Neutralization

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Neutralization

  • charge neutralization

  • Terms modified by Neutralization

  • neutralization reaction
  • neutralization test

  • Selected Abstracts


    Transforming growth factor-beta1 affects interleukin-10 production in the bone marrow of patients with chronic idiopathic neutropenia

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
    Katerina Pyrovolaki
    Abstract Background:, Chronic idiopathic neutropenia (CIN) is a bone marrow (BM) failure syndrome characterized by accelerated apoptosis of myeloid progenitor cells because of a local imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the interplay among transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-,1), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and soluble flt-3 ligand (sFL) within the BM of CIN patients and probed the role of these cytokines in the pathophysiology of CIN. Design:, We used long-term BM cultures (LTBMC) to evaluate TGF-,1, IL-10, and sFL levels in CIN patients (n = 70) and healthy subjects (n = 35). Cytokine levels in LTBMC supernatants were correlated with the number of circulating neutrophils and the proportion of BM CD34+/CD33+ myeloid progenitor cells. Results:, CIN patients had increased TGF-,1 and sFL levels in LTBMCs compared with controls and individual cytokine values were found to be correlated inversely with the number of neutrophils and the proportion of CD34+/CD33+ cells. Patients displayed low supernatant IL-10 levels compared with controls and cytokine values were found to be correlated positively with the number of neutrophils and the proportion of CD34+/CD33+ cells. The levels of TGF-,1 were found to be inversely correlated with IL-10 and positively with sFL values in LTBMC, supernatants suggesting a possible interplay among these cytokines in CIN BM. Neutralization of TGF-,1 in LTBMCs increased IL-10 levels significantly in patients but not in controls, while neutralization had no effect on sFL levels. Conclusion:, Excessive production of TGF-,1 within the BM microenvironment of CIN patients results in downregulation of IL-10 and reduction of myeloid progenitor cells. Overexpression of sFL probably represents a compensatory mechanism to the low myeloid progenitor cells. [source]


    Tumor expression of CD200 inhibits IL-10 production by tumor-associated myeloid cells and prevents tumor immune evasion of CTL therapy

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 9 2010
    Lixin Wang
    Abstract CD200 is a cell-surface glycoprotein that functions through interaction with the CD200 receptor on myeloid lineage cells to regulate myeloid cell functions. Expression of CD200 has been implicated in multiple types of human cancer; however, the impact of tumor expression of CD200 on tumor immunity remains poorly understood. To evaluate this issue, we generated CD200-positive mouse plasmacytoma J558 and mastocytoma P815 cells. We found that established CD200-positive tumors were often completely rejected by adoptively transferred CTL without tumor recurrence; in contrast, CD200-negative tumors were initially rejected by adoptively transferred CTL but the majority of tumors recurred. Tumor expression of CD200 significantly inhibited suppressive activity and IL-10 production by tumor-associated myeloid cells (TAMC), and as a result, more CTL accumulated in the tumor and exhibited a greater capacity to produce IFN-, in CD200-positive tumors than in CD200-negative tumors. Neutralization of IL-10 significantly inhibited the suppressor activity of TAMC, and IL-10-deficiency allowed TAMC to kill cancer cells and their antigenic variants, which prevented tumor recurrence during CTL therapy. Thus, tumor expression of CD200 prevents tumor recurrence via inhibiting IL-10 production by TAMC. [source]


    Neutralization of IL-17 by active vaccination inhibits IL-23-dependent autoimmune myocarditis

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 11 2006
    Ivo Sonderegger
    Abstract The most common reason for heart failure in young adults is dilated cardiomyopathy often resulting from myocarditis. Clinical studies and animal models provide evidence that an autoimmune response against heart myosin is the underlying reason for the disease. IL-12 has been suggested to play a key role in development of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), as IL-12p40 and IL-12R,1 knockouts are protected from disease. In this study, we have compared IL-12p40,/, mice, IL-12p35,/, mice and mice treated with a neutralizing IL-23 antibody in EAM and found that in fact IL-23, not IL-12, is responsible for inflammatory heart disease. However, these cytokines appear to have redundant activity for priming and expansion of autoreactive CD4 T cells, as specific T cell proliferation was only defective in the absence of both cytokines. IL-23 has been suggested to promote a pathogenic IL-17-producing T cell population. We targeted IL-17 by capitalizing on an active vaccination approach that effectively breaks B cell tolerance. Neutralization of IL-17 reduced myocarditis and heart autoantibody responses, suggesting that IL-17 is the critical effector cytokine responsible for EAM. Thus, targeting of IL-23 and IL-17 by passive and active vaccination strategies holds promise as a therapeutic approach to treat patients at risk for development of dilated cardiomyopathy. See accompanying commentary: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.200636760 [source]


    Alkaline neutralization of crude soybean oil by various adsorbents

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Sukran Kuleasan
    Abstract The effect of sodium hydroxide in neutralization was increased by using various adsorbents. NaOH in various concentrations was attached to the particles of Kieselguhr, Celite and Bentonite. The neutralization reaction was performed at ambient temperature, and different reaction times were applied. The soap formed after reaction was removed by centrifugation; thus, washing and drying steps were omitted. The amount of remaining soap, the acidity and color of oils were determined after each treatment. According to the results, free fatty acid neutralization in crude oil was achieved by Kieselguhr application. In this process, 9.5% NaOH was applied for 60,min of reaction time. The free fatty acid content of crude oil was decreased from 0.56 to 0.14%, and the remaining soap was found at 34,mg/kg after centrifugation. The use of adsorbents increased the efficiency of NaOH in the neutralization reaction and in the removal of soap from the neutralized oil. Neutralization with support material is a new and promising approach. The application is energy saving, more practical and in accordance with the strict environmental legislation about waste disposal. [source]


