Network Members (network + member)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The impact of a social network intervention on retention in Belgian therapeutic communities: a quasi-experimental study

ADDICTION, Issue 7 2006
Veerle Soyez
ABSTRACT Background Although numerous studies recognize the importance of social network support in engaging substance abusers into treatment, there is only limited knowledge of the impact of network involvement and support during treatment. The primary objective of this research was to enhance retention in Therapeutic Community treatment utilizing a social network intervention. Aims The specific goals of this study were (1) to determine whether different pre-treatment factors predicted treatment retention in a Therapeutic Community; and (2) to determine whether participation of significant others in a social network intervention predicted treatment retention. Design, setting and participants Consecutive admissions to four long-term residential Therapeutic Communities were assessed at intake (n = 207); the study comprised a mainly male (84.9%) sample of polydrug (41.1%) and opiate (20.8%) abusers, of whom 64.4% had ever injected drugs. Assessment involved the European version of the Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), the Circumstances, Motivation, Readiness scales (CMR), the Dutch version of the family environment scale (GKS/FES) and an in-depth interview on social network structure and perceived social support. Network members of different cohorts were assigned to a social network intervention, which consisted of three elements (a video, participation at an induction day and participation in a discussion session). Findings Hierarchical regression analyses showed that client-perceived social support (F1,198 = 10.9, P = 0.001) and treatment motivation and readiness (F1,198 = 8.8; P = 0.003) explained a significant proportion of the variance in treatment retention (model fit: F7,197 = 4.4; P = 0.000). By including the variable ,significant others' participation in network intervention' (network involvement) in the model, the fit clearly improved (F1,197 = 6.2; P = 0.013). At the same time, the impact of perceived social support decreased (F1,197 = 2.9; P = 0.091). Conclusions Participation in the social network intervention was associated with improved treatment retention controlling for other client characteristics. This suggests that the intervention may be of benefit in the treatment of addicted individuals. [source]

Variation in identifying neonatal percutaneous central venous line position

DE Odd
Objective: The study objective was to obtain data on interpretation, including intra and interobserver variation and action taken for a given line tip location, for a series of radiographs demonstrating neonatal long lines. Methods: Nineteen radiographs taken to identify line tip position were digitized and published on an internet site. One film was included twice in order to assess intraobserver variation giving a total of 20 images. Fourteen used radio-opaque contrast and five no contrast. Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network members and National Women's Hospital NICU staff were invited to participate in the study. For each radiograph, participants were asked to identify if long line tip could be identified, the likely anatomical position and desired action. Interobserver agreement was assessed by the maximum proportion of agreement per radiograph and by the number of different options selected. Intraobserver agreement was assessed by comparing the two reports from the duplicate radiograph. Results: Twenty-seven responses were received. Overall, 50% of the reports stated that the long line tips could be identified. The most commonly reported position was in the right atrium (31%) and most commonly reported action was to pull the line back (53%). The median agreement of whether the line was seen was 68%, agreement on position 62% and agreement on action 86%. On analysis of intraobserver variability, from the identical radiographs, 27% of respondents differed on whether the line tip could be visualized. Conclusion: Interobserver and intraobserver reliability was poor when using radiographs to assess long line tips. The major determinant of line repositioning was the perceived location. [source]

Donor Insemination: Telling Children About Their Origins

Myra Hunter
Despite growing discussion of the potential benefits of openness in relation to children conceived by donated gametes, the majority of parents do not intend to tell a future child about his/her origins. As a result little is actually known about the experiences and concerns of families who do choose openness. This is a descriptive study of 83 DI Network members who did intend to or had told a child conceived, using donor insemination, about his/her origins. Quantitative and qualitative data focused on their concerns and experiences of telling. Health professionals face the challenge of providing the opportunity for discussion of these issues both before treatment and afterwards during childhood. [source]

Network financial support and conflict as predictors of depressive symptoms among a highly disadvantaged population

Amy R. Knowlton
The study examined multiple dimensions of social support as predictors of depressive symptoms among a highly vulnerable population. Social network analysis was used to assess perceived and enacted dimensions of support (emotional, financial, instrumental), network conflict, closeness, and composition. Participants were 393 current and former injection drug users who were 72% , poverty level, 96% African American, 39% HIV seropositive. At baseline, 37% had high depression scores (CES-D , 16). Adjusted logistic regression indicated that for every additional network member providing financial support, the odds of probable depression 1 year later decreased by 23%, and for every additional conflictive network tie the odds of depression increased by 57%. Findings suggest the greater importance to this population's psychological well-being of received support specific to environmental demands, rather than support perceived potentially available. The findings suggest potential directions for intervention. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Subjective norms and the prediction of romantic relationship state and fate

