Network Sites (network + site)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Network Sites

  • social network site

  • Selected Abstracts

    Relationships between multiple births and autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disabilities: autism and developmental disabilities monitoring (ADDM) network,2002 surveillance year,

    AUTISM RESEARCH, Issue 5 2008
    Kim Van Naarden Braun
    Abstract Since the 1970s, the prevalence of multiple births (MBs) in the United States has increased significantly. This has been attributed, in large part, to iatrogenic MBs resulting from infertility treatments that include ovulation stimulation. A past study has indicated that children from MBs have an increased prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP). Other studies also have suggested an association between MBs and intellectual disabilities (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, results have been inconsistent. From the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, a surveillance project among several US populations, we obtained MB estimates among children born in 1994 and classified by 8 years of age as having: an ASD (n=1,626 total children from 11 sites; 50 born as part of an MB); CP (n=302 total children from 3 sites; 25 born as part of an MB); or ID (n=1,195 total children from 3 sites; 45 born as part of an MB). All three MB estimates were notably higher than age-adjusted expected estimates of naturally conceived MBs derived from 1971 US natality data. However, when MB estimates from the ADDM Network were compared with expected MB estimates derived from 1994 natality data for the states corresponding to the relevant ADDM Network sites, we observed no association with ASDs (observed/expected=1.08 [0.78,1.38]), a moderate, but not statistically significant association with ID (observed/expected=1.34 [0.95,1.73]), and a strong association with CP (observed/expected=2.96 [1.80,4.12]). Further investigation of specific types of MBs (natural vs. iatrogenic) is warranted. [source]

    The Role of Friends' Appearance and Behavior on Evaluations of Individuals on Facebook: Are We Known by the Company We Keep?

    Joseph B. Walther
    This research explores how cues deposited by social partners onto one's online networking profile affect observers' impressions of the profile owner. An experiment tested the relationships between both (a) what one's associates say about a person on a social network site via "wall postings," where friends leave public messages, and (b) the physical attractiveness of one's associates reflected in the photos that accompany their wall postings on the attractiveness and credibility observers attribute to the target profile owner. Results indicated that profile owners' friends' attractiveness affected their own in an assimilative pattern. Favorable or unfavorable statements about the targets interacted with target gender: Negatively valenced messages about certain moral behaviors increased male profile owners' perceived physical attractiveness, although they caused females to be viewed as less attractive. Résumé Le rôle de l'apparence et du comportement des amis dans l'évaluation d,individus sur Facebook : Notre entourage nous connaît-il? Cette recherche explore la façon dont des indices déposés par des partenaires sociaux sur le profil de réseautage en ligne d'une personne ont un effet sur les impressions qu,ont les observateurs du propriétaire de ce profil. Une expérience a testé la relation entre 1) ce que les amis d'une personne disent de celle-ci sur un site de réseautage social par le biais de messages publics laissés par ces amis sur son «Wall» (« mur » virtuel servant à afficher des messages) et 2) l,attrait physique des amis d'une personne telle que reflété par les photos qui accompagnent leurs messages publiés sur le «Wall», sur l,attrait et la crédibilité que des observateurs attribuent au propriétaire du profil ciblé. Les résultats indiquent que l'attrait des amis des propriétaires de profils a un impact sur le leur, selon un schéma d,assimilation. Des affirmations favorables ou défavorables aux cibles ont interagi avec le genre de la cible : des messages à valence négative à propos de certains comportements moraux ont augmenté l'attrait physique perçu des propriétaires de profils masculins, alors qu,ils faisaient en sorte que les propriétaires de sexe féminin étaient considérées moins attirantes. Abstract Die Rolle des Erscheinungsbildes und Verhaltens von Freunden bei der Evaluation von Personen bei Facebook: Was verraten die anderen über uns? Diese Studie untersucht, wie der Eindruck bezüglich des Profilinhabers durch Nachrichten, die auf Online-Networking-Profilen hinterlassen werden, beeinflusst wird. In einem Experiment untersuchten wir den Einfluss von 1) dem, was die Bekannten einer Person über diese via öffentlich lesbaren Pinnwandbotschaften sagen und 2) der physischen Attraktivität eines Freundes auf den beigefügten Fotos auf die Attraktivität und Glaubwürdigkeit, die Beobachter dem Profilbesitzer zuschreiben. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Attraktivität des Freundes die Attraktivität des Profilbesitzers auf vergleichbare Art und Weise beeinflusste. Positive oder negative Bemerkungen über das Zielprofil interagierten mit dem Geschlecht des Zielprofils. Negativ konnotierte Botschaften über das moralische Verhalten erhöhten bei männlichen Profilbesitzern die wahrgenommene physische Attraktivität, während sie bei weiblichen Profilbesitzern dazu führte, dass diese als weniger attraktiv wahrgenommen wurden. Resumen El Rol de la Apariencia y el Comportamiento de los Amigos sobre las Evaluaciones Individuales en Facebook: ¿Somos Conocidos por la Compañía que Mantenemos? Esta investigación explora cómo las claves depositadas por los compañeros sociales en el perfil de red online de uno mismo afectan las impresiones que los observadores tienen sobre el dueño de dicho perfil. Un experimento puso a prueba la relación entre (1) lo que sus asociados dicen acerca de una persona en la red social a través de los "mensajes de pared" donde los amigos dejan mensajes públicos, y (2) el atractivo físico de los asociados reflejado en las fotos que acompañan sus mensajes de pared, sobre el atractivo físico y la credibilidad que los observadores atribuyen al dueño del perfil. Los resultados indicaron que el atractivo físico de los amigos del dueño del perfil afectó el suyo propio en una pauta asimilativa. Las declaraciones favorables ó desfavorables sobre los perfiles metas interactuaron con el género meta: los mensajes de valencia negativa sobre ciertos comportamientos morales incrementaron la atracción física percibida del perfil masculino de los dueños, mientras que causó que las mujeres sean vistas como menos atractivas. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    Social Network Profiles as Taste Performances

