Network Theory (network + theory)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Network Theory

  • social network theory

  • Selected Abstracts

    The Ethic of Diversity: Local Law and the Negotiation of Urban Norms

    LAW & SOCIAL INQUIRY, Issue 4 2008
    Mariana Valverde
    Toronto prides itself both on being diverse and on celebrating rather than merely tolerating diversity. Urban diversity has been studied by demographers, sociologists, and planners, but sociolegal analyses of the negotiation of diversity are scarce. The study described here has three elements: a study of the Toronto Licensing Tribunal, a challenge to the property standards by-law, and a campaign to reform the rules governing street food. The key substantive finding of the research is that municipal legal processes, in a city that takes pride in its diversity, still work to effect and naturalize distinctly ethnocentric norms. The content of (some) norms is subject to revision but the normative power of law as such remains unchallenged. Methodologically, the article, inspired by Bruno Latour and Actor Network Theory, shows the usefulness of treating local legal processes as a series of networks in which nonhuman objects (such as weeds, courtroom Bibles, and hot dogs) can sometimes be protagonists of legal dramas rather than mere objects. [source]

    Affective spaces, melancholic objects: ruination and the production of anthropological knowledge,

    Yael Navaro-Yashin
    This article critically engages with recent theoretical writings on affect and non-human agency by way of studying the emotive energies discharged by properties and objects appropriated during war from members of the so-called ,enemy' community. The ethnographic material comes from long-term fieldwork in Northern Cyprus, focusing on how it feels to live with the objects and within the ruins left behind by the other, now displaced, community. I study Turkish-Cypriots' relations to houses, land, and objects that they appropriated from the Greek-Cypriots during the war of 1974 and the subsequent partition of Cyprus. My ethnographic material leads me to reflect critically on the object-centred philosophy of Actor Network Theory and on the affective turn in the human sciences after the work of Gilles Deleuze. With the metaphor of ,ruination', I study what goes amiss in scholarly declarations of theoretical turns or shifts. Instead, proposing an anthropologically engaged theory of affect through an ethnographic reflection on spatial and material melancholia, I argue that ethnography, in its most productive moments, is trans-paradigmatic. Retaining what has been ruined as still needful of consideration, I suggest an approach which merges theories of affect and subjectivity as well as of language and materiality. Résumé L'article examine sous un angle critique les écrits théoriques récents sur l'affect et l'agency non humaine pour étudier les énergies émotives libérées par les biens et objets confisqués lors d'un conflit armé aux membres de la communauté dite «ennemie». Le matériel ethnographique provient d'un travail de terrain de longue durée dans le Nord de Chypre, qui portait sur le ressenti de ceux qui vivent avec ces objets, dans les ruines laissées par l'autre communauté désormais déplacée. L'auteure étudie les relations des Chypriotes turcs avec les maisons, les terres et les objets qu'ils se sont appropriés sur les Chypriotes grecs lors de la guerre de 1974 et de la partition de Chypre. Le matériel ethnographique la conduit à une réflexion critique sur la philosophie centrée sur les objets de la théorie de l'acteur-réseau et sur le tournant affectif des sciences humaines à la suite des travaux de Gilles Deleuze. Par la métaphore de la «ruine», l'auteur sonde ce qui ne va pas dans les proclamations académiques de tournants théoriques et de changements paradigmatiques. En lieu et place, elle propose une théorie de l'affect engagée dans l'anthropologie, par une réflexion ethnographique sur la mélancolie spatiale et matérielle, et affirme que l'ethnographie, dans ses moments les plus productifs, est trans-paradigmatique. En gardant ce qui est «ruiné» comme digne encore de considération, l'auteure suggère une approche qui concilie les théories de l'affect et de la subjectivité et du langage et de la matérialité. [source]

    Exploring multiplicity conditions in enzymatic reaction networks

    Irene Otero-Muras
    Abstract In this work, a novel algorithmic approach to detect multiplicity of steady states in enzymatic reaction networks is presented. The method exploits the structural properties of networks derived from the Chemical Reaction Network Theory. In first instance, the space of parameters is divided in different regions according to the qualitative behavior induced by the parameters in the long term dynamics of the network. Once the regions are identified, a condition for the appearance of multiplicities is checked in the different regions by solving a given optimization problem. In this way, the method allows the characterization of the whole parameter space of biochemical networks in terms of the appearance or not of multistability. The approach is illustrated through a well-known case of enzymatic catalysis with substrate inhibition. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]

