Neutral Protease (neutral + protease)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Chemical components of Aspergillus -type Douchi, a Chinese traditional fermented soybean product, change during the fermentation process

Jian-Hua Zhang
Summary Douchi, a traditional fermented soybean product that originated in China, has been consumed since ancient times as a food seasoning. The influence of fermentation on the chemical components of naturally fermented douchi and Aspergillus egypticus pure-cultured douchi was investigated. Changes in per cent and/or concentration of amino-type nitrogen, total acid, reducing sugar, organic acid, amino acids (AA) and isoflavone, along with the neutral protease and , -glucosidase activities during the fermentation, were analysed. The results indicated that fermentation had a significant effect on the concentration of chemical components. The concentration of all free amino acids (FAA) increased gradually during fermentation, to a maximum of 109.54 mg g,1 in 15-day fermented products. The main organic acids in douchi are 7.788 and 17.778 mg g,1, respectively. During fermentation, the contents of daidzin and genistin decreased from 160.7 and 207.9 to 7.54 and 24.12 ,g g,1 respectively. Daidzein and genistein increased from 18.2 and 16.9 to 63.4 and 84.6 ,g g,1, respectively. [source]

A study of juvenile rat spinal cord injury

J. M. Wingrave
Greater than 5% of all spinal cord injuries (SCI) in the US occur in people younger than 16, although a minority, children will require extended attention during their lifetime. While facing increased mortality in the initial 24 h after trauma, children with incomplete injuries seem to have a greater capacity for recovery of function compared to adults suggesting that there is a difference in injury tolerance in the young over the adult. Knowledge of the factors involved in this difference would not only increase understanding of SCI, but also potentiate new avenues for SCI treatment. Yet there has not been a model for the study of youth SCI. For these reasons, we developed a model of SCI in juvenile rats equivalent to an adult injury of 25 g cm force (GCF). To do so, we recorded spinal cord masses of Sprague,Dawley rats at 21, 30, 45, and 60 days of age, compared them to adult cord masses, and assembled a conversion factor that provides youth injuries comparable to adult. To investigate the pathophysiology in juvenile SCI, two cord segments, 1 cm long, were removed from animals 24 h following injury. One segment was centered at the impact site, the other immediately caudal. After homogenization, the samples were assayed by Western blot analysis for calpain content and degradation of 68K Neuro-Filament Protein (68K NFP), a neuronal structural protein. mCalpain expression, a neutral protease previously implicated in secondary SCI, was reduced in juvenile animals relative to adult cohorts. The degradation of 68K NFP was also found to be reduced in juvenile animals. From these analyses, it seems plausible that calpain expression and pathogenic activity is abated in the setting of young rat SCI. Acknowledgements:, Supported by grants from NIH-NINDS. [source]

Melatonin attenuates calpain upregulation, axonal damage and neuronal death in spinal cord injury in rats

Supriti Samantaray
Abstract:, Multiple investigations in vivo have shown that melatonin (MEL) has a neuroprotective effect in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigates the role of MEL as an intervening agent for ameliorating Ca2+ -mediated events, including activation of calpain, following its administration to rats sustaining experimental SCI. Calpain, a Ca2+ -dependent neutral protease, is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of SCI. Rats were injured using a standard weight-drop method that induced a moderately severe injury (40 force) at T10. Sham controls received laminectomy only. Injured animals were given either 45 mg/kg MEL or vehicle at 15 min post-injury by intraperitoneal injection. At 48 hr post-injury, spinal cord (SC) samples were collected. Immunofluorescent labelings were used to identify calpain expression in specific cell types, such as neurons, glia, or macrophages. Combination of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and double immunofluorescent labelings was used to identify apoptosis in specific cells in the SC. The effect of MEL on axonal damage was also investigated using antibody specific for dephosphorylated neurofilament protein (dNFP). Treatment of SCI animals with MEL attenuated calpain expression, inflammation, axonal damage (dNFP), and neuronal death, indicating that MEL provided neuroprotective effect in SCI. Further, expression and activity of calpain and caspse-3 were examined by Western blotting. The results indicated a significant decrease in expression and activity of calpain and caspse-3 in SCI animals after treatment with MEL. Taken together, this study strongly suggested that MEL could be an effective neuroprotective agent for treatment of SCI. [source]

