Network Organization (network + organization)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Hexagonal Network Organization of Dye-Loaded Zeolite,L Crystals by Surface-Tension Driven Autoassembly,

ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 17 2006
S. Yunus
Abstract Highly fluorescent dye-loaded zeolite,L crystals, approximately 1.4,,m long and 650,nm in diameter, are organized in a hexagonal network by a surface-tension-driven autoassembly process. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film presenting a trigonal ordering of spherical protuberances, including a polystyrene (PS) hexagonal network occupying their interstices, is chosen as the platform for the assembly. The overall wettability and the difference in surface tension between PDMS and PS surfaces are found to offer good conditions for ordering micrometric dye-loaded zeolite,L crystals in a 2D hexagonal network. The resulting film displays a regular hexagonal pattern of polarized fluorescence, reflecting the polarization properties of the dye molecules inserted in the parallel nanochannels of the zeolites. [source]


Work Roles and Careers of R&D Scientists in Network Organizations

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, Issue 2 2005
ALICE LAM
Despite the burgeoning literature on the network organization as a new mode of innovation, we know little about how the flow of knowledge across organizational boundaries is intertwined with careers. This study explores the implications of the network model of R&D organization for the work roles and careers of R&D scientists within the changing relationship between industry and the academia. It examines how firms seek to resolve the tension between science and business by developing closer human resource ties with universities. It argues that firms have sought to construct "extended" internal labour markets (EILMs) between themselves and the universities with which they collaborate, leading to the formation of a hybrid scientific community straddling the two sectors. [source]


Knowledge, Market Structure, and Economic Coordination: Dynamics of Industrial Districts

GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 3 2002
Ron A. Boschma
The industrial rise of the Third Italy has been characterized by the growth of dynamic networks of flexible small and medium,sized enterprises (SMEs) that are spatially concentrated in specialized industrial districts. This network type of coordination has been associated with horizontal, trust,based relations rather than vertical relations of power and dependency between local organizations. This would lower transaction costs (essential for local systems with an extreme division of labor), facilitate the transmission and exchange of (tacit) knowledge (and thus, learning and innovation), encourage cooperation mechanisms (such as the establishment of research centers), and stimulate political,institutional performance (e.g. through regulation of potential social conflicts). From an evolutionary perspective, the focus is on the dynamics of industrial districts drawing from current experiences in Italy. In this respect, this paper concentrates on two main features of industrial districts that have largely contributed to their economic success in the past, that is, their network organization and the collective learning process. The evolution of industrial districts is described in terms of organizational adjustments to structural change. The way in which the size distribution of firms has changed is discussed (in particular the role of large companies), how the (power) relationships between local organizations have evolved, what are the current sources and mechanisms of learning, and to what extent institutional lock,in has set in. Finally, a number of trajectories districts may go through in the near future are presented. [source]


A geomorphological explanation of the unit hydrograph concept

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 4 2004
C. Cudennec
Abstract The water path from any point of a basin to the outlet through the self-similar river network was considered. This hydraulic path was split into components within the Strahler ordering scheme. For the entire basin, we assumed the probability density functions of the lengths of these components, reduced by the scaling factor, to be independent and isotropic. As with these assumptions, we propose a statistical physics reasoning (similar to Maxwell's reasoning) that considers a hydraulic length symbolic space, built on the self-similar lengths of the components. Theoretical expressions of the probability density functions of the hydraulic length and of the lengths of all the components were derived. These expressions are gamma laws expressed in terms of simple geomorphological parameters. We validated our theory with experimental observations from two French basins, which are different in terms of size and relief. From the comparisons, we discuss the relevance of the assumptions and show how a gamma law structure underlies the river network organization, but under the influence of a strong hierarchy constraint. These geomorphological results have been translated into travel time probability density functions, through the hydraulic linear hypothesis. This translation provides deterministic explanations of some famous a priori assumptions of the unit hydrograph and the geomorphological unit hydrograph theories, such as the gamma law general shape and the exponential distribution of residence time in Strahler states. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Work Roles and Careers of R&D Scientists in Network Organizations

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, Issue 2 2005
ALICE LAM
Despite the burgeoning literature on the network organization as a new mode of innovation, we know little about how the flow of knowledge across organizational boundaries is intertwined with careers. This study explores the implications of the network model of R&D organization for the work roles and careers of R&D scientists within the changing relationship between industry and the academia. It examines how firms seek to resolve the tension between science and business by developing closer human resource ties with universities. It argues that firms have sought to construct "extended" internal labour markets (EILMs) between themselves and the universities with which they collaborate, leading to the formation of a hybrid scientific community straddling the two sectors. [source]