    QSAR model for alignment-free prediction of human breast cancer biomarkers based on electrostatic potentials of protein pseudofolding HP-lattice networks

    Santiago Vilar
    Abstract Network theory allows relationships to be established between numerical parameters that describe the molecular structure of genes and proteins and their biological properties. These models can be considered as quantitative structure,activity relationships (QSAR) for biopolymers. The work described here concerns the first QSAR model for 122 proteins that are associated with human breast cancer (HBC), as identified experimentally by Sjöblom et al. (Science 2006, 314, 268) from over 10,000 human proteins. In this study, the 122 proteins related to HBC (HBCp) and a control group of 200 proteins that are not related to HBC (non-HBCp) were forced to fold in an HP lattice network. From these networks a series of electrostatic potential parameters (,k) was calculated to describe each protein numerically. The use of ,k as an entry point to linear discriminant analysis led to a QSAR model to discriminate between HBCp and non-HBCp, and this model could help to predict the involvement of a certain gene and/or protein in HBC. In addition, validation procedures were carried out on the model and these included an external prediction series and evaluation of an additional series of 1000 non-HBCp. In all cases good levels of classification were obtained with values above 80%. This study represents the first example of a QSAR model for the computational chemistry inspired search of potential HBC protein biomarkers. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 2008 [source]

    Geography and the Immigrant Division of Labor

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2007
    Mark Ellis
    Abstract: Immigrants concentrate in particular lines of work. Most investigations of such employment niching have accented either the demand for labor in a limited set of mostly low-wage industries or the efficiency of immigrant networks in supplying that labor; space has taken a backseat or has been ignored. In contrast, this article's account of immigrant employment niching modulates insights built on social network theories with understandings derived from relative location. We do so by altering the thinking about employment niches as being metropolitan wide to considering them as local phenomena. Specifically, the analysis examines the intraurban variation in niching by Mexican, Salvadoran, Chinese, and Vietnamese men and women in four industries in Los Angeles. Niching is uneven; in some parts of the metropolitan area, these groups niche at high rates in these industries, whereas in others, there is no unusual concentration. We show how a group's propensity to niche in an industry is generally higher when the industry is located close to the group's residential neighborhoods and demonstrate the ways in which the proximity of competing groups dampens this geographic advantage. The study speaks to debates on immigrant niching and connects with research on minority access to employment and accounts of the agglomeration of firms. More generally, it links the geographies of home and work in a new way, relating patterns of immigrant residential segregation to those of immigrant employment niches. [source]

    International venture capital research: From cross-country comparisons to crossing borders

    Mike Wright
    Venture capital (VC) has become an international phenomenon, and VC firms are a specific kind of service firm whose characteristics have distinctive implications for international behaviour. There is now a disparate body of research on international aspects of VC across a number of disciplines comprising finance, economics, strategy, entrepreneurship, international business and economic geography. A novel aspect of this paper is that we review and synthesize this disparate literature. A number of research gaps and limitations in the theoretical and methodological approaches involved in previous studies are identified and suggestions made for further research. We show that the vast majority of the literature relates to cross-country comparisons; that is, macro-level comparisons of VC industries across different countries and micro-level comparisons of VC behaviour across countries. From our review of the literature, we argue that an under-researched area concerns the influence of institutional contexts, especially the role of social networks and cultures. Furthermore, our review of the literature indicates that there is a major research gap in relation to work dealing with the crossing of country borders by VC firms. We suggest that resource-based, capabilities, institutional and network theories may be offer insights to further our understanding of the behaviour of VC firms in this area. [source]

    How schemas affect eyewitness memory over repeated retrieval attempts

    Michelle Rae Tuckey
    After observing a crime eyewitnesses are typically interviewed many times over an extended period of time. We examined how schema for a crime influenced the types of information eyewitnesses remembered and forgot across multiple interviews. People's schema for a bank robbery were identified, and recall of schema-consistent, schema-inconsistent and schema-irrelevant information was extracted from eyewitness interviews conducted in two experiments which manipulated retention interval (3 days,12 weeks) and number of interviews (2,4). Consistent with fuzzy-trace and associative network theories, schemas preserved accuracy for information central to the crime (schema-consistent and inconsistent) at the expense of schema-irrelevant information. Schema-consistent intrusions did not increase across interviews. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    IRSS Psychology Theory: Telling Experiences Among Underrepresented IS Doctorates