Biodegradable Water Absorbent Synthesized from Bacterial Poly(amino acid)s

Masao Kunioka
Abstract Summary: Biodegradable hydrogels prepared by , -irradiation from microbial poly(amino acid)s have been studied. pH-Sensitive hydrogels were prepared by the , -irradiation of poly(, -glutamic acid) (PGA) produced by Bacillus subtilis and poly(, -lysine) (PL) produced by Streptomyces albulus in aqueous solutions. When the , -irradiation dose was 19 kGy or more, and the concentration of PGA in water was 2 wt.-% or more, transparent hydrogels could be produced. For the 19 kGy dose, the produced hydrogel was very weak, however, the specific water content (wt. of absorbed water/wt. of dry hydrogel) of this PGA hydrogel was approximately 3,500. The specific water content decreased to 200, increasing when the , -irradiation dose was over 100 kGy. Under acid conditions or upon the addition of electrolytes, the PGA hydrogels shrunk. The PGA hydrogel was pH-sensitive and the change in the volume of the hydrogel depended on the pH value outside the hydrogel in the swelling medium. This PGA hydrogel was hydrodegradable and biodegradable. A new novel purifier reagent (coagulant), made from the PGA hydrogels, for contaminated turbid water has been found and developed by Japanese companies. A very small amount of this coagulant (only 2 ppm in turbid water) with poly(aluminum chloride) can be used for the purification of turbid water. A PL aqueous solution also can change into a hydrogel by , -irradiation. The specific water content of the PL hyrdogel ranged from 20 to 160 depending on the preparation conditions. Under acid conditions, the PL hydrogel swelled because of the ionic repulsion of the protonated amino groups in the PL molecules. The rate of enzymatic degradation of the respective PL hydrogels by a neutral protease was much faster than the rate of simple hydrolytic degradation. [source]

Protease,proteoglycan complexes of mouse and human mast cells and importance of their ,-tryptase,heparin complexes in inflammation and innate immunity

Richard L. Stevens
Summary:, Approximately 50% of the weight of a mature mast cell (MC) consists of varied neutral proteases stored in the cell's secretory granules ionically bound to serglycin proteoglycans that contain heparin and/or chondroitin sulfate E/diB chains. Mouse MCs express the exopeptidase carboxypeptidase A3 and at least 15 serine proteases [designated as mouse MC protease (mMCP) 1,11, transmembrane tryptase/tryptase ,/protease serine member S (Prss) 31, cathepsin G, granzyme B, and neuropsin/Prss19]. mMCP-6, mMCP-7, mMCP-11/Prss34, and Prss31 are the four members of the chromosome 17A3.3 family of tryptases that are preferentially expressed in MCs. One of the challenges ahead is to understand why MCs express so many different protease,proteoglycan macromolecular complexes. MC-like cells that contain tryptase,heparin complexes in their secretory granules have been identified in the Ciona intestinalis and Styela plicata urochordates that appeared approximately 500 million years ago. Because sea squirts lack B cells and T cells, it is likely that MCs and their tryptase,proteoglycan granule mediators initially appeared in lower organisms as part of their innate immune system. The conservation of MCs throughout evolution suggests that some of these protease,proteoglycan complexes are essential to our survival. In support of this conclusion, no human has been identified that lacks MCs. Moreover, transgenic mice lacking the ,-tryptase mMCP-6 are unable to combat a Klebsiella pneumoniae infection effectively. Here we summarize the nature and function of some of the tryptase,serglycin proteoglycan complexes found in mouse and human MCs. [source]