Neutral Molecules (neutral + molecule)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry


Selected Abstracts


Influence of soil pH on the sorption of ionizable chemicals: Modeling advances

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2009
Antonio Franco
Abstract The soil,water distribution coefficient of ionizable chemicals (Kd) depends on the soil acidity, mainly because the pH governs speciation. Using pH-specific Kd values normalized to organic carbon (KOC) from the literature, a method was developed to estimate the KOC of monovalent organic acids and bases. The regression considers pH-dependent speciation and species-specific partition coefficients, calculated from the dissociation constant (pKa) and the octanol,water partition coefficient of the neutral molecule (log Pn). Probably because of the lower pH near the organic colloid,water interface, the optimal pH to model dissociation was lower than the bulk soil pH. The knowledge of the soil pH allows calculation of the fractions of neutral and ionic molecules in the system, thus improving the existing regression for acids. The same approach was not successful with bases, for which the impact of pH on the total sorption is contrasting. In fact, the shortcomings of the model assumptions affect the predictive power for acids and for bases differently. We evaluated accuracy and limitations of the regressions for their use in the environmental fate assessment of ionizable chemicals. [source]


Estimation of the soil,water partition coefficient normalized to organic carbon for ionizable organic chemicals,

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 10 2008
Antonio Franco
Abstract The sorption of organic electrolytes to soil was investigated. A dataset consisting of 164 electrolytes, composed of 93 acids, 65 bases, and six amphoters, was collected from literature and databases. The partition coefficient log KOW of the neutral molecule and the dissociation constant pKa were calculated by the software ACD/Labs®. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation was applied to calculate dissociation. Regressions were developed to predict separately for the neutral and the ionic molecule species the distribution coefficient (Kd) normalized to organic carbon (KOC) from log KOW and pKa. The log KOC of strong acids (pKa < 4) was not correlated to these parameters. The regressions derived for weak acids and bases (undissociated at environmental pH) were similar. The highest sorption was found for strong bases (pKa > 7.5), probably due to electrical interactions. Nonetheless, their log KOC was highly correlated to log KOW. For bases, a nonlinear regression was developed, too. The new regression equations are applicable in the whole pKa range of acids, bases, and amphoters and are useful in particular for relatively strong bases and amphoters, for which no predictive methods specifically have been developed so far. [source]


Theoretical study of hydrogen-bonded complexes of benzene with hydrides of astrochemical interest

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF QUANTUM CHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2008
M. Nait Achour
Abstract Post Hartree,Fock and DFT calculations have been performed for studying the possibility for a benzene support to be linked to various hydrides through a quasi Bz···HA bond. Interaction energy of compounds, including CH bonds (CH4, CH3F, CH2O, CHN, CHNO), NH bonds (NH3, NH2F, NHC, NHCO, NH3O), and OH bonds (OH2, OHF, NCOH), were evaluated, taking basis set superposition error (BSSE) and zero point vibrational energy (ZPVE) corrections into account. Numerical convergence of results with respect to the ingredients included at different steps of theory (basis set, DFT functionals, correlation treatments, geometry optimization) was tested mainly on the example of the water adduct and, for comparison, the Bz···H3O+ system containing a cation instead of a neutral molecule. A rather large range of adsorption energies is obtained, from about 1 kcal/mol for methane to more than 6 kcal/mol for cyanic acid, according to the acidic character of the adsorbed species in each family of Bz···HA bonds. Some consequences for astrophysical problems involving PAHs in the interstellar medium are pointed out. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2008 [source]


Highly Conjugated p -Quinonoid ,-Extended Tetrathiafulvalene Derivatives: A Class of Highly Distorted Electron Donors

CHEMISTRY - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, Issue 8 2004
Marta C. Díaz
Abstract A new class of ,-extended TTF-type electron donors (11,a,c) has been synthesized by Wittig,Horner olefination of bianthrone (9) with 1,3-dithiole phosphonate esters (10,a,c). In cyclic voltammetry experiments, donors 11,a,c reveal a single, electrochemically irreversible oxidation,yielding the corresponding dicationic products,at relatively low oxidation potentials (,0.7,0.8 V). Theoretical calculations, performed at the DFT level (B3,P86/6-31,G*), predict a highly-folded C2h structure for 11,a. In the ground state, the molecule adopts a double saddle-like conformation to compensate the steric hindrance. The calculations suggest that the intramolecular charge transfer associated with the HOMO,LUMO transition is responsible for an absorption band observed above 400 nm. While the radical cation 11,a.+ retains the folded C2h structure predicted for the neutral molecule as the most stable conformation, the dication 11,a2+ has a fully aromatic D2 structure, formed by an orthogonal 9,9,-bianthryl central unit to which two singly-charged dithiole rings are attached. The drastic conformational changes that compounds 11 undergo upon oxidation account for their electrochemical properties. By means of pulse radiolysis measurements, radical-induced one-electron oxidation of 11,a,c was shown to lead to the radical cation species (11,a,c.+), which were found to disproportionate with generation of the respective dication species (11,a,c2+) and the neutral molecules (11,a,c). Una nueva familia de moléculas dadoras de electrones de tipo TTF , -extendido, altamente conjugadas, (11,a,c) se han sintetizado mediante la reacción de olefinación de Wittig,Horner de la biantrona (9) con fosfonatos de 1,3-ditiol (10,a,c). En los experimentos de voltamperometría cíclica, los dadores 11,a,c muestran una única onda de oxidación electroquímicamente irreversible,dando lugar a los productos dicatiónicos,a potenciales relativamente bajos (,0.7,0.8 V). Cálculos teóricos, llevados a cabo a nivel DFT (B3,P86/6-31,G*), predicen una estructuraC2haltamente distorsionada para 11,a. La molécula adopta una conformación en forma de doble mariposa para aliviar el impedimento estérico. Los cálculos sugieren que la transferencia de carga intramolecular asociada a la transición HOMO,LUMO es responsable de la banda de absorción observada por encima de 400 nm en el espectro electrónico. El catión radical 11,a.+retiene la estructura C2hplegada predicha para la molécula neutra como la conformación más estable. Por el contrario, el dicatión 11,a2+muestra una estructuraD2totalmente aromática,formada por una unidad central de 9,9,-biantrilo ortogonal, unida a los anillos cargados de ditiol. Los profundos cambios conformacionales que experimentan los compuestos 11 tras la oxidación explican sus propiedades electroquímicas. Medidas de radiólisis de pulso, esto es, la oxidación monoelectrónica de 11,a,c inducida por radicales, conduce a las especies catión radical (11,a,c.+), las cuales dismutan para generar las respectivas especies dicatiónicas (11,a,c2+) y la molécula neutra (11,a,c). [source]


