Network Perspective (network + perspective)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Network Perspective

  • social network perspective

  • Selected Abstracts


    The concept of structural embeddedness refers to the importance of framing suppliers as being embedded in larger supply networks rather than in isolation. Such framing helps buying companies create more realistic policies and strategies when managing their suppliers. Simply put, the performance of a supplier is dependent on its own supply networks. By adopting the concept of structural embeddedness, we learn that a buying company needs to look at a supplier's extended supply network to arrive at a more complete evaluation of that supplier's performance. By doing so, a buying company may do a better job of selecting suppliers for long-term relationships and may also find value in maintaining relationships with poorly performing suppliers who may potentially act as a conduit to other companies with technological and innovative resources. [source]

    The Tung Oil Boom in Australasia: a Network Perspective

    Abstract Ideas about networks are explored in the context of the interest within the British Empire and the United States of America in planting Tung Oil trees (Aleurites fordii) during the 1920s and 1930s. Closer attention is paid to the Australian and New Zealand experience and short-lived enthusiasm for the search for seeds, the collation of information on growth rates, and the planting of Tung trees. The paper briefly distinguishes various types of network research in human geography and concludes by raising some questions about space and time in network approaches in the social sciences more generally. [source]

    Cost-effectiveness of blood programmes , the Asia Pacific Blood Network perspective

    C.-K. Lin
    Globally, cost management of blood programs is seen as a critical strategic issue. This needs to be balanced with other strategic priorities, including sustainability of the blood system and provision of sufficient, safe and appropriate products and services for patient care. Asia Pacific blood services seek improvement in cost efficiencies through both local initiatives, and through partnering with other countries via international networks such as the Asia Pacific Blood Network (APBN). Through the APBN, blood services participate in 2 key areas that have the potential to yield improved cost efficiencies. These are a.,Comparison of Practice b.,Knowledge Exchange This paper outlines the way in which the APBN members have utilised these opportunities to identify and understand internal and external cost drivers and through this, help address challenges. Cost data is less useful in effecting change than measures of operational efficiency, as well as utilisation and wastage rates. Some common tools and approaches will be discussed, although it is recognized that for each country with its unique set of stakeholders, geography, and socio-political, legal, regulatory and economic parameters, the decisions made may well be quite different but appropriate for the local context. [source]

    A social network perspective on heroin and cocaine use among adults: evidence of bidirectional influences

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
    Amy S. B. Bohnert
    ABSTRACT Aims While several studies have documented a relationship between initiation of drug use and social network drug use in youth, the direction of this association is not well understood, particularly among adults or for stages of drug involvement beyond initiation. The present study sought to examine two competing theories (social selection and social influence) in the longitudinal relationship between drug use (heroin and/or cocaine) and social network drug use among drug-experienced adults. Design Three waves of data came from a cohort of 1108 adults reporting a life-time history of heroin and/or cocaine use. Setting Low-income neighborhoods with high rates of drug use in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants Participants had weekly contact with drug users and were 18 years of age or older. Measurements Drug use data were self-report. Network drug use was assessed through a social network inventory. Close friends were individuals whom the participant reported seeing daily or rated as having the highest level of trust. Findings Structural equation modeling indicated significant bidirectional influences. The majority of change in network drug use over time was due to change in the composition of the network rather than change in friends' behavior. Drug use by close peers did not influence participant drug use beyond the total network. Conclusions There is evidence of both social selection and social influence processes in the association between drug use and network drug use among drug-experienced adults. [source]

    Managing QoS requirements for video streaming: from intra-node to inter-node

    Y. Bai
    Abstract Streaming video over IP networks has become increasingly popular; however, compared to traditional data traffic, video streaming places different demands on quality of service (QoS) in a network, particularly in terms of delay, delay variation, and data loss. In response to the QoS demands of video applications, network techniques have been proposed to provide QoS within a network. Unfortunately, while efficient from a network perspective, most existing solutions have not provided end-to-end QoS that is satisfactory to users. In this paper, packet scheduling and end-to-end QoS distribution schemes are proposed to address this issue. The design and implementation of the two schemes are based on the active networking paradigm. In active networks, routers can perform user-driven computation when forwarding packets, rather than just simple storing and forwarding packets, as in traditional networks. Both schemes thus take advantage of the capability of active networks enabling routers to adapt to the content of transmitted data and the QoS requirements of video users. In other words, packet scheduling at routers considers the correlation between video characteristics, available local resources and the resulting visual quality. The proposed QoS distribution scheme performs inter-node adaptation, dynamically adjusting local loss constraints in response to network conditions in order to satisfy the end-to-end loss requirements. An active network-based simulation shows that using QoS distribution and packet scheduling together increases the probability of meeting end-to-end QoS requirements of networked video. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Accounting Choices and Director Interlocks: A Social Network Approach to the Voluntary Expensing of Stock Option Grants

    Eugene Kang
    Abstract:, We adopt a social network perspective of accounting choices and argue that voluntary expensing of stock option grants by firms may be driven by social influence and learning within a network of director interlocks. We find that firms are more likely to expense stock option grants voluntarily when they have inside director interlocks with (1) other firms that do likewise, and (2) institutional investors of firms accused of financial reporting fraud. This study contributes to extant research by highlighting that a social network approach complements a cost-and-benefit approach (or an economic perspective) when examining the accounting practices of firms. [source]