    Neutralization of the membrane protein Nogo-A enhances growth and reactive sprouting in established organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 9 2008
    Luis M. Craveiro
    Abstract The reduced ability of central axons to regenerate after injury is significantly influenced by the presence of several molecules that inhibit axonal growth. Nogo-A is one of the most studied and most potent of the myelin-associated growth inhibitory molecules. Its neutralization, as well as interference with its signalling, allows for enhanced axonal sprouting and growth following injury. Using differentiated rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures treated for 5 days with either of two different function-blocking anti-Nogo-A antibodies, we show an increase in CA3 fibre regeneration after lesion. In intact slices, 5 days of anti-Nogo-A antibody treatment led to increased sprouting of intact CA3 fibres that are positive for neurofilament 68. A transcriptomic approach confirmed the occurrence of a growth response on the molecular level upon Nogo-A neutralization in intact cultures. Our results demonstrate that Nogo-A neutralization for 5 days is sufficient for the induction of growth in mature CNS tissue without the prerequisite of an injury. Nogo-A may therefore act as a tonic growth suppressor/stabilizer in the adult intact hippocampus. [source]


    Role of the surface charges D72 and K8 in the function and structural stability of the cytochrome c6 from Nostoc sp.

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 13 2005
    PCC 711
    We investigated the role of electrostatic charges at positions D72 and K8 in the function and structural stability of cytochrome c6 from Nostoc sp. PCC 7119 (cyt c6). A series of mutant forms was generated to span the possible combinations of charge neutralization (by mutation to alanine) and charge inversion (by mutation to lysine and aspartate, respectively) in these positions. All forms of cyt c6 were functionally characterized by laser flash absorption spectroscopy, and their stability was probed by urea-induced folding equilibrium relaxation experiments and differential scanning calorimetry. Neutralization or inversion of the positive charge at position K8 reduced the efficiency of electron transfer to photosystem I. This effect could not be reversed by compensating for the change in global charge that had been introduced by the mutation, indicating a specific role for K8 in the formation of the electron transfer complex between cyt c6 and photosystem I. Replacement of D72 by asparagine or lysine increased the efficiency of electron transfer to photosystem I, but destabilized the protein. D72 apparently participates in electrostatic interactions that stabilize the structure of cyt c6. The destabilizing effect was reduced when aspartate was replaced by the small amino acid alanine. Complementing the mutation D72A with a charge neutralization or inversion at position K8 led to mutant forms of cyt c6 that were more stable than the wild-type under all tested conditions. [source]


    Functional alterations of liver innate immunity of mice with aging in response to CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    Toshinobu Kawabata
    Immune functions of liver natural killer T (NKT) cells induced by the synthetic ligand ,-galactosylceramide enhanced age-dependently; hepatic injury and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) induced by ligand-activated NKT cells were also enhanced. This study investigated how aging affects liver innate immunity after common bacteria DNA stimulation. Young (6 weeks) and old (50-60 weeks) C57BL/6 mice were injected with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), and the functions of liver leukocytes were assessed. A CpG-ODN injection into the old mice remarkably increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production in Kupffer cells, and MODS and lethal shock were induced, both of which are rarely seen in young mice. Old Kupffer cells showed increased Toll-like receptor-9 expression, and CpG-ODN challenge augmented TNF receptor and Fas-L expression in liver NKT cells. Experiments using mice depleted of natural killer (NK) cells by anti-asialoGM1 antibody (Ab), perforin knockout mice, and mice pretreated with neutralizing interferon (IFN)-, Ab demonstrated the important role of liver NK cells in antitumor immunity. The production capacities of old mice for IFN-,, IFN-,, and perforin were much lower than those of young mice, and the CpG-induced antitumor cytotoxicity of liver NK cells lessened. Lethal shock and MODS greatly decreased in old mice depleted/deficient in TNF, FasL, or NKT cells. However, depletion of NK cells also decreased serum TNF levels and FasL expression of NKT cells, which resulted in improved hepatic injury and survival, suggesting that NK cells are indirectly involved in MODS/lethal shock induced by NKT cells. Neutralization of TNF did not reduce the CpG-induced antitumor effect in the liver. Conclusion: Hepatic injury and MODS mediated by NKT cells via the TNF and FasL-mediated pathway after CpG injection increased, but the antitumor activity of liver NK cells decreased with aging. (HEPATOLOGY 2008.) [source]


    Interleukin-16 inhibits interleukin-13 production by allergen-stimulated blood mononuclear cells

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Souad El Bassam
    Summary Expression of interleukin (IL)-16 is increased in bronchial mucosal biopsies of atopic asthmatics compared to normal controls. The functional significance of increased expression of IL-16 at sites of allergic inflammation is not yet clear. We have previously shown that IL-16 inhibits IL-5 secretion by allergen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We investigated whether IL-16 inhibits the production of other T helper 2 cytokines, namely IL-13 and IL-4, by allergen-specific T cells. PBMC from ragweed-sensitive atopic subjects were stimulated with allergen extract for cytokine production in the presence or absence of rhIL-16. Production of cytokines was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction. To evaluate whether the modulatory effect of IL-16 on cytokine synthesis was mediated by interferon-, (IFN-,), IL-10, IL-12 or IL-18, allergen-stimulated PBMC were cultured in presence of IL-16 and neutralizing concentrations of relevant antibodies. Allergen-stimulated PBMC produced significantly elevated levels of IL-13 (90,740 pg/ml) as compared to unstimulated PBMC (0,375 pg/ml, P < 001). Addition of rhIL-16 resulted in down-regulation of IL-13 mRNA expression as well as significantly reduced amounts of IL-13 released by allergen-stimulated PBMC (0,457 pg/ml, P < 0001), as observed for IL-5. No effect of IL-16 was observed on IL-4 mRNA expression. Treatment with IL-16 resulted in increased levels of IL-10 and IL-18 in allergen-stimulated cell culture. Neutralization of IFN-,, IL-12, IL-10 or IL-18 did not alter the inhibitory effects of IL-16 on IL-13 and IL-5 secretion by allergen-stimulated PBMC. IL-16 did not modify IL-13 synthesis by anti-CD3-stimulated CD4+ T cells, but it significantly reduced the production of IL-5. These data suggest that IL-16 may play an important immunoregulatory role in allergic states in response to allergen. [source]