Paul E. Etcheverry
This study examined whether subjective norms are associated with commitment to a romantic relationship and with remaining in that relationship over time. Subjective norms are defined in the context of relationships as the perceived normative beliefs of a social network member regarding a given relationship weighted by the motivation to comply with that network member. In a longitudinal study of college students involved in dating relationships, subjective norms were found to be a significant predictor of romantic relationship commitment level, alone and in multiple regression analyses including satisfaction level, quality of alternatives, and investment size. Longitudinal analyses indicated that commitment mediated the effect of subjective norms on remaining in the relationship approximately 8 months later. Finally, level of dependence on a romantic relationship moderated the predictive value of subjective norms, with lower relationship dependence yielding greatest predictive value for subjective norms. [source]

Emphasizing interpersonal factors: an extension of the Witkiewitz and Marlatt relapse model

ADDICTION, Issue 8 2009
Dorian Hunter-Reel
ABSTRACT Aim Recently, Witkiewitz & Marlatt reformulated the Marlatt & Gordon relapse model to account for current research findings. The present paper aims to extend this model further to incorporate social variables more fully. Methods The social-factors and alcohol-relapse literatures were reviewed within the framework of the reformulated relapse model. Results The literature review found that the number of social network members, investment of the individual in the social network, levels of general and alcohol-specific support available within the social network and specific behaviors of network members all predict drinking outcomes. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which these social variables influence outcomes. The authors postulate that social variables influence outcomes by affecting intra-individual factors central to the reformulated relapse prevention model, including processes (e.g. self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, craving, motivation, negative affective states) and behaviors (e.g. coping and substance use). The authors suggest specific hypotheses and discuss methods that can be used to study the impact of social factors on the intra-individual phenomena that contribute to relapse. Conclusion The proposed extension of the relapse model provides testable hypotheses that may guide future alcohol-relapse research. [source]

The Old-Boy Network and the Young-Gun Effect

Curtis R. Taylor
A model of an exclusive group or class whose membership is governed by personal contact and interaction is studied. Members of this old-boy network attempt to shield themselves from transacting with opportunistic or incompetent individuals by dealing only infrequently with unproven nonmembers. This injures the unproven but qualified agents not in the network. Moreover, because recruitment of a new member creates a public good for network members, too little recruiting is performed in equilibrium. [source]

The Social Networks of People with Intellectual Disability Living in the Community 12 Years after Resettlement from Long-Stay Hospitals

Rachel Forrester-Jones
Background, The social inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities presents a major challenge to services. As part of a 12-year follow up of people resettled from long-stay hospitals, the size of 213 individuals' social networks and the types of social support they received were investigated, as viewed by people with intellectual disabilities themselves. The types of support received in four different kinds of community accommodation were compared. Method, Individuals were interviewed and their social support networks mapped using a Social Network Guide developed for the study. Descriptive statistics were generated and comparisons made using generalized linear modelling. Results, The sample comprised 117 men (average age 51 years) and 96 women (average age 56 years). All but seven were White British, 92% were single and they had in general, mild to moderate intellectual disabilities. The average network size was 22 members (range 3,51). The mean density was 0.5. A quarter of all network members were other service users with intellectual disabilities and a further 43% were staff. Only a third of the members were unrelated to learning disability services. In general, the main providers of both emotional and practical support were staff, although these relationships were less likely to be described as reciprocal. Other people with intellectual disabilities were the second most frequent providers of all types of support. People in small group homes, hostels and supported accommodation were significantly more likely to report close and companiable relationships than those in residential and nursing homes, but they also reported a greater proportion of critical behaviour. Conclusions, The social networks revealed in this study are considerably larger than those of previous studies which have relied on staff reports, but findings about the generally limited social integration of people with intellectual disabilities are similar. A clearer policy and practice focus on the desirability of a range of different social contexts from which to derive potentially supportive network members is required so that people do not remain segregated in one area of life. [source]

Perceived versus reported social referent approval and romantic relationship commitment and persistence

The current study examined social network influence processes on romantic relationship outcomes by obtaining the reported opinions of social referents as well as romantic relationship members' perceptions of social network members' opinions. Participants were 254 (151 women) college students from the United States involved in romantic relationships along with a male and female friend who all completed surveys regarding the participants' romantic relationship. This work demonstrated that perceived normative beliefs of social network members significantly mediated the effects of reported social network approval on relationship commitment. Participants' reports of relationship commitment were found to mediate the effect of subjective norms on relationship persistence. Along with network members' relationship approval, participants' satisfaction was found to predict participants' normative beliefs. [source]

Perceived involvement of network members in courtships: A test of the relational turbulence model

We seek to understand how the climate of courtship predicts people's appraisals of the behavior of close friends and family members. To that end, we employ the relational turbulence model to examine the associations among intimacy, relational uncertainty, interference and facilitation from partners, and perceived network involvement. We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 260 participants reported their perceptions of how much network members help and hinder their courtships. As we hypothesized, people perceived the least helpfulness and the most hindrance from network members at moderate levels of intimacy. Relationship uncertainty mediated the concave curvilinear association between intimacy and perceived helpfulness from network members, but interference from partners mediated the convex curvilinear association between intimacy and perceived hindrance from network members. We discuss how our findings (a) contribute to the literature on perceived network involvement, (b) illuminate nuances in perceived hindrance from network members, (c) extend the relational turbulence model, and (d) suggest the utility of educating people about how the climate of courtship may color their views of network members. [source]

