Neutrality Tests (neutrality + test)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Mitochondrial gene diversity in the common vole Microtus arvalis shaped by historical divergence and local adaptations

Abstract The phylogeography of the common vole (Microtus arvalis) was examined by analysing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation in 1044 base pairs (bp) of the cytochrome b (cytb) gene and in 322 bp of the control region (ctr) among 106 individuals from 58 locations. The geographical distribution of four previously recognized cytb evolutionary lineages in Europe was refined and a new lineage was found in southern Germany. All lineages were distributed allopatrically, except in one sample that was probably located in a contact zone. The occurrence of several lineages in the Alps is in keeping with their recent recolonization from distinct sources. The translation of 84 cytb DNA sequences produced 33 distinct proteins with relationships that differed from those of the DNA haplotypes, suggesting that the mtDNA lineages did not diverge in response to selection. In comparison with M. agrestis, a neutrality test detected no overall evidence for selection in the cytb gene, but a closer examination of a structural model showed that evolutionarily conserved and functionally important positions were often affected. A new phylogeographical test of random accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations generated significant results in three lineages. We therefore conclude that the molecular diversity of cytb in M. arvalis is overall the result of the demographic history of the populations, but that there have been several episodes of local adaptation to peculiar environments. [source]

Fine-scale genetic structure overrides macro-scale structure in a marine snail: nonrandom recruitment, demographic events or selection?

The planktotrophic littorinid species Littoraria flava occupies a continuous habitat on rocky shores close to brackish and freshwater sources. Previous studies of this species have shown a moderate genetic structure over a broad geographical scale, with high deviations from Hardy,Weinberg expectations in many allozymic loci. Local-scale subdivision in marine species with a long dispersal phase is unexpected, but occasionally found. Using a horizontal transect at three locations, we examined whether microscale and short-term subdivision also occurred in L. flava populations and, if so, whether this could explain the Hardy,Weinberg deviations. Littoraria flava showed even more structuring on a microgeographical scale (4,300 m) than on a large-scale (> 200 km). The Ewens,Watterson neutrality test showed that 18% of the tests deviated significantly from the neutrality model. A homogeneity test for each locus across samples within transects showed homogeneous and high FIS values in many loci. These results and the apparent genetic patchiness within transects suggest that asynchronous spawning associated with recurrent colonizations in L. flava can explain the local differentiation without a recognizable pattern. In addition, there could be a balance between these factors and diversifying selection acting on different loci at different times and localities. © 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 91, 23,36. [source]

Genetic diversity and phylogeographic analysis of Pinus leiophylla: a post-glacial range expansion

Abril Rodríguez-Banderas
Abstract Aim, Mexico is a centre of diversity for species of the genus Pinus, most of which have restricted geographical distributions. An exception is Pinus leiophylla Schiede and Deppe, which is widely distributed throughout most of Mexico's mountainous regions. We attempt to reconstruct the phylogeographic history of this species, in order to determine if its current broad distribution is associated with major events of environmental change that occurred during the Quaternary. Location, Coniferous forests in Sierra Madre Occidental, Eje Volcánico Transversal and Sierra Montañosa del Norte de Oaxaca, Mexico. Methods, A total of 323 individuals of both P. leiophylla var. leiophylla and P. leiophylla var. chihuahuana sampled from 22 populations were screened for variation at six paternally inherited chloroplast DNA microsatellite markers (cpSSR). In addition to haplotypic diversity estimates and neutrality tests, the following clustering methods were employed: principal components analysis (PCA), analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA), haplotype network and a technique similar to Croizat's panbiogeographical method of individual and generalized tracks. Results, The combination of mutations at the six microsatellites yielded a total of 92 different haplotypes. The percentage of shared haplotypes between varieties (P. leiophylla var. leiophylla and P. leiophylla var. chihuahuana) was only 2.2%. The average haplotypic diversity for the species was H = 0.760. PCA and SAMOVA indicate the presence of four main genetic clusters. The estimated divergence time between the two most frequent haplotypes was between 75,000 and 110,000 years. Significantly large negative Fs values suggest that most of the sampled populations are currently expanding. Individual and generalized tracks identified three potential zones that may have harboured ancestral populations of P. leiophylla and from which the expansion of this species started, as well as two secondary contact zones between the two varieties. Main conclusions, The results indicate that one of the three potential areas hypothesized to have harboured ancestral populations of P. leiophylla may be related to the origin of P. leiophylla var. chihuahuana, while the other two may be related to the origin of P. leiophylla var. leiophylla. The current broad distribution of P. leiophylla is probably associated with its strong colonization ability. [source]