    Enhanced Osteoclastogenesis in 4-1BB,Deficient Mice Caused by Reduced Interleukin-10,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 12 2006
    Hyun-Hee Shin PhD
    Abstract Enhanced osteoclastogenesis was observed in bone marrow,derived macrophage cells from 4-1BB,deficient mice than in those from wildtype mice. 4-1BB and 4-1BB ligand interaction may play a role at a certain stage of osteoclast formation through increased level of IL-10, a negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis. Introduction: 4-1BB is an inducible T-cell costimulatory molecule and a member of the TNF receptor family. The expression pattern of 4-1BB and 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) has suggested that 4-1BB plays a role not only in various responses related to innate immunity but also in bone metabolism. Materials and Methods: Osteoclast formation was evaluated in bone marrow,derived macrophage cells (BMMs) from wildtype and 4-1BB,deficient (4-1BB,/,) mice. Expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) during osteoclast formation was analyzed at the mRNA and protein levels. Results: Expression of IL-10 was higher in RANKL-stimulated wildtype BMMs than 4-1BB,/, BMMs. When 4-1BBL was stimulated with 4-1BB,Fc fusion protein, the expression of IL-10 in BMMs increased. Neutralization of IL-10 was not as effective in preventing inhibition by IL-10 of osteoclast differentiation in 4-1BB,/, BMMs as in wildtype BMMs. When IL-10 was added to the culture medium, osteoclast formation was inhibited more efficiently in the 4-1BB,/, BMMs than in the wildtype BMMs. Conclusions: Interaction of 4-1BB and 4-1BBL stimulates IL-10 production through 4-1BBL signaling. 4-1BBL plays a role at a certain stage of osteoclast formation, and IL-10 may mediate this effect. The elevated level of osteoclastogenesis in 4-1BB,/, BMMs may thus be caused, in part, by a lower level of IL-10. [source]


    Neutralization kinetics of sensitive and resistant subtype B primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 7 2006
    David Davis
    Abstract The aim of the study was to determine if sensitive and resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype B primary isolates have different neutralization kinetics. Neutralization assays were undertaken where either the time allowed for virus to react with antibodies or the subsequent period of this mixture's exposure to target cells were varied. The relative neutralization sensitivity/resistance is a reproducible property of the isolates. In a minority of combinations, the titre falls exponentially for as long as the free virions are exposed to antibody. In the remainder, neutralization kinetics shows deviations which may be attributed to events occurring after the virus,antibody mixture is added to the target cells: significant neutralization with minimal exposure of the free virions to antibody; a plot where reduction in virus titre is parallel to the duration of the incubation phase of the assay. Neutralization rate constants are similar for primary HIV-1 SF33, HIV-1 SF162, and HIV-1 89.6, reaching 5,,105,1,,106/M sec for the monoclonal antibody IgG1 b12. However, although increased antibody levels produced greater reductions in virus titre the rate of neutralization was not proportional to the antibody concentration. Neutralization of either the free virion or cell-associated virus does not correlate with the resistance/sensitivity of primary subtype B isolates. The target cells play an active role, so that in designing neutralization assays with primary isolates of HIV-1, events following the virus,antibody complex binding to the cell surface have to be taken into consideration. J. Med. Virol. 78:864,876, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Dichotomy in cross-clade reactivity and neutralization by HIV-1 sera: Implications for active and passive immunotherapy,

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 2 2005
    Lisa A. Cavacini
    Abstract The identification of broadly reactive and cross-clade neutralizing antibodies will facilitate the development of a more universally effective vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibodies in sera from individuals infected with Clade B HIV bind native primary viral isolates, and virus binding correlates with neutralization and stable clinical disease. In this study, we quantified cross-clade antibody reactivity and neutralization by Clades B and C sera. Primary viral isolates were captured by serum IgG bound to anti-human IgG and quantitated as p24 released by lysis of captured virus. Neutralization was determined using PHA-stimulated PBMC. Clade B antibodies reacted more frequently with Clade B R5 virus, but positive sera captured quantitatively more X4 virus than R5 and R5X4 virus. Clade B sera reacted less frequently and captured less Clade C virus than Clade B virus. Antibodies in Clade C sera captured Clades B and C isolates with equal frequency and quantity. There was no difference in neutralization of Clade B virus by either group of sera; however, Clade C sera neutralized Clade C virus, whereas Clade B sera were ineffective against Clade C virus. Thus, there are distinct differences in cross-clade reactivity of and neutralization by antibodies induced in response to Clade C infection compared to Clade B infection. Understanding antibody responses to native virions after Clade C infection and cross clade antibody behavior has implications for understanding pathogenesis and vaccine development. J. Med. Virol. 76:146,152, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Neutralization of the chemokine CXCL10 reduces apoptosis and increases axon sprouting after spinal cord injury

    JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 4 2006
    Janette Glaser
    Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is followed by a secondary degenerative process that includes cell death. We have previously demonstrated that the chemokine CXCL10 is up-regulated following SCI and plays a critical role in T-lymphocyte recruitment to sites of injury and inhibition of angiogenesis; antibody-mediated functional blockade of CXCL10 reduced inflammation while enhancing angiogenesis. We hypothesized, based on these findings, that the injury environment established by anti-CXCL10 antibody treatment would support greater survival of neurons and enhance axon sprouting compared with the untreated, injured spinal cord. Here, we document gene array and histopathological data to support our hypothesis. Gene array analysis of treated and untreated tissue from spinal cord-injured animals revealed eight apoptosis-related genes with significant expression changes at 3 days postinjury. In support of these data, quantification of TUNEL-positive cells at 3 days postinjury indicated a 75% reduction in the number of dying cells in treated animals compared with untreated animals. Gene array analysis of treated and untreated tissue also revealed six central nervous system growth-related genes with significant expression changes in the brainstem at 14 days postinjury. In support of these data, quantification of anterograde-labeled corticospinal tract fibers indicated a 60,70% increase in axon sprouting caudal to the injury site in treated animals compared with untreated animals. These findings indicate that anti-CXCL10 antibody treatment provides an environment that reduces apoptosis and increases axon sprouting following injury to the adult spinal cord. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Counter regulation of the high affinity IgE receptor, Fc,RI, on human airway dendritic cells by IL-4 and IL-10

    ALLERGY, Issue 11 2009
    A. Faith
    Background:, Immunoglobulin E is a signalling molecule within the environment of the respiratory tract, the high affinity receptor for which, Fc,RI, is expressed by dendritic cells (DC). Little is known, however, of the expression and function of Fc,RI on DC in the human respiratory tract. Methods:, CD1c+ DC were purified from surgically resected nasal turbinates of 11 atopic and 12 nonatopic patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Expression of Fc,RI was determined by flow cytometry. Cytokine production by DC was determined by cytometric bead array. Results:, Expression of Fc,RI was significantly elevated on respiratory tract dendritic cells (RTDC) from atopic as compared to nonatopic patients. Activation of RTDC through Fc,RI induced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-,, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The production of IL-6 and TNF-, was elevated in atopic compared to nonatopic patients studied. Conversely IL-10 production was elevated in nonatopic patients. Concomitant activation of Fc,RI and stimulation of RTDC with IL-4 inhibited production of IL-10 by RTDC. Neutralization experiments with anti-IL-10 Ab enhanced whereas addition of exogenous IL-10 to RTDC inhibited Fc,RI-mediated inflammatory cytokine production. Conclusion:, The function of Fc,RI on RTDC from patients with rhinosinusitis is susceptible to counter regulation by IL-4 and IL-10. [source]


    Electrostatic Charge Measurement and Charge Neutralization of Fine Aerosol Particles during the Generation Process

    PARTICLE & PARTICLE SYSTEMS CHARACTERIZATION, Issue 5 2005
    Chuen-Jinn Tsai
    Abstract An aerosol charge analyzer has been constructed to measure the charge distribution of NaCl particles generated in the laboratory. A radioactive electrostatic charge neutralizer utilizing Po-210 was used to neutralize the electrostatic charge of the particles. The atomization technique was used to generate NaCl particles with diameters of 0.2 to 0.8 ,m, while the evaporation and condensation method was adopted to generate particles of 0.01 to 0.2 ,m in diameter. The experimental data demonstrates that the absolute average particle charge depends on the particle diameter, and is higher than that calculated by the Boltzmann charge equilibrium for particles within the range of 0.2 to 0.8 ,m. The charge increases with decreasing NaCl concentration. When these particles are neutralized using the Po-210 neutralizer, it is found that the electrostatic charge reaches the Boltzmann charge equilibrium. For 0.01 to 0.2 ,m NaCl particles generated using the evaporation and condensation method, test results show that the absolute average particle charge is higher than that calculated by the Boltzmann charge equilibrium for particles larger than 0.03 to 0.05 ,m in diameter, while it is lower than that predicted by the Fuchs theory [1], for particles smaller than 0.03 to 0.05 ,m. However, after charge neutralization, particles with diameter above 0.05 ,m reach the Boltzmann charge equilibrium condition, and the charges for particles with diameters of 0.010 to 0.05 ,m, agree well with Fuchs' theory. [source]


    Progesterone Regulates IL12 Expression in Pregnancy Lymphocytes by Inhibiting Phospholipase A2

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    G. Par
    Par G, Geli J, Kozma N, Varga P, Szekeres-Bartho J. Progesterone regulates IL12 expression in pregnancy lymphocytes by inhibiting phospholipase A2. AJRI 2003; 49:1,5 Blackwell Munksgaard, 2003 PROBLEM: Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) is one of the pathways that mediate the immunological effects of progesterone. PIBF inhibits natural killer (NK) cytotoxic activity. Recently we showed that neutralization of PIBF results in an increased interleukin (IL)-12 expression, which is corrected by cyclooxygenase inhibitors. As exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) voids the NK blocking effect of PIBF, it is likely that PIBF acts before the level of the cyclooxygenase enzyme. Therefore in this study we investigated the effect of PIBF neutralizing antibody and simultaneous phospholipase A2 inhibitor quinacrine (Q) treatment on IL-12 production. METHODS: Pregnancy lymphocytes were treated with anti-PIBF antibody or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a positive control, in the presence or absence of Q. IL-12 expression by PBMC was detected by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: Neutralization of PIBF as well as LPS treatment resulted in an increased IL-12 expression, which was corrected by simultaneous Q treatment. Pre-treatment of lymphocytes with progesterone prevented the stimulating effect of LPS on IL-12 production. CONCLUSION: Progesterone binding of the lymphocytes is followed by the release of PIBF that inhibits AA release. The subsequent block of prostaglandin synthesis reduces IL-12 production and results in a lowered cytotoxic NK activity, which may contribute to a normal pregnancy outcome. [source]