    Fay Cobb Payton
    ABSTRACT With the changing demographics of the American workforce, the National Science Foundation, along with the U.S. Department of Commerce, has highlighted the shortage of minorities in information technology (IT) careers ( Using data from a 6-year period and the psychology Involvement-Regimen-Self Management-Social (IRSS) network theory as defined by Boice (1992), we discuss lessons learned from mentoring a group of Information Systems doctoral students who are members of a pipeline that can potentially increase the number of underrepresented faculty in business schools and who made conscious decisions to renounce the IT corporate domain. While our lessons speak to the need for more diversity awareness, we conclude that effective mentoring for underrepresented groups can and should include faculty of color (though limited in numbers) as well as majority faculty who are receptive to the needs and cultural differences of these student groups. Lastly, we draw on the work of Ethnic America to provide additional insight into our findings that are not offered by IRSS network theory. [source]

    Entrepreneurship Research on Network Processes: A Review and Ways Forward

    Susanna Slotte-Kock
    Although entrepreneurship research on networks has studied issues pertaining to network content, governance and structure, we believe it requires a greater understanding of network processes. In this paper, we review how the entrepreneurship literature interprets and applies the concept of process to the study of networks. This allows us to identify areas for future investigation. Our work is also informed by social network theory and research on dyadic interactions in business networks. The paper concludes by presenting a theoretical framework for conceptualizing and studying the various processes associated with network development. [source]

    The Micro-politics of Gendering in Networking

    Yvonne Benschop
    Networking processes contribute to the perpetuation of gender inequalities in everyday practices in organizations. This article examines the implications of the conceptualization of gender as practice for social network theory. The three central elements of this critical feminist approach to networking are the study of agency, identity construction and the micro-political processes of networking and gendering. To illustrate that networking practices are gendering practices, that there are various manifestations of those practices, and the way in which networking and gendering are intertwined, the networking practices of four white, Dutch female and male account managers are discussed. This micro-political analysis suggests that networking does not necessarily reinforce gender inequality, which opens up the possibility of examining which combinations of networking and gendering contribute to changing the gender order. [source]

    Stabilizing flows in the legal field: illusions of permanence, intellectual property rights and the transnationalization of law

    GLOBAL NETWORKS, Issue 1 2003
    Paul Street
    In this article I examine some of the problems that ,modern' legal theory poses for a consideration of the extended reach of social actors and institutions in time and space. While jurisprudence has begun to engage with the concept of globalization, it has done so in a relatively limited manner. Thus legal theory's encounters with highly visible transnational practices have, for the most part, resulted not in challenging the prevailing formal legal paradigm, but in a renewed if slightly modified search for a general jurisprudence that ultimately takes little account of the manner in which the work of law is carried out transnationally. In the first part of this article I examine how legal theory's concern to maintain its own integrity places limitations on its ability to examine the permeability of social boundaries. In the latter part I draw on critical human geography, post,structuralism and actor,network theory (ANT), to examine the manner in which transnational actors have been able to mobilize law, and in particular intellectual property rights (IPRs), as a necessary strategy for both maintaining the meanings of bio,technologies through time and space, and enrolling farmers into particular social networks. [source]

    Developing a Performance Measurement System for University Central Administrative Services

    Marika Arena
    Central administrative services have recently received increasing attention from practitioners and academics due to the challenging need to both manage scarce resources and provide high-quality services. In this context, performance measurement systems (PMSs) may assume a central role, although an unresolved debate remains on the claimed benefits of accountability and the difficulties that have emerged in defining and managing proper measures. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting the results of a study in which a PMS for central administrative services has been developed and tested through an action research approach drawing on actor network theory. The experiment was carried out in 15 Italian universities and five areas of services were dealt with: student support, research support, accounting, human resources, and logistics and procurement. The highly participative method resulted in a comparable system with a complete set of cost and quality indicators across the participating universities. These data proved to be useful at managerial and policy level, providing insights on the presence of scale effects and on the relative importance of quality dimensions for users of services. Participating in the project encouraged the university staff to use indicators in decision making. [source]