    Dynamic operability analysis of nonlinear process networks based on dissipativity

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 4 2009
    Osvaldo J. Rojas
    Abstract Most modern chemical plants are complex networks of multiple interconnected nonlinear process units, often with multiple recycle and by-pass streams and energy integration. Interactions between process units often lead to plant-wide operability problems (i.e., difficulties in process control). Plant-wide operability analysis is often difficult due to the complexity and nonlinearity of the processes. This article provides a new framework of dynamic operability analysis for plant-wide processes, based on the dissipativity of each process unit and the topology of the process network. Based on the concept of dissipative systems, this approach can deal with nonlinear processes directly. Developed from a network perspective, the proposed framework is also inherently scalable and thus can be applied to large process networks. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

    Managing information sharing within an organizational setting: A social network perspective

    John-Paul Hatala
    Information sharing is critical to an organization's competitiveness and requires a free flow of information among members if the organization is to remain competitive. A review of the literature on organizational structure and information sharing was conducted to examine the research in this area. A case example illustrates how a social network approach was used to explore the process of measuring the social structure of an organization and the implementation of change interventions to increase connectivity and manage information sharing. The process of conducting social network analysis is described using the case example. Interventions for increasing information flow are discussed. The authors provide an information-sharing model that demonstrates the various domains of connectivity within an organization at any given state. The benefits of using social network analysis for information sharing and the implications for further research and practice are discussed. [source]

    Romantic partners'perceptions of social network attributes with the passage of time and relationship transitions

    Data from five waves of a longitudinal study of romantic couples were analyzed to examine how the partners'perceptions of social network attributes (i.e., network approval for the relationship, network overlap, liking for partner's network) change with the passage of time and relationship transitions. The results indicated that perceptions of network approval, especially from the male partner's friends, tended to increase over time for the participants whose relationship remained intact throughout the longitudinal study. Furthermore, the transitions to engagement and to marriage were also associated with an increase in network approval from the male's friends. Individuals who experienced a breakup during the study reported more network approval than disapproval for the breakup. Finally, the likelihood of a breakup was significantly lower the more approval women reported from their friends and the more women expressed liking for their partner's family at Time 1 (these same associations were nonsignificant for men). These findings provide support for various social network perspectives, including social reactance (Lewis, 1973). [source]

    The Tangled Webs of Westminster and Whitehall: The Discourse, Strategy and Practice of Networking Within the British Core Executive

    Colin Hay
    In this paper we identify and seek to resolve a certain paradox in the existing litera-ture on networks and networking. Whilst earlier policy network perspectives have tended to emphasize the structural character of networks as durable, dense and relatively static organization forms, the more recent strategic network literature emphasizes the flexible, adaptive and dynamic quality of networking as a social and political practice. However, neither perspective has yet developed a theory of network formation, evolution, transformation and termination. In this paper, we seek to rectify this omission, advancing a ,strategic relational' theory of network dynamics based on a rethinking of the concept of network itself. We illustrate this perspective with respect to the policy process centred in and around Westminster and Whitehall, drawing on a series of semi-structured interviews with ministers and officials from four departments. [source]

    The Failure of the Sport7 TV-channel: Controversies in a Business Network*

    Harry Sminia
    ABSTRACT During 1996, TV viewers in the Netherlands witnessed the rise and fall of Sport7: a dedicated sports TV channel. Apparently, Sport7 did not succeed to become part of the business network of television and sports. This paper describes and explains why the venture failed. It builds on earlier insights from research on the outcomes of joint ventures and the business networks perspective. These insights are combined and utilized within the framework of the theory of social becoming (Sztompka, 1991). As such, for a new venture like Sport7, the outcome depends on the settlement of a number of controversies that arise with the establishment of a new actor in an existing business network. In the case of Sport7, the settlement of these controversies appeared to go against this new venture, ultimately leading to the demise of this new TV channel. [source]

    Networks, Scale, and Transnational Corporations: The Case of the South Korean Seed Industry

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2006
    Sook-Jin Kim
    Abstract: In light of recent theoretical scholarship that has incorporated scale with networks perspectives, this article examines the potential of a scalar networks-based approach to understanding the global strategies and activities of transnational corporations (TNCs), through a comparative case study of two TNCs that were involved in the recent transformation of the South Korean seed industry. The comparative study demonstrates that a foreign TNC's mergers and acquisitions (M&As) of major South Korean seed companies in 1998,1999 in the context of structural adjustment (TNC's material politics of scale) was an outcome of complex relations and the intermingling of various actor-networks that were embedded in various scales. A domestic TNC's responses to the M&As, on the other hand, illustrate how the TNC's struggle to reshape power relations through a discursive politics of scale enabled it to extend and enrich its networks and power relations with farmers, politicians, the general public, and the government. Material and discursive uses of scale in the business strategies of TNCs are shaped by complex actor-networks that are embedded in specific sociocultural and institutional contexts and influence new configurations of networks and power relations, and a scalar networks-based approach helps one understand this complexity of TNCs' activities. [source]