Population history in Arabidopsis halleri using multilocus analysis

Abstract A. halleri is a psuedometallophyte with a patchy distribution in Europe and is often spread by human activity. To determine the population history and whether this history is consistent with potential human effects, we surveyed nucleotide variation using 24 loci from 12 individuals in a large A. halleri population. The means of total and silent nucleotide variation (,W) are within the range expected for the species. The population genetic neutrality tests Tajima's D and Wall's B had significant composite results rejecting panmixia, and Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis revealed that a subdivision model better explained the variation than the standard neutral model, refugia (or admixture), bottleneck or change of population size models. A categorical regression analysis further supports the subdivision model, and under the subdivision model, the neutrality tests are no longer significant. The best support was for two source populations, a situation consistent with the mixing of two populations possibly mediated by human activity. This scenario might limit the genetic diversity and adaptive potential of the population. The non-neutral population variation described here should be considered in bioinformatic searches for adaptation. [source]

Admixture facilitates adaptation from standing variation in the European aspen (Populus tremula L.), a widespread forest tree

Abstract Adaptation to new environments can start from new mutations or from standing variation already present in natural populations. Whether admixture constrains or facilitates adaptation from standing variation is largely unknown, especially in ecological keystone or foundation species. We examined patterns of neutral and adaptive population divergence in Populus tremula L., a widespread forest tree, using mapped molecular genetic markers. We detected the genetic signature of postglacial admixture between a Western and an Eastern lineage of P. tremula in Scandinavia, an area suspected to represent a zone of postglacial contact for many species of animals and plants. Stringent divergence-based neutrality tests provided clear indications for locally varying selection at the European scale. Six of 12 polymorphisms under selection were located less than 1 kb away from the nearest gene predicted by the Populus trichocarpa genome sequence. Few of these loci exhibited a signature of ,selective sweeps' in diversity-based tests, which is to be expected if adaptation occurs primarily from standing variation. In Scandinavia, admixture explained genomic patterns of ancestry and the nature of clinal variation and strength of selection for bud set, a phenological trait of great adaptive significance in temperate trees, measured in a common garden trial. Our data provide a hitherto missing direct link between past range shifts because of climatic oscillations, and levels of standing variation currently available for selection and adaptation in a terrestrial foundation species. [source]

Applications of selective neutrality tests to molecular ecology

Michael J. Ford
Abstract This paper reviews how statistical tests of neutrality have been used to address questions in molecular ecology are reviewed. The work consists of four major parts: a brief review of the current status of the neutral theory; a review of several particularly interesting examples of how statistical tests of neutrality have led to insight into ecological problems; a brief discussion of the pitfalls of assuming a strictly neutral model if it is false; and a discussion of some of the opportunities and problems that molecular ecologists face when using neutrality tests to study natural selection. [source]

Population genetic studies of Alouatta belzebul from the Amazonian and Atlantic Forests