    Intelligent social network analysis using granular computing

    Ronald R. Yager
    An introduction to some basic ideas of graph (relational network) theory is first provided. We then discuss some concepts from granular computing in particular the fuzzy set paradigm of computing with words. The natural connection between graph theory and granular computing, particularly fuzzy set theory, is pointed out. This connection is grounded in the fact that these are both set-based technologies. Our objective here is to take a step toward the development of intelligent social network analysis using granular computing. In particular one can start by expressing in a human-focused manner concepts associated with social networks then formalize these concepts using fuzzy sets and then evaluate these concepts with respect to social networks that have been represented using set-based relational network theory. We capture this approach in what we call the paradigm for intelligent social network analysis, PISNA. Using this paradigm, we provide definitions of a number of concepts related to social networks. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Comparison of distributed and lumped element models for analysis of filtering properties of nonlinear transmission lines

    F. Martín
    Abstract The filtering properties of periodic loaded lossy transmission lines are studied from the point of view of microwave network theory. Under the condition that the per-section capacitance of the line is small compared to that of the loading capacitors, it is shown that the distributed circuit can be described accurately by means of a lumped element ladder network. The effects of transmission line losses on this approximation are also analyzed. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J RF and Microwave CAE 12, 503,507, 2002. Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/mmce.10050 [source]

