal conditions. Each CoII cation sits on a centre of inversion and is hexacoordinated by six O-atom donors in an octahedral geometry. The CoII centres are connected by four centrosymmetric L2, anions, resulting in a three-dimensional framework structure. The coordinated water molecules and carboxylate O atoms form hydrogen-bond interactions, stabilizing the structure of the three-dimensional framework. Topologically, the framework represents a rare example of the three-dimensional 4-connected CdSO4 network type. The metal cations and the organic ligand both show in-plane coordination with respect to the extended structure. [source]

Policy Wars for Peace: Network Model of NGO Behavior,

Anna Ohanyan
The challenge of orchestrating coordination and cooperation among the many international organizations active in international development has attracted much interest from academics and practitioners alike. This study addresses a particular piece of the larger puzzle: as nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and their donors, each usually with much different policy orientations, coalesce within interorganizational networks, what determines whose policy preferences are pursued, implemented, and delivered on the ground? Within the network-based model of NGO behavior introduced in this article, certain attributes and the internal institutional composition of NGO,donor policy networks are significant determinants in shaping opportunities for NGOs and in giving both NGOs and donors leverage over the policy process. The model focuses specifically on demonstrating the effects of a network on NGO autonomy,that is, an NGO's ability to advance its own policy preferences regardless of their congruency with those of its donors. The network typology presented in this study identifies the comparative advantages of distinct network types in which the NGO is most empowered as an autonomous policy actor and is best equipped to withstand parochial donor preferences. Using network analysis and the proposed network-based model, this research takes the form of a comparative study of four NGO,donor policy networks from the postconflict microfinance sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study also charts new research paths toward developing network-based approaches to the study of international institutions. [source]

Social Networks and Collective Action

David A. Siegel
Despite growing attention to the role of social context in determining political participation, the effect of the structure of social networks remains little examined. This article introduces a model of interdependent decision making within social networks, in which individuals have heterogeneous motivations to participate, and networks are defined via a qualitative typology mirroring common empirical contexts. The analysis finds that some metrics for networks' influence,size, the prevalence of weak ties, the presence of elites,have a more complex interaction with network structure and individual motivations than has been previously acknowledged. For example, in some contexts additional network ties decrease participation. This presents the potential for selection bias in empirical studies. The model offers a fuller characterization of the role of network structure and predicts expected levels of participation across network types and distributions of motivations as a function of network size, weak and strong ties, and elite influence. [source]