F.F. Nascimento
Abstract Cytochrome b DNA sequence data (ca. 1,140,bp) of 66 Alouatta belzebul from the Amazonian and the Atlantic Forests of Brazil were used for phylogenetic reconstructions and population studies. Our sample consisted of 60 specimens from the Amazonian Forest (captured in 1984 and 1998 in Pará-PA state) and six specimens from the Atlantic Forest (Paraíba-PB state). We found 32 haplotypes, 23 in PA-1984 (with 12 present in more than one individual), 11 in PA-1998 (with two present in more than one individual), and a single haplotype in the PB sample. Animals from PA-1984 and PA-1998 shared three haplotypes while animals from Pará and Paraíba did not share any haplotype. We found 57 variable sites, consisting of 53 transitions and four transversions, with most replacements occurring at third codon position (77.19%) and less frequently at first and second positions (10.53 and 12.28%, respectively). Genetic distance between all haplotypes varied between 0 and 1.2%. Nucleotide diversity estimates between PA-1984 haplotypes and PA-1998 haplotypes were the same (,=0.01), and haplotype diversity estimates were very similar (h=0.96 and 0.93 for PA-1984 and PA-1998, respectively). Maximum parsimony, median-joining, split decomposition, and TCS showed that PA and PB haplotypes had not drastically diverged and that subsequent radiation within these regions was not apparent. No temporal structure was found between PA-1984 and PA-1998. The sum of square deviation estimate for PA-1984 equaled 0.01 (P=0.23), in agreement with a hypothetical model of sudden expansion contrary to PA-1998 whose sum of square deviation estimate (0.40; P=0.04) was not compatible with this model, although the small sample size of PA-1998 as well as the smaller area of capture could have also accounted for this result. Fu's Fs and R2 statistical neutrality tests corroborated these propositions. Lack of drastic differentiation was attributable to the once existing connection between the Atlantic and the Amazonian forests at a non-distant past. Am. J. Primatol. 70:423,431, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Genetic variation in BoLA microsatellite loci in Portuguese cattle breeds

C. Bastos-Silveira
Summary Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) typing based on microsatellites can be a valuable approach to understanding the selective processes occurring at linked or physically close MHC genes and can provide important information on variability and relationships of populations. Using microsatellites within or in close proximity with bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) genes, we investigated the polymorphisms in the bovine MHC, known as the BoLA, in eight Portuguese cattle breeds. Additional data from non-BoLA microsatellite loci were also used to compare the variability between these regions. Diversity was higher in BoLA than in non-BoLA microsatellites, as could be observed by the number of alleles, allelic richness and observed heterozygosity. Brava de Lide, a breed selected for aggressiveness and nobility, presented the lowest values of observed heterozygosity and allelic richness in both markers. Results from neutrality tests showed few statistically significant differences between the observed Hardy,Weinberg homozygosity (F) and the expected homozygosity (FE), indicating the apparent neutrality of the BoLA microsatellites within the analysed breeds. Nevertheless, we detected a trend of lower values of observed homozygosity compared with the expected one. We also detected some differences in the levels of allelic variability among the four BoLA microsatellites. Our data showed a higher number of alleles at the BoLA-DRB3 locus than at the BoLA-DRBP1 locus. These differences could be related to their physical position in the chromosome and may reflect functional requirements for diversity. [source]

Phylogeography and genetic structure of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene

Phylogeographical analysis of Paracentrotus lividus was carried out by means of sequencing the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1143 bp) of 260 individuals collected at 22 Mediterranean and four Atlantic localities. Against a background of high haplotype diversity and shallow genetic structuring, we observed significant genetic divergence between the Adriatic Sea and the rest of the Mediterranean, as well as between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic sample groups. Furthermore, on the largest spatial scale, isolation by distance was detected. Three main haplogroups were identified by network and Bayesian assignment analyses. The relative proportions of haplogroups were different in the four regions considered, with the exception of Western and Eastern Mediterranean that showed a similar pattern. This result together with the outcome of Snn statistics, analysis of molecular variance and network analyses allowed to identify three weakly differentiated populations corresponding to the Atlantic, Western + Eastern Mediterranean, and Adriatic seas. Analyses of mismatch distribution and neutrality tests were consistent with the presence of genetic structuring and past demographic expansion(s). From a fisheries perspective, the results obtained in the present study are consistent with genetic sustainability of current exploitation; local depleted stocks are recurrently replenished by recruits that may have originated from nonharvested areas. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 100, 910,923. [source]