    The Latinization of the Central Shenandoah Valley

    Laura Zarrugh
    Virginia is among a number of southern states in the United States, such as North Carolina, Arkansas and Georgia, which have experienced a sudden growth in Latino immigration during the past decade. Not only is the volume of growth unprecedented, but many of the destinations are new and located in rural areas. Places that have not hosted immigrant populations for generations are quickly becoming multicultural. The small city of Harrisonburg (population 43,500 according to the 2005 estimate), which is located in the rural Central Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, is perhaps the premier example of this new pattern of change. While local advertising once promoted Harrisonburg for its "99.2% American-born and 93.7% white" population, the area today holds the distinction of hosting the most diverse public school enrollment in the state (in 2006-2007), with students from 64 countries who speak 44 languages. Among them are Spanish speakers from at least 14 different countries. Drawing on social network theory, the paper examines how social networks among Latino immigrants become activated in new settlement areas. It presents a case history of the historic process of "Latinization" involving the settlement of a number of diverse Latino populations (from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Cuba and Uruguay) in Harrisonburg and the surrounding Central Shenandoah Valley. The study demonstrates how a number of key institutions, including local agricultural industries (apples and poultry), a refugee resettlement office and churches recruited "pioneers" from these immigrant groups to the area and how "pioneers" subsequently engaged in further social network recruitment, thus creating multiple transnational "daughter communities" in the Harrisonburg area. The policy implications of this historical process are explored. Au même titre que la Caroline du Nord, l'Arkansas et la Georgie, la Virginie est l'un de ces Etats du sud des Etats-Unis qui ont été témoins d'une poussée soudaine de l'immigration latino-américaine au cours de la dernière décennie. Non seulement il s'agit d'un rythme de croissance sans précédent, mais bon nombre de destinations choisies sont nouvelles et situées en zone rurale. Des lieux qui n'avaient pas accueilli de population immigrée depuis des générations prennent brusquement un caractère multiculturel. La petite ville de Harrisonburg (43 500 habitants selon un décompte approximatif de 2005), qui est située dans la vallée centrale de Shenandoah, en Virginie, est peut-être le principal exemple de cette nouvelle évolution. Alors qu'elle se vantait autrefois d'être composée d'Américains de souche à hauteur de 99,2% et d'être blanche à 93,7%, cette ville se distingue aujourd'hui par la plus grande diversité d'origine des enfants scolarisés à l'échelle de l'Etat (pour la période 2006-2007), puisqu'on y dénombre 64 nationalités parlant 44 langues. On y trouve notamment des hispanophones originaires d'au moins 14 pays différents. A partir de la théorie des réseaux sociaux, l'auteur examine comment ces réseaux se sont activés chez les immigrants latino-américains dans les nouvelles zones d'installation. Il présente un historique du processus de "latinisation", en citant notamment l'installation de populations latino-américaines diverses (originaires du Mexique, du Guatemala, d'El Salvador, du Honduras, de Cuba et d'Uruguay) à Harrisonburg et dans la vallée centrale Shenandoah entourant cette ville. L'auteur montre comment un certain nombre d'institutions clés, et notamment les industries agricoles locales (pommeraies et élevages de poulets), un bureau de réinstallation de réfugiés et des églises ont recruté des "pionniers" au sein de ces groupes d'immigrants, et comment ces "pionniers" ont par la suite poursuivi cette action de recrutement à l'aide de réseaux sociaux, créant ainsi de multiples "communautés affiliées" transnationales dans la région de Harrisonburg. L'étude examine aussi les implications politiques de ce processus historique. Virginia es uno de los estados sureños de los Estados Unidos, al igual que Carolina del Norte, Arkansas y Georgia, que ha experimentado un incremento repentino de la inmigración latina durante el último decenio. No sólo se trata de un incremento sin precedentes, si no que además los destinos son nuevos y localizados en zonas rurales. Estos lugares que no han albergado a poblaciones inmigrantes durante generaciones se están convirtiendo rápidamente en entornos multiculturales. La pequeña ciudad de Harrisonburg (con 43.500 habitantes según el censo de 2005), está localizada en el valle rural central de Shenadoah en Virginia, y es quizás el primer ejemplo de este nuevo patrón de cambio. Si bien la publicidad local promocionaba a Harrisonburg porque sus habitantes eran "99,2 por ciento nacidos en América y 93,7 por ciento blancos" hoy en día se destaca por albergar la población más diversa inscrita en los colegios públicos del Estado (entre 2006 y 2007), con estudiantes provenientes de 64 países que hablan 44 idiomas. Entre ellos están estudiantes de habla hispana provenientes de por lo menos 14 países distintos. Sobre la base de la teoría de redes sociales, este artículo examina redes sociales entre los inmigrantes latinos que se activan en nuevas zonas de asentamiento. Se presenta un estudio por caso de un proceso histórico de "latinización" que implica el asentamiento de toda una variedad de poblaciones latinas de "México, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Cuba y Uruguay" en Harrisonburg y el valle central aledaño de Shenandoah. El estudio demuestra cómo una serie de instituciones clave,- incluidas las industrias agrícolas locales (manzanos y avicultura), una oficina de reasentamiento de refugiados y las iglesias - reclutaron a los "pioneros" de estos grupos de inmigrantes en la región y cómo esos "pioneros" entablaron ulteriormente el reclutamiento a nivel de su red social, creando "comunidades hermanas" transnacionales y múltiples en la región de Harrisonburg. También se examinan las repercusiones políticas de este proceso histórico. [source]

    Formalism, Behavioral Realism and the Interdisciplinary Challenge in Sociological Theory

    In this paper, I argue that recent sociological theory has become increasingly bifurcated into two mutually incompatible styles of theorizing that I label formalist and behavioral-realist. Formalism favors mathematization and proposes an instrumentalist ontology of abstract processes while behavioral-realist theory takes at its basis the "real" physical individual endowed with concrete biological, cognitive and neurophysiological capacities and constraints and attempts to derive the proper conceptualization of social behavior from that basis. Formalism tends to lead toward a conceptually independent sociology that in principle requires only minimal reference to the empirical and ontological storehouse of other disciplines, while behavioral-realist theory leads to an interdisciplinary sociology that can be located within a hierarchy of behavioral sciences, leading to questions regarding the relationship between sociology and other disciplines as well as issues of transdisciplinary unification and possible interdisciplinary reduction. I explore the consequences of this split for the project of explanatory sociological theory within the context of how it has manifested itself in sociological network theory and social psychology. I close with a critique and assessment of formalist tendencies in sociological theorizing. [source]