    Early Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Humans Is Dominated by IL-6 Release from the Allograft

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 7 2009
    D. K. De Vries
    The pathophysiology of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is complex, and current knowledge of I/R injury in humans is incomplete. In the present study, human living-donor kidney transplantation was used as a highly reproducible model to systematically study various processes potentially involved in early I/R injury. Unique, direct measurements of arteriovenous concentration differences over the kidney revealed massive release of interleukin (IL)-6 in the first 30 minutes of graft reperfusion and a modest release of IL-8. Among the assessed markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress, only 15(S)-8- iso -PGF2, was released. When assessing cell activation, release of prothrombin factor 1 + 2 indicated thrombocyte activation, whereas there was no release of markers for endothelial activation or neutrophil activation. Common complement activation complex sC5b-9 was not released into the bloodstream, but was released into urine rapidly after reperfusion. To investigate whether IL-6 plays a modulating role in I/R injury, a mouse experiment of renal I/R injury was performed. Neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody treatment considerably worsened kidney function. In conclusion, this study shows that renal I/R in humans is dominated by local IL-6 release. Neutralization of IL-6 in mice resulted in a significant aggravation of renal I/R injury. [source]


    Tumor necrosis factor neutralization results in disseminated disease in acute and latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection with normal granuloma structure in a cynomolgus macaque model

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 2 2010
    Philana Ling Lin
    Objective An increased risk of tuberculosis has been documented in humans treated with tumor necrosis factor , (TNF,),neutralizing agents. In murine models, impaired signaling by TNF causes exacerbation of both acute and chronic infection associated with aberrant granuloma formation and maintenance. This study was undertaken to investigate immune modulation in the setting of TNF neutralization in primary and latent tuberculosis in a non-human primate model. Methods Cynomolgus macaques 4 years of age or older were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and subjected to clinical, microbiologic, immunologic, and radiographic examinations. Monkeys were classified as having active or latent disease 6,8 months after infection, based on clinical criteria. Monkeys used in acute infection studies were randomized to receive either adalimumab (prior to and during infection) or no treatment. Monkeys with latent infection that were randomized to receive TNF-neutralizing agent were given either an inhibitor of soluble TNF, recombinant methionyl human soluble TNF receptor I (p55-TNFRI), or adalimumab. Control monkeys with latent infection were given no treatment or saline. Data from previously studied monkeys with active or latent disease were also used for comparison. Results Administration of TNF-neutralizing agents prior to M tuberculosis infection resulted in fulminant and disseminated disease by 8 weeks after infection. Neutralization of TNF in latently infected cynomolgus macaques caused reactivation in a majority of animals as determined by gross pathologic examination and bacterial burden. A spectrum of dissemination was noted, including extrapulmonary disease. Surprisingly, monkeys that developed primary and reactivation tuberculosis after TNF neutralization had similar granuloma structure and composition to that of control monkeys with active disease. TNF neutralization was associated with increased levels of interleukin-12, decreased levels of CCL4, increased chemokine receptor expression, and reduced mycobacteria-induced interferon-, production in blood but not in the affected mediastinal lymph nodes. Finally, the first signs of reactivation often occurred in thoracic lymph nodes. Conclusion These findings have important clinical implications for determining the mechanism of TNF neutralization,related tuberculosis. [source]


    Tumor necrosis factor , blockade exacerbates murine psoriasis-like disease by enhancing Th17 function and decreasing expansion of Treg cells

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 2 2010
    Hak-Ling Ma
    Objective Patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis respond well to tumor necrosis factor , (TNF,) blockers in general; however, there is now mounting evidence that a small cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who receive TNF, blockers develop psoriasis. This study was undertaken to explore the mechanisms underlying TNF, blockade,induced exacerbation of skin inflammation in murine psoriasis-like skin disease. Methods Skin inflammation was induced in BALB/c scid/scid mice after they received CD4+CD45RBhighCD25, (naive CD4) T cells from donor mice. These mice were treated with either anti,interleukin-12 (anti,IL-12)/23p40 antibody or murine TNFRII-Fc fusion protein and were examined for signs of disease, including histologic features, various cytokine levels in the serum, and cytokine or FoxP3 transcripts in the affected skin and draining lymph node (LN) cells. In a separate study, naive CD4+ T cells were differentiated into Th1 or Th17 lineages with anti-CD3/28 magnetic beads and appropriate cytokines in the presence or absence of TNF,. Cytokine gene expression from these differentiated cells was also determined. Results Neutralization of TNF, exacerbated skin inflammation and markedly enhanced the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1,, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, and IL-22 but suppressed FoxP3 expression in the skin and reduced the number of FoxP3-positive Treg cells in the draining LNs. TNF, also demonstrated a divergent role during priming and reactivation of naive T cells. Conclusion These results reveal a novel immunoregulatory role of TNF, on Th17 and Treg cells in some individuals, which may account for the exacerbation of skin inflammation in some patients who receive anti-TNF treatments. [source]


    Neutralization of interferon-,/,,inducible genes and downstream effect in a phase I trial of an anti,interferon-, monoclonal antibody in systemic lupus erythematosus,