Preface: phys. stat. sol. (c) 1/S2

E. F. da Silva Jr.
The papers in this special issue of physica status solidi (c) are selected manuscripts including diverse research lines presently in development in the ambit of the NanoSemiMat network in Brazil. The 3rd Workshop on Semiconductor Nanodevices and Nanostructured Materials (NanoSemiMat-3) took place in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, at the Catussaba Resort Hotel, during the period of 24,27 March 2004. The NanoSemiMat network is part of the Brazilian Initiative on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (N&N), with strategic cooperative research support in this area. The initiative started in 2001, through the formation of four research networks nationwide in different scientific fields associated to NanoScience and Nanotechnology (N&N). The 3rd Workshop on Nanodevices and Nanostructured Materials (NanoSemiMat-3) is an evolution of the two previous meetings which were held in Recife, PE, Brazil and Natal, RN, Brazil in 2002 and 2003, respectively. The meeting comprised 16 invited plenary talks, each 30 minutes long, given by eminent researchers from Brazil, Canada, France, Germany and the United States of America. These invited talks extend through different topics of N&N associated to Nanodevices and Nanostructured Materials: Photodetectors, Lasers and LEDs, Porous Materials, New Materials, and New Technologies, among others. There were short talks presented by representatives of the other N&N networks in Brazil dealing with Molecular Technology and Interfaces, Nanostructured Materials and Nanobiotechnology. Also a poster session, with about 60 presentations, highlighted the main research activities presently being developed by the network members at the different sites which constitute the NanoSemiMat network. The presentations reflected theoretical and experimental research lines which lead to the development of basic and applied research in nanostructured semiconductor materials such as III,V and II,VI, Si and SiC based nanodevices, wide gap materials, ceramics, polymers, porous materials, optical and transport properties of low dimensional structures, magnetic nanostructures and structures under the influence of high fields, spintronics and sensor applications. The participants of the workshop came from 20 research institutions within Brazil and from 7 research laboratories and universities in Europe and North America. In total about 120 researchers, members of the network, invited researchers, representatives of supporting and funding agencies in Brazil, undergraduate and graduate students, technical staff and supporting personal as well as researchers from complementary fields were present. The realization of the NanoSemiMat-3 was possible due to the financial support of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT) and the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq) and the logistic support of Federal University of Bahia. All activities during the NanoSemiMat-3 were open to the general public with interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this third workshop of the series, we highlight the expansion of its format, with plenary and invited talks, poster sessions, as well as the presence of seven invited speakers from abroad. We expect that the continuation of the NanoSemiMat series will be a forum for discussions of state-of-the-art research developed in Brazil on N&N and the multidisciplinary field of semiconductor nanodevices and nanostructured materials as well as its superposition to other branches of science. ( 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Internal and External Corporate Governance: An Interface between an Organization and its Environment

Igor Filatotchev
Most corporate governance research focuses on a universal link between corporate governance practices (e.g. shareholder activism, board independence) and performance outcomes, but neglects how interdependences between the organization and diverse environments lead to variations in the effectiveness of different corporate governance practices. This paper develops an organizational approach to corporate governance and focuses on two dominant streams that analyse internal and external governance mechanisms. First, we explore governance practices aimed at dealing with a complex set of problems internal to an organization, such as conflicts of interest between managers and shareholders, different types of shareholders, and block-holder opportunism. Second, we discuss the importance of formal and informal governance arrangements that organizations use in managing their relationships with external parties, such as alliance partners, overseas subsidiaries and network members. We argue that an integrated approach bringing these two streams together helps to develop a more holistic view on the effectiveness and efficiency of various corporate governance mechanisms, and suggests a number of avenues for future research. This paper also sets the scene for this thematic issue on corporate governance, scopes the field and introduces 11 papers which make significant contributions towards our understanding of corporate governance. [source]

Getting Together to Get Ahead: The Impact of Social Structure on Women's Networking

Mette D. Hersby
This paper examines the impact of socio-structural variables (i.e. perceptions of permeability, stability and legitimacy of intergroup relations) on the extent to which professional women perceive a women's network as a collective strategy for status enhancement. A survey among network members (n=166) suggests that the extent to which women support and consider a network to benefit women as a collective is dependent on perceptions of whether individual mobility is possible (permeability of group boundaries) and beliefs that organizational conditions will improve for women in the future (stability of conditions for women). Specifically, the network is less likely to be perceived as a collective vehicle for change when individual advancement is possible (because intergroup boundaries are perceived as permeable) and status improvement in the future is unlikely. However, regardless of beliefs about the future, when female participants perceive that many barriers to individual advancement exist (due to the impermeability of intergroup boundaries), the network is considered in more collective terms presumably because the only way to challenge the status quo is through a collective effort. The practical implications for organizations that wish to or have established a women's network are discussed. [source]