    Psychological Predictors of Internet Social Communication

    Sarah A. Birnie
    This study investigated the relationship of traditional social behavior to social communication via the Internet in a completely wired campus where every professor uses computers in classroom teaching, each residence is wired to the Internet, and every student is issued a laptop computer. It has been suggested that shy and socially isolated individuals communicate more on the Internet because it provides some protection from social anxiety. However, little research has empirically tested this assumption. In line with social network theory, we proposed, instead, that online social communication would complement or supplement the uses of face-to-face social contact resulting in a positive association between the two forms of social behaviors. We assessed the frequency and intimacy of traditional social behaviors, sociability, and shyness in 115 undergraduates (52 male, 63 female). These variables were then used to predict the frequency and intimacy of Internet social communication. Sociability and the frequency of traditional social behaviors were positively associated with the frequency of Internet social communication. The intimacy of traditional social behaviors was positively associated with the intimacy of Internet social communication. Overall, the findings supported the implications of social network theory in that online social communication appeared to complement or be an extension of traditional social behavior rather than being a compensatory medium for shy and socially anxious individuals. With relation to uses and gratifications theory, however, shyness was associated with increased intimate socializing over the Internet, indicating that traditional and Internet communication are not functionally equivalent. [source]

    Interfirm Alliances in the Small Business: The Role of Social Networks

    Anat BarNir
    In light of the increasing importance of strategic alliances in shaping competition, this study explored whether the social network of small firm executives can be leveraged to facilitate the establishment of interfirm alliances. Analyses are based on a mail survey of 149 small manufacturing firms in the northeast United States. Results indicate that the social networks of senior executives account for 11,22 percent of the variance in the degree to which firms engage in alliances, depending on the type of alliance. Results also show that the number of interfirm alliances is positively related to several networking properties (propensity to network, strength of ties, and network prestige). Findings are discussed in the context of network theory, social embeddedness, and the overall implications for management researchers and practitioners. [source]

    Knowledge creation and exploitation in collaborative R&D projects: lessons learned on success factors

    Mona Weck
    This paper examines the management of collaborative R&D projects with customers. Prior research on social network theory and the knowledge-based view has identified some of the key conditions of successful collaboration. However, the actual management of project dynamics has received less attention. This paper addresses this gap in existing research through a case study on the management of inter-firm R&D projects in a large European telecommunications operator. It provides a cross-project comparison on the process of knowledge creation and exploitation in five collaborative R&D projects with customers. The objective of this research is to increase current understanding on the success factors of collaborative R&D projects. As a result of this paper, the creation of a genuine ,win-win' situation, clear roles and responsibilities, the customer-oriented approach and the exchange of complementary specialist knowledge are found to be key critical success factors in the process of inter-firm knowledge creation. Moreover, this paper indicates that the viability of the business opportunity is the primary success factor in knowledge exploitation. In addition to identifying these success factors, the paper provides a more complete list of lessons learned from collaborative R&D projects with customers. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Realization of complete polarization conversion using periodic structure composed of left-handed materials

    Weihai Fang
    Abstract The polarization conversion characteristics of dielectric periodic structure composed of left-handed materials for the case of plane wave oblique incidence are carefully investigated by a method which combines the multimode network theory with the rigorous mode matching method. It is indicated that complete polarization conversion between TE and TM modes can be realized using left-handed gratings. This can hardly achieve in the conventional right-handed gratings. This unique merit of left-handed periodic structure is an important significance for accurate design of new millimeter wave polarization converters. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 49: 2862,2864, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/mop.22826 [source]

    Analysis and equivalent circuit of aperture-coupled cavity-fed microstrip patch antenna

    Jeong Phill Kim
    Abstract A simple but accurate equivalent circuit of an aperture-coupled cavity-fed microstrip patch antenna is developed. It consists of ideal transformers, admittance elements, and transmission lines, and the related circuit-element values are computed by applying the reciprocity theorem and complex power concept with the spectral-domain immittance approach. The antenna input impedance calculated from network theory is compared with the measured data, and their good agreement validates the simplicity and accuracy of the proposed equivalent-circuit model. Based on the proposed theory, the effect of structural parameters on the antenna characteristics is also examined. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 48: 843,846, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/mop.21493 [source]