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 6 2009
    Yihong Yao
    Objective Type I interferons (IFNs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This phase Ia trial was undertaken to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity of anti-IFN, monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy in SLE. During the trial, we also examined whether overexpression of an IFN,/,-inducible gene signature in whole blood could serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker to evaluate IFN, neutralization and investigated downstream effects of neutralizing IFN, on BAFF and other key signaling pathways, i.e., granulocyte,macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor , (TNF,), and IL-1,, in SLE. Methods Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays were used to profile whole blood and lesional skin of patients receiving standard therapy for mild to moderate SLE. Selected IFN,/,-inducible proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results With the study treatment, we observed anti-IFN, mAb,specific and dose-dependent inhibition of overexpression of IFN,/,-inducible genes in whole blood and skin lesions from SLE patients, at both the transcript and the protein levels. In SLE patients with overexpression of messenger RNA for BAFF, TNF,, IL-10, IL-1,, GM-CSF, and their respective inducible gene signatures in whole blood and/or skin lesions, we observed a general trend toward suppression of the expression of these genes and/or gene signatures upon treatment with anti-IFN, mAb. Conclusion IFN,/,-inducible gene signatures in whole blood are effective pharmacodynamic biomarkers to evaluate anti-IFN, mAb therapy in SLE. Anti-IFN, mAb can neutralize overexpression of IFN,/,-inducible genes in whole blood and lesional skin from SLE patients and has profound effects on signaling pathways that may be downstream of IFN, in SLE. [source]


    Interactions of T helper cells with fibroblast-like synoviocytes: Up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases by macrophage migration inhibitory factor from both Th1 and Th2 cells

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 10 2008
    Uta Schurigt
    Objective Interactions of immune cells, such as activated T helper cells, with fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play a crucial role in the joint destruction during human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to investigate the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by T helper cells, and to assess the role of MIF in overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in cocultures of FLS from arthritic mice with either Th1 or Th2 cells. Methods MIF expression by in vitro,polarized murine Th1 and Th2 cells was determined using 2 different generation protocols. FLS were isolated from the inflamed joints of mice with antigen-induced arthritis. MMP expression was analyzed in cocultures of the FLS with T helper cell subsets. Effects of MIF were blocked by a neutralizing anti-MIF antibody. In addition, analyses were performed on cocultures of either Th1 or Th2 cells with FLS from MIF-deficient mice. Results Both Th1 and Th2 cells expressed high quantities of MIF. MMPs were overexpressed by FLS after coculture with both Th1 and Th2 cells. Activated T helper cells were more effective than resting cells. Neutralization of MIF by an anti-MIF antibody led to a marked reduction in MMP expression in Th1- and Th2-stimulated FLS. T helper cells generated from MIF-deficient mice exhibited a T helper cell,specific cytokine profile comparable with that in wild-type cells, except in the expression of MIF, but showed an impaired ability to stimulate MMP expression in FLS. Conclusion MIF is an important Th1 and Th2 cell,derived proinflammatory cytokine that stimulates MMP expression in FLS from arthritic mice, and therefore inhibition of MIF might be a promising target for novel therapeutic strategies in human RA. [source]


    Rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes express BCMA and are stimulated by APRIL

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 11 2007
    Katsuya Nagatani
    Objective Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are among the principal effector cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to examine the variety of stimulating effects of APRIL and its specific effect on FLS in the affected RA synovium. Methods Synovium and serum samples were obtained from patients with RA, patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and healthy subjects. Soluble APRIL proteins were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relative gene expression of APRIL, BCMA, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor , (TNF,), IL-1,, and RANKL was assessed in RA and OA FLS by polymerase chain reaction. Effects of APRIL on the production of proinflammatory cytokines and RANKL in RA FLS were investigated by flow cytometry and with the use of a BCMA-Fc fusion protein. Results A significantly higher level of soluble APRIL was detected in RA serum compared with normal serum. Among the 3 receptors of APRIL tested, RA FLS expressed only BCMA, whereas OA FLS expressed none of the receptors. APRIL stimulated RA FLS, but not OA FLS, to produce IL-6, TNF,, IL-1,, and APRIL itself. In addition, APRIL increased RA FLS expression of RANKL and also enhanced progression of the cell cycle of RA FLS. Neutralization of APRIL by the BCMA-Fc fusion protein attenuated all of these stimulating effects of APRIL on RA FLS. Conclusion RA FLS are stimulated by APRIL and express the APRIL receptor BCMA. These results provide evidence that APRIL is one of the main regulators in the pathogenesis of RA. [source]


    Anti,interleukin-6 receptor antibody therapy favors adrenal androgen secretion in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 6 2006
    Rainer H. Straub
    Objective Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were demonstrated to inhibit adrenal steroidogenesis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and this was particularly evident in the increase in adrenal androgen levels during anti-TNF therapy. This study investigated the influence on steroidogenesis of an interleukin-6 (IL-6),neutralizing strategy using IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibodies (referred to as MRA). Methods In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study over 12 weeks in 29 patients with RA being treated with prednisolone, 13 of whom received placebo and 16 of whom received 8 mg MRA/kg body weight, the effects of MRA on serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione (ASD), estrone, and 17,-estradiol, as well as their respective molar ratios, were determined. Results MRA therapy markedly improved clinical signs of inflammation (the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, swollen joint score, and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints). Serum levels of ACTH and cortisol and the molar ratio of cortisol to ACTH did not change. Although serum levels of DHEA and DHEAS remained stable during therapy, the DHEAS:DHEA molar ratio significantly decreased in treated patients (P = 0.048). Serum levels of ASD as well as the ASD:cortisol and ASD:17OHP molar ratios increased in MRA-treated patients (minimum P < 0.004). Serum levels of estrone and 17,-estradiol did not change. but the estrone:ASD molar ratio (an indicator of aromatization) decreased during 12 weeks of MRA treatment (P = 0.001). Conclusion Neutralization of IL-6 increases secretion of biologically active adrenal androgens in relation to that of precursor hormones and estrogens. This is another important indication that proinflammatory cytokines interfere with adrenal androgen steroidogenesis in patients with RA. [source]