    Hugo Liu
    This study examines how a social network profile's lists of interests,music, books, movies, television shows, etc.,can function as an expressive arena for taste performance. By composing interest tokens around a theme, profile users craft their "taste statements." First, socioeconomic and aesthetic influences on taste are considered, and the expressivity of interest tokens is analyzed using a semiotic framework. Then, a grounded theory approach is taken to identify four types of taste statements,those that convey prestige, differentiation, authenticity, and theatrical persona. The semantics of taste and taste statements are further investigated through a statistical analysis of 127,477 profiles collected from the MySpace social network site between November 2006 and January 2007. The major findings of the analysis include statistical evidence for prestige and differentiation taste statements and an interpretation of the taste semantics underlying the MySpace community,its motifs, paradigms, and demographic structures. [source]

    Linking flux network measurements to continental scale simulations: ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange capacity under non-water-stressed conditions

    Abstract This paper examines long-term eddy covariance data from 18 European and 17 North American and Asian forest, wetland, tundra, grassland, and cropland sites under non-water-stressed conditions with an empirical rectangular hyperbolic light response model and a single layer two light-class carboxylase-based model. Relationships according to ecosystem functional type are demonstrated between empirical and physiological parameters, suggesting linkages between easily estimated parameters and those with greater potential for process interpretation. Relatively sparse documentation of leaf area index dynamics at flux tower sites is found to be a major difficulty in model inversion and flux interpretation. Therefore, a simplification of the physiological model is carried out for a subset of European network sites with extensive ancillary data. The results from these selected sites are used to derive a new parameter and means for comparing empirical and physiologically based methods across all sites, regardless of ancillary data. The results from the European analysis are then compared with results from the other Northern Hemisphere sites and similar relationships for the simplified process-based parameter were found to hold for European, North American, and Asian temperate and boreal climate zones. This parameter is useful for bridging between flux network observations and continental scale spatial simulations of vegetation/atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange. [source]

    The Taste for Privacy: An Analysis of College Student Privacy Settings in an Online Social Network