Brain networks: Graph theoretical analysis and development models

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMAGING SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Myoung Won Cho
Abstract A trendy method to understand the brain is to make a map representing the structural network of the brain, also known as the connectome, on the scale of a brain region. Indeed analysis based on graph theory provides quantitative insights into general topological principles of brain network organization. In particular, it is disclosed that typical brain networks share the topological properties, such as small-world and scale-free, with many other complex networks encountered in nature. Such topological properties are regarded as characteristics of the optimal neural connectivity to implement efficient computation and communication; brains with disease or abnormality show distinguishable deviations in the graph theoretical analysis. Considering that conventional models in graph theory are, however, not adequate for direct application to the neural system, we also discuss a model for explaining how the neural connectivity is organized. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Imaging Syst Technol, 20, 108,116, 2010 [source]


Changing Organizational Forms and the Employment Relationship

JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, Issue 5 2002
Jill Rubery
This paper draws upon new research in the UK into the relationship between changing organizational forms and the reshaping of work in order to consider the changing nature of the employment relationship. The development of more complex organizational forms , such as cross organization networking, partnerships, alliances, use of external agencies for core as well as peripheral activities, multi-employer sites and the blurring of public/private sector divide , has implications for both the legal and the socially constituted nature of the employment relationship. The notion of a clearly defined employer,employee relationship becomes difficult to uphold under conditions where employees are working in project teams or on-site beside employees from other organizations, where responsibilities for performance and for health and safety are not clearly defined, or involve more than one organization. This blurring of the relationship affects not only legal responsibilities, grievance and disciplinary issues and the extent of transparency and equity in employment conditions, but also the definition, constitution and implementation of the employment contract defined in psychological and social terms. Do employees perceive their responsibilities at work to lie with the direct employer or with the wider enterprise or network organization? And do these perceptions affect, for example, how work is managed and carried out and how far learning and incremental knowledge at work is integrated in the development of the production or service process? So far the investigation of both conflicts and complementarities in the workplace have focused primarily on the dynamic interactions between the single employer and that organization's employees. The development of simultaneously more fragmented and more networked organizational forms raises new issues of how to understand potential conflicts and contradictions around the ,employer' dimension to the employment relationship in addition to more widely recognized conflicts located on the employer,employee axis. [source]


Three-dimensional analysis of intermediate filament networks using SEM tomography

JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY, Issue 1 2010
S. LÜCK
Summary We identified tomographic reconstruction of a scanning electron microscopy tilt series recording the secondary electron signal as a well-suited method to generate high-contrast three-dimensional data of intermediate filament (IF) networks in pancreatic cancer cells. Although the tilt series does not strictly conform to the projection requirement of tomographic reconstruction, this approach is possible due to specific properties of the detergent-extracted samples. We introduce an algorithm to extract the graph structure of the IF networks from the tomograms based on image analysis tools. This allows a high-resolution analysis of network morphology, which is known to control the mechanical response of the cells to large-scale deformations. Statistical analysis of the extracted network graphs is used to investigate principles of structural network organization which can be linked to the regulation of cell elasticity. [source]


Creating University Spin-Offs: A Science-Based Design Perspective,

THE JOURNAL OF PRODUCT INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2008
Elco Van Burg
Academic entrepreneurship by means of university spin-offs commercializes technological breakthroughs, which may otherwise remain unexploited. However, many universities face difficulties in creating spin-offs. This article adopts a science-based design approach to connect scholarly research with the pragmatics of effectively creating university spin-offs. This approach serves to link the practice of university spin-off creation, via design principles, to the scholarly knowledge in this area. As such, science-based design promotes the interplay between emergent and deliberate design processes. This framework is used to develop a set of design principles that are practice based as well as grounded in the existing body of research on university spin-offs. A case-study of spin-off creation at a Dutch university illustrates the interplay between initial processes characterized by emergent design and the subsequent process that was more deliberate in nature. This case study also suggests there are two fundamentally different phases in building capacity for university spin-off creation. First, an infrastructure for spin-off creation (including a collaborative network of investors, managers and advisors) is developed that then enables support activities to individual spin-off ventures. This study concludes that to build and increase capacity for creating spin-offs, universities should do the following: (1) create university-wide awareness of entrepreneurship opportunities, stimulate the development of entrepreneurial ideas, and subsequently screen entrepreneurs and ideas by programs targeted at students and academic staff; (2) support start-up teams in composing and learning the right mix of venturing skills and knowledge by providing access to advice, coaching, and training; (3) help starters in obtaining access to resources and developing their social capital by creating a collaborative network organization of investors, managers, and advisors; (4) set clear and supportive rules and procedures that regulate the university spin-off process, enhance fair treatment of involved parties, and separate spin-off processes from academic research and teaching; and (5) shape a university culture that reinforces academic entrepreneurship by creating norms and exemplars that mo ivate entrepreneurial behavior. These and other results of this study illustrate how science-based design can connect scholarly research to the pragmatics of actually creating spin-offs in academic institutions. [source]