    Human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell-derived cytokines cooperatively induce activated CD4+CD25,CD45RA+ nave T cells to express forkhead box protein 3 and exhibit suppressive ability in vitro

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 11 2009
    Xiaofeng Zhao
    Regulatory T cells play an important role in tumor escape from host antitumor immunity. Increased frequencies of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells have been documented in the tumor sites, malignant effusions, and peripheral blood of patients with ovarian carcinoma. However, the mechanism involved remains unclear. In the present study, we collected high-purity human CD4+CD25,CD45RA+ nave T cells by microbead cell separation. These cells did not express FOXP3 by single-cell analysis, and few cells expressed FOXP3 when they were activated with anti-CD3/CD28 dual signal. However, more cells expressed FOXP3 when the supernatant of human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell culture was added, yet not the supernatant of normal human ovarian surface epithelia cell culture. Neutralization assays revealed that neutralizing antibody against transforming growth factor , (TGF-,), interleukin-10, and interleukin-4 did not abrogate elevated FOXP3 expression induced by carcinoma cell culture supernatant, whereas neutralizing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) partially abrogated FOXP3 expression, but LIF alone could not increase FOXP3 expression in activated nave T cells. Further, an in vitro coculture suppression assay showed that these cells could suppress the proliferation of autologous CD4+CD25,CD45RA, T cells. In summary, our findings show that ovarian carcinoma cells are able to induce expression of FOXP3 and exhibit suppressive ability in activated nave T cells by producing soluble substances, and multiple cytokines involve in the induction of FOXP3 expression. (Cancer Sci 2009) [source]


    CD4+ CD25+ transforming growth factor-,-producing T cells are present in the lung in murine tuberculosis and may regulate the host inflammatory response,

    CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    C. M. Mason
    Summary CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells produce the anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-, or interleukin (IL)-10. Regulatory T cells have been recognized to suppress autoimmunity and promote self-tolerance. These cells may also facilitate pathogen persistence by down-regulating the host defence response during infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We evaluated TGF-,+ and IL-10+ lung CD4+ CD25+ T cells in a murine model of M. tuberculosis. BALB/c mice were infected with ,50 colony-forming units of M. tuberculosis H37Rv intratracheally. At serial times post-infection, lung cells were analysed for surface marker expression (CD3, CD4, CD25) and intracellular IL-10, TGF-,, and interferon (IFN)-, production (following stimulation in vitro with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies). CD4+ lung lymphocytes were also selected positively after lung digestion, and stimulated in vitro for 48 h with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies in the absence and presence of anti-TGF-, antibody, anti-IL-10 antibody or rmTGF-, soluble receptor II/human Fc chimera (TGF,srII). Supernatants were assayed for elicited IFN-, and IL-2. Fluorescence activated cell sorter analyses showed that TGF-,- and IL-10-producing CD4+ CD25+ T cells are present in the lungs of infected mice. Neutralization of TGF-, and IL-10 each resulted in increases in elicited IFN-,, with the greatest effect seen when TGF,srII was used. Elicited IL-2 was not affected significantly by TGF-, neutralization. These results confirm the presence of CD4+ CD25+ TGF-,+ T cells in murine pulmonary tuberculosis, and support the possibility that TGF-, may contribute to down-regulation of the host response. [source]


    Immune complex-stimulated production of interleukin-12 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is regulated by the complement system

    CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    A. TEJDE
    SUMMARY Immune complexes (IC) can induce cytokine production in vitro. While immune aggregates (IA) consisting of heat-aggregated gamma globulin (HAGG) as model IC increased interleukin (IL)-10 levels in cell cultures with native human serum, IL-12p40/p70 production was inhibited. Three series of experiments suggested that the effects of IA on IL-12 production depended on a functionally intact complement system: (1) heat-inactivation of serum inverted the inhibitory effect of IA on IL-12p40/p70 production; (2) IA-induced IL-12p40 production in a C4 deficient serum was lowered by addition of C4; and (3) addition of the peptide compstatin, which blocks C3 activation, mimicked the effects of heat inactivation on IL-12p40 levels. Neutralization of IL-12 resulted in modestly increased IL-10 levels, while neutralization of IL-10 had no effects on IL-12p40 production. IA-induced production of IL-10 was partially blocked by anti-Fc,,RII antibodies, whereas Fc,,R or CR blockade had no effect on IL-12p40 production. IC and local or systemic complement activation characterize rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and many malignancies. Different and complement-dependent effects on the production of IL-10 and IL-12 can be of importance in these diseases, where control of the complement system might be a way to direct IC-induced cytokine production in either a type 1 or type 2 direction. [source]


    Solid Contact Micropipette Ion Selective Electrode II: Potassium Electrode for SECM and In Vivo Applications

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 17-18 2009
    Gergely Gyetvai
    Abstract Micropipette ion selective electrodes are very small, but fragile, short-life time sensors with very high resistance. Their high resistance is a draw back considering application in scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and in life sciences. New, low resistance potassium micropipette electrodes were prepared, and applied. The electrode contains solid internal contact made of a carbon fiber lowered down all the way close to the orifice of the micropipette. The internal contact potential was kept constant by applying a doped, electrochemically prepared PEDOT coating on the fiber surface. The electrode performed well in in vivo experiments both in plant and animal tissue without capacitance neutralization and in SECM. [source]