    Kevin Lewis
    The rapid growth of contemporary social network sites (SNSs) has coincided with an increasing concern over personal privacy. College students and adolescents routinely provide personal information on profiles that can be viewed by large numbers of unknown people and potentially used in harmful ways. SNSs like Facebook and MySpace allow users to control the privacy level of their profile, thus limiting access to this information. In this paper, we take the preference for privacy itself as our unit of analysis, and analyze the factors that are predictive of a student having a private versus public profile. Drawing upon a new social network dataset based on Facebook, we argue that privacy behavior is an upshot of both social influences and personal incentives. Students are more likely to have a private profile if their friends and roommates have them; women are more likely to have private profiles than are men; and having a private profile is associated with a higher level of online activity. Finally, students who have private versus public profiles are characterized by a unique set of cultural preferences,of which the "taste for privacy" may be only a small but integral part. Résumé Le goût pour la vie privée : Une analyse des paramètres de vie privée des étudiants universitaires dans un réseau social en ligne L,expansion rapide des sites de réseaux sociaux (SRS) contemporains a coïncidé avec une croissance de la préoccupation pour la vie privée. Les étudiants universitaires et les adolescents affichent régulièrement des informations personnelles sur des profils qui peuvent être consultés par un très grand nombre d'inconnus, informations qui pourraient potentiellement être utilisées de façon dommageable. Les SRS comme Facebook et MySpace permettent aux usagers de contrôler le niveau de vie privée de leur profil, limitant ainsi l,accès à ces informations. Dans cet article, nous considérons la préférence pour la vie privée comme étant notre unité d'analyse. Nous analysons les facteurs qui peuvent prédire si un étudiant ou une étudiante a un profil privé ou public. À partir d,un nouvel ensemble de données sur les réseaux sociaux basé sur Facebook, nous soutenons que les comportements de protection de la vie privée sont une conséquence d'influences sociales et de motivations personnelles : les étudiants sont plus susceptibles d,avoir un profil privé si leurs amis et leurs colocataires en ont un; les femmes sont plus susceptibles que les hommes d'avoir des profils privés et avoir un profil privé est associéà un niveau plus élevé d,activité en ligne. Finalement, les étudiants qui ont des profils privés plutôt que publics sont caractérisés par un ensemble unique de préférences culturelles,desquelles le « goût pour la vie privée » peut n'être qu'une partie, petite mais intégrante. Abstract Studierende und Privatsphäre: Eine Analyse der Privatsphäre-Einstellungen in einem sozialen Online-Netzwerk Das derzeitig rasante Wachstum sozialer Netzwerke geht einher mit einer steigenden Besorgnis über die Privatsphäre. Studierende und Jugendliche geben routinemäßig persönliche Informationen auf ihren Profilen preis, die von vielen auch unbekannten Personen eingesehen und potentiell missbraucht werden kann. Soziale Netzwerke wie Facebook und MySpace geben ihren Nutzern die Möglichkeit, die Privatsphäre ihrer Profile per Einstellung zu beschränken und damit den Zugang zu diesen Informationen zu kontrollieren. In diesem Artikel nutzen wir die individuelle Präferenz für Privatsphäre als Analyseeinheit und untersuchen die Faktoren, mit denen man vorhersagen kann, ob ein Studierender ein eher privates oder öffentliches Profil hat. Auf Basis eines Facebook-Datensatzes argumentieren wir, dass das Verhalten bezüglich der Privatsphäre-Parameter das Ergebnis sozialer Einflüsse und persönlicher Anreize ist. Studierende haben dann häufiger ein privates Profil, wenn ihre Freunde und Mitbewohner eines haben; Frauen haben häufiger private Profile als Männer; und ein privates Profil geht einher mit stärker ausgeprägter Online-Aktivität. Letztendlich lassen sich Studierende mit einem privaten vs. öffentlichen Profil durch ein einmaliges Set an kulturellen Präferenzen charakterisieren , die Vorlieben bezüglich der Privatheit mögen dabei nur ein kleiner aber wichtiger Teil sein. Resumen El Sabor de la Privacidad: Un Análisis de las Opciones de Privacidad en una Red Social Online de Estudiantes Universitarios de Grado El crecimiento rápido de los sitios de redes sociales (SNSs) ha coincidido con un incremento en la preocupación de la privacidad personal. Estudiantes universitarios de grado y adolescentes proveen en forma rutinaria de información personal en sus perfiles que puede ser vista por un gran número de personas desconocidas y puede ser usada en formas potencialmente dañinas. Los SNSs como Facebook y MySpace permiten a los usuarios ejercer control sobre el nivel de privacidad de sus perfiles, limitando así el acceso a esta información. En este articulo, usamos a la preferencia por la privacidad como nuestra unidad de análisis en sí misma, y analizamos los factores que predicen si un estudiante usa perfiles privados versus públicos. Usando unos datos de una nueva red social en Facebook, argumentamos que el comportamiento de la privacidad es el resultado de influencias sociales e incentivos personales. Los estudiantes tuvieron una tendencia mayor a tener perfiles privados si sus amigos y compañeros de cuarto los tenían; las mujeres más que los hombres tuvieron mayores tendencias hacia los perfiles privados; y el tener un perfil privado fue asociado con un mayor nivel de actividad online. Finalmente, los estudiantes que tenían perfiles privados versus públicos fueron caracterizados por una colección de preferencias culturales,de las cuales el "sabor por la privacidad" puede ser una parte pequeña pero integral. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    Public dialogs in social network sites: What is their purpose?

    Mike Thelwall
    Social network sites (SNSs) such as MySpace and Facebook are important venues for interpersonal communication, especially among youth. One way in which members can communicate is to write public messages on each other's profile, but how is this unusual means of communication used in practice? An analysis of 2,293 public comment exchanges extracted from large samples of U.S. and U.K. MySpace members found them to be relatively rapid, but rarely used for prolonged exchanges. They seem to fulfill two purposes: making initial contact and keeping in touch occasionally such as at birthdays and other important dates. Although about half of the dialogs seem to exchange some gossip, the dialogs seem typically too short to play the role of gossip-based "social grooming" for typical pairs of Friends, but close Friends may still communicate extensively in SNSs with other methods. [source]

    Recent trends from Canadian permafrost thermal monitoring network sites

    Sharon L. Smith
    Abstract The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), in collaboration with other government partners, has been developing and maintaining a network of active-layer and permafrost thermal monitoring sites which contribute to the Canadian Permafrost Monitoring Network and the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost. Recent results from the thermal monitoring sites maintained by the GSC and other federal government agencies are presented. These results indicate that the response of permafrost temperature to recent climate change and variability varies across the Canadian permafrost region. Warming of shallow permafrost temperatures of between 0.3 and 0.6°C per decade has occurred since the mid- to late 1980s in the central and northern Mackenzie region in response to a general increase in air temperature. No significant warming (less than 0.1°C per decade) of permafrost is observed in the southern Mackenzie valley. Warming of shallow permafrost of between 1.0 and 4.0°C per decade is also observed in the eastern and high Arctic, but this mainly occurred in the late 1990s. These trends in permafrost temperature are consistent with trends in air temperature observed since the 1970s. Local conditions however, influence the response of the permafrost thermal regime to these changes in air temperature. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]