    Managing learning in informal innovation networks: overcoming the Daphne-dilemma

    R & D MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2000
    Joan E. Van Aken
    In this article we discuss the nature and productivity of informal innovation networks, i.e. informal collaborative arrangements between organizations engaged in product or process innovation. Such networks can be used in any phase of the innovation process, but their informal nature makes them especially suited for its fuzzy front end. We explore their potential in technology exchange and learning on the basis of a combination of organization network theory and knowledge management theory. We discuss issues in network governance and network operational management and discuss the basic dilemma , which we named the Daphne-dilemma , facing attempts to improve the productivity of informal innovation networks: too little management effort may lead to under-exploitation of their potential and poor productivity, but too much management effort may destroy their informal nature and hence their creative and explorative potential. [source]

    Codification, patents and the geography of knowledge transfer in the electronic musical instrument industry

    Recent research in economic geography has emphasized tacit knowledge as the basis of industrial learning. In contrast, codification and the practices of industrial writing have received little attention for the roles they play in mobilizing knowledge across space. This paper offers insight into the geographies of codification through an examination of technology transfer in the electronic musical instrument industry between 1965 and 1995. The research draws on a variety of primary and secondary data that include interviews with inventors, biographical accounts and patent analysis. These sources offer perspective on the career trajectories of three U.S. inventors who transferred knowledge from various contexts in California's high-tech industry to the Japanese firm, Yamaha. Conceptually, the paper draws on the actor,network theory and Latour's idea of translation to highlight the detours inventors must take to register novelty. The analysis reveals the problematic nature of codified knowledge and its transfer; in this case codified knowledge was mobile internationally but not locally, at least until it reached Japan. The paper argues for the need to understand how texts such as patents are produced,the context of their authorship, the geographies of their circulation and their efficacy for shaping further innovative practice. Les recherches actuelles en géographie mettent l'accent sur les connaissances tacites comme fondement de l'apprentissage industriel. Cependant, la codification et les pratiques relatives à la composition industrielle ont été peu étudiées du point de vue de leurs rôles dans la mobilisation des connaissances dans l'espace. Cet article donne un aperçu des géographies de la codification suite à une analyse du transfert technologique dans l'industrie des instruments de musique électronique entre 1965 et 1995. Fondée sur un ensemble de données primaires et secondaires, cette étude présente une série d'entrevues réalisées auprès d'inventeurs, des comptes-rendus biographiques et des analyses de brevets. Ces données permettent de considérer avec recul le cheminement professionnel de trois inventeurs américains responsables du transfert des connaissances depuis différents secteurs de l'industrie de haute technologie californienne vers la société japonaise Yamaha. Sur un plan conceptuel, l'article reprend la théorie acteur-réseau et aborde la notion de traduction développée par Latour afin de mettre en relief les principaux détours qu'empruntent les inventeurs pour obtenir un brevet d'innovation. L'analyse fait ressortir le caractère problématique des connaissances codifiées et de leur transfert; dans ce cas, les connaissances codifiées étaient mobiles à l'échelle internationale et non à l'échelle locale avant qu'elles n'arrivent au Japon. Cet article plaide en faveur de la nécessité de comprendre comment les textes tels que les brevets sont élaborés: le contexte entourant la rédaction du document, les géographies de leur diffusion et les répercutions sur les pratiques novatrices. [source]

    A two-phase network theory of atopy and asthma causation: a possible solution to the impact of genes, hygiene and air quality

    M. E. Hyland
    First page of article [source]

    Illegal Migration: What Can We Know And What Can We Explain?

    The Case of Germany
    Methodological problems in the study of illegal migration as defined in this article relate to questions of indicators for illegal migration, with special reference to Germany. It is argued and demonstrated that illegal immigrants are traceable, to some degree, in official statistics and that these can be analyzed for trends. In present-day migration processes, illegal immigration frequently is undertaken with the support of human smugglers. The analysis of the social organization of different forms of smuggling is the other main focus of the article. From a methodological point of view, the literature and public discourse lack adequate concepts for describing and explaining the social organization of human smuggling. The theory of organized crime as a main actor in human smuggling is criticized. The study borrows concepts from market and networks theory and applies these to different forms of human smuggling and illegal migration. The social and technological organization of smuggling is under constant pressure to adapt to new conditions. The dynamism for this change results mainly from an "arms race" between smugglers and law enforcement. Since control over territory and population are central elements of state sovereignty, the state cannot simply withdraw from this race. [source]