    Alkaline leaching of printed circuit board sludge

    ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 3 2006
    S.H. Hu
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to develop a treatment procedure for processing aluminum-contaminated sludge produced from the coagulation/flocculation process of wastewater treatment in the manufacture of printed circuit boards (PCBs). In this study, the reagent sodium hydroxide (2 N) was used to leach the heavy metal sludge and the dissolution of sludge's aluminum content was roughly 70%. The weight loss of the heavy metal sludge was caused by the dissolution of aluminum content of nearly 20%. Although dissolution of a small amount of copper occurred simultaneously during this leaching process, the dissolution of copper content was restricted within 0.72% in the leaching operation and the copper content was concentrated in the residue to increase the copper level. The large amounts of sodium hydroxide and Al3+ remaining in the leachate were recycled as neutralization and coagulation agents in wastewater treatment. Synthetic heavy metal wastewater was neutralized with the preceding leachate to estimate the reuse feasibility of recovered coagulant. The heavy metal concentration of the effluent met regulation standards after neutralization and precipitation. The settling rate could be significantly enhanced by the addition of 100 ppm supplemental polyacrylamide (PAM). 2006 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2006 [source]


    Transforming growth factor-beta1 affects interleukin-10 production in the bone marrow of patients with chronic idiopathic neutropenia

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
    Katerina Pyrovolaki
    Abstract Background:, Chronic idiopathic neutropenia (CIN) is a bone marrow (BM) failure syndrome characterized by accelerated apoptosis of myeloid progenitor cells because of a local imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the interplay among transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-,1), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and soluble flt-3 ligand (sFL) within the BM of CIN patients and probed the role of these cytokines in the pathophysiology of CIN. Design:, We used long-term BM cultures (LTBMC) to evaluate TGF-,1, IL-10, and sFL levels in CIN patients (n = 70) and healthy subjects (n = 35). Cytokine levels in LTBMC supernatants were correlated with the number of circulating neutrophils and the proportion of BM CD34+/CD33+ myeloid progenitor cells. Results:, CIN patients had increased TGF-,1 and sFL levels in LTBMCs compared with controls and individual cytokine values were found to be correlated inversely with the number of neutrophils and the proportion of CD34+/CD33+ cells. Patients displayed low supernatant IL-10 levels compared with controls and cytokine values were found to be correlated positively with the number of neutrophils and the proportion of CD34+/CD33+ cells. The levels of TGF-,1 were found to be inversely correlated with IL-10 and positively with sFL values in LTBMC, supernatants suggesting a possible interplay among these cytokines in CIN BM. Neutralization of TGF-,1 in LTBMCs increased IL-10 levels significantly in patients but not in controls, while neutralization had no effect on sFL levels. Conclusion:, Excessive production of TGF-,1 within the BM microenvironment of CIN patients results in downregulation of IL-10 and reduction of myeloid progenitor cells. Overexpression of sFL probably represents a compensatory mechanism to the low myeloid progenitor cells. [source]


    Novel CD8+ Treg suppress EAE by TGF-,- and IFN-,-dependent mechanisms

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 12 2009
    Mei-Ling Chen
    Abstract Although CD8+ Treg-mediated suppression has been described, CD8+ Treg remain poorly characterized. Here we identify a novel subset of CD8+ Treg that express latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their cell surface (CD8+LAP+ cells) and exhibit regulatory activity in vitro and in vivo. Only a small fraction of CD8+LAP+ cells express Foxp3 or CD25, although the expression levels of Foxp3 for these cells are higher than their LAP, counterparts. In addition to TGF-,, CD8+LAP+ cells produce IFN-,, and these cells suppress EAE that is dependent on both TGF-, and IFN-,. In an adoptive co-transfer model, CD8+LAP+ cells suppress myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific immune responses by inducing or expanding Foxp3+ cells and by inhibiting proliferation and IFN-, production in vivo. Furthermore, in vivo neutralization of IFN-, and studies with IFN-,-deficient mice demonstrate an important role for IFN-, production in the function of CD8+LAP+ cells. Our findings identify the underlying mechanisms that account for the immunoregulatory activity of CD8+ T cells and suggest that induction or amplification of CD8+LAP+ cells may be a therapeutic strategy to help control autoimmune processes. [source]


    NKT cells are dispensable in the induction of oral tolerance but are indispensable in the abrogation of oral tolerance by prostaglandin E

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    Ryotaro Ishimitsu
    Abstract NK1.1+ ,,, T cells (NKT cells) regulate the Th1/Th2 balance in response to dietary Ag, which may be involved in regulation of oral tolerance. OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 Ab levels were significantly lower following an i.p. injection of OVA (in CFA) in C57BL/6 mice orally given a single, high dose (25,mg) of OVA than in those orally given PBS. The oral tolerance was normally induced in J,281,/, mice which lack V,14+ NKT cells, suggesting that NKT cells are dispensable for induction of oral tolerance. Treatment with PGE1 or PGE2 abrogated the oral tolerance in J,281+/+ mice; this abrogation was accompanied by an OVA-specific Th2-dominant response. The abrogation of oral tolerance by PGE1 was not evident in J,281,/, mice. Treatment with PGE1 induced an early increase in IL-4 production by liver NKT cells in normal mice and neutralization of the early IL-4 by administration of anti-IL-4 mAb abolished PGE1 -induced abrogation of oral tolerance. These results suggest that liver NKT cells producing IL-4 are responsible for the down-regulation of oral tolerance that is caused by the PGE molecules. [source]