Neutralization Test (neutralization + test)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Humoral immunity in natural infection by tick-borne encephalitis virus

Giulietta Venturi
Abstract Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus is one of the most important flaviviruses associated with neurological disease in Europe. Cross-reactive antibodies elicited by different flaviviruses can make difficult the interpretation of ELISA and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests for the diagnosis of TBE. Neutralization tests, which are more specific, are not in common use because they are difficult to perform and standardize. A plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), optimized previously in vaccinated children, was evaluated in sera from acute cases of TBE, collected for diagnostic purposes, and from healthy human population and wild ruminants, collected for serosurvey purposes. The PRNT results were compared with the results of ELISA and HI tests. In acute TBE disease, most sera were positive for IgM antibodies by ELISA and with high HI antibody titers; neutralizing antibodies were detected in 71.4% of patients, at a very low titer (1:10 NT50) in almost all cases. Seroprevalences of 8% and 6.5% for anti-TBE ELISA antibodies were found in healthy subjects and wild ruminants, respectively. Among anti-TBE positive healthy subjects, a very low 1:10 NT50 titer was detected in 17.4% of cases, while NT80 titers ranging from 1:10 to 1:80 were detected in 65.2% of cases. Among wild ruminants, 90.9% of ELISA and HI positive samples showed a positive, ,1:10 NT80 titer. In conclusion, neutralization assays can be useful for the diagnosis and serosurveys of TBE. J. Med. Virol. 81:665,671, 2009 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Epidemiologic aspects and laboratory features of enterovirus infections in Western Germany, 2000,2005

Bernhard Roth
Abstract From 2000 to 2005, a total of 1,096 enterovirus infections were diagnosed either by isolation of virus from cell culture or by RT-PCR (5,non-coding region (NCR)). Typing of viruses (n,=,674) was carried out by immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies, neutralization test or molecular methods. Seasons with high enterovirus activity were characterized by high prevalence of echovirus 30 (62.2% in 2000, 25.5% in 2001) and echovirus 13 (34.5% in 2001). In contrast, in the 2003 season, which had very low enterovirus activity, these types were rare. During this season, cell culture sensitivity (human colonic carcinoma cells and human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL)) was exceptionally low. In order to determine the type of "non-cultivable" enteroviruses, purified RNA from selected stool samples was subjected to direct molecular typing. VP1/2A-specific fragments were amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and sequenced. The predominant virus identified was coxsackie A. Consequently, rhabdomyosarcom cells were introduced into the daily routine, which improved the isolation of enteroviruses. Echovirus 30 was again most commonly isolated during seasons 2004 and 2005 with increasing enterovirus activity. In conclusion, high prevalence of echovirus 30 and 13 is indicative of seasons with high enterovirus activity. The type of circulating enteroviruses may influence isolation of enterovirus from cell culture. RT-PCR (VP1/2A) combined with cloning and sequencing of amplicons is a useful tool for viral typing directly from stool samples. In cases of severe enterovirus infection, virological diagnosis should not solely rely on virus isolation from cell culture. J. Med. Virol. 79:956-962, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Isolation and identification of adenovirus from conjunctival scrapings over a two-year period (between 2001 and 2003) in Yokohama, Japan

Kiyohiko Matsui
Abstract Over a 2-year period between 2001 and 2003, a total of 115 conjunctival scrapings were collected from patients with keratoconjuctivitis from several hospitals in Yokohama, Japan. Out of 115, 94 (82.4%) cases of adenoviruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR); 60 (52.1%) by cell culture isolation; and 16 (14.0%) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serotypes were determined by PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) and by the neutralization test (NT). PCR-RFLP was performed using a combination of endonucleases such as HhaI, AluI, and HaeIII. Of the 94 PCR-positive samples, the serotypes of 91 (96.8%) were identified by PCR-RFLP analysis (adenovirus 3: 50%, 4: 11%, and 8: 32%). Out of the 115 samples, 60 samples were identified by the neutralization (adenovirus 3, 4, 7, and 8). When both PCR-RFLP and the neutralization techniques were used, 53.2%, 11.7%, 1.1%, and 34% of the samples were identified as adenovirus 3, 4, 7, and 8, respectively. In contrast to the results of a nationwide surveillance report, adenovirus 3 was found as a major cause of keratoconjunctivitis in the Yokohama area. The nationwide surveillance report did not reflect accurately the epidemiological situation in the local area. In order to obtain surveillance data that would be useful for the prevention of an adenovirus conjunctivitis epidemic, it seems that local epidemiology is more important than that nationwide surveillance. J. Med. Virol. 79:200,205, 2007. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Enhancement of protective humoral immune responses against Herpes simplex virus-2 in DNA-immunized guinea-pigs using protein boosting

Fatemeh Fotouhi
Abstract Genital Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease that is caused mostly by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Its prevalence has increased in developing countries in spite of the availability of valuable antiviral drug therapy. Considering the importance of HSV-2 infections, effective vaccines remain the most likely hope for controlling the spread of HSV diseases. In the present study, the complete HSV-2 glycoprotein D gene was isolated and cloned into different plasmid vectors to construct a DNA vaccine and prepare recombinant subunit vaccines using a baculovirus expression system. The vaccines were tested alone or in combination to evaluate their ability to induce protective immunity in guinea-pigs against genital HSV infections. Immunization elicited humoral responses as measured by neutralization tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunized animals had less severe genital skin disease as well as reduced replication of the challenging virus in the genital tract during experimental infection. Our results further demonstrate that DNA priming-protein boosting induced a neutralizing antibody titer higher than that obtained with DNA,DNA vaccination. The massive increase of antibody titer following DNA priming-protein boosting might be attributed to a recall of B cell memory. [source]

Longitudinal profile of antibodies against SARS-coronavirus in SARS patients and their clinical significance

RESPIROLOGY, Issue 1 2006
Hongying MO
Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly discovered disease caused by a novel coronavirus. The present study studied the longitudinal profile of antibodies against SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in SARS patients and evaluated the clinical significance of these antibodies. Methods: Two methods, ELISA and indirect immunofluorescent assay, were used for the detection of the anti-SARS-CoV IgG and IgM in 335 serial sera from 98 SARS patients. In 18 patients, serum antibody profiles were investigated and antibody neutralization tests were performed from 7 to 720 days after the onset of symptoms. Results: The ratios of positive IgG/IgM by ELISA were 0/0, 45.4/39.4, 88.6/71.4, 96/88, 100/48.6, 100/30.9, 100/17.1, 100/0 per cent, respectively, on 1,7, 8,14, 15,21, 22,28, 29,60, 61,90, 91,180 and 181,720 days after the onset of symptoms. Antibodies were not detected within the first 7 days of illness, but IgG titre increased dramatically on day 15, reaching a peak on day 60, and remained high until day 180 from when it declined gradually until day 720. IgM was detected on day 15 and rapidly reached a peak, then declined gradually until it was undetectable on day 180. Neutralizing viral antibodies were demonstrated in the convalescence sera from SARS patients. Conclusion: The persistence of detectable IgG antibodies and neutralizing viral antibodies for up to 720 days suggest that SARS patients may be protected from recurrent SARS-CoV infection for up to 2 years. [source]