Fragmentation Mechanism of Trans -,-Aryl-,-enamino Esters

CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, Issue 8 2002
Nan Jiang
Abstract Electron impact-induced fragmentation mechanisms of trans-, -aryl- , -enamino esters were investigated using mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy (MIKE) spectrometry and high resolution accurate mass data. It was found that the main characteristic fragmentations of compounds studied were: an odd electron ion M+ - EtOH was formed by losing a neutral molecule of ethanol; and the skeletal rearrangements took place; and the ring opening reaction happened after losing a carbon monoxide; and the typical McLafferty rearrangement underwent in ester group. The cyclization reaction caused by losing neutral molecule of TsNH2 due to the ortho -effects of substituted group of aromatic ring was also observed. [source]


Theoretical studies on the electronic and optical properties of two new alternating fluorene/carbazole copolymers

JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, Issue 10 2005
Li Yang
Abstract Poly(fluorene)-type materials are widely used in polymer-based emitting devices. During operation there appears, however, an additional emission peak at around 2.3 eV, leading to both a color instability and reduced efficiency. The incorporation of the carbazole units has been proven to efficiently suppress the keto defect emission. In this contribution, we apply quantum-chemical techniques to investigate two series of alternating fluorene/carbazole oligomers and copolymers poly[2,7-(N-(2-methyl)-carbazole)- co - alt -2,7-m(9,9-dimethylfluorene)], namely, PFmCz (m = 1,2) and gain a detailed understanding of the influence of carbazole units on the electronic and optical properties of fluorene derivatives. The electronic properties of the neutral molecules, HOMO-LUMO gaps (,H-L), in addition to the positive and negative ions, are studied using B3LYP functional. The lowest excitation energies (Egs) and the maximal absorption wavelength ,abs of PFmCz (m = 1,2) are studied, employing the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The properties of the two copolymers, such as ,H-L, Eg, IPs, and EAs were obtained by extrapolating those of the oligomers to the inverse chain length equal to zero (1/n = 0). The outcomes showed that the carbazole unit is a good electron-donating moiety for electronic materials, and the incorporation of carbazole into the polyfluorene (PF) backbone resulted in a broadened energy gap and a blue shift of both the absorption and photoluminescence emission peaks. Most importantly, the HOMO energies of PF1Cz and PF2Cz are both a higher average (0.4 eV) than polyfluorene (PF), which directly results in the decreasing of IPs of about 0.2 eV more than PF, indicating that the carbazole units have significantly improved the hole injection properties of the copolymers. In addition, the energy gap tends to broaden and the absorption and emission peaks are gradually blue-shifted to shorter wavelengths with an increase in the carbazole content in the copolymers. This is due to the interruption of the longer conjugation length of the backbone in the (F1Cz)n series. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 26: 969,979, 2005 [source]


Unusual loss of neutral molecules on mass spectrometric decomposition of protonated and cationized phenoxy- and phenylaminocyclophosphazenes

JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY (INCORP BIOLOGICAL MASS SPECTROMETRY), Issue 5 2003

[source]


Intramolecular structural relaxation in excited hetarylazole cations

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2005
Valery V. Volchkov
Abstract Neutral quinolyl-and pyridyl-substituted hetarylazoles and their protonated (ethylated) cations with anomalously high Stokes shifts were investigated. Fluorescence measurements at different temperatures and pressures confirmed the viscosity-dependent activation relaxation of the latter. Fluorescence kinetic analyses at various temperatures showed that in the range 293,77,K, the k,f values of cations increase 2,8-fold whereas those of neutral molecules change only 0.3,1.5-fold. The low-temperature time-resolved emission spectra of 1a, 1H+ and 5a were found to be consistent with the model: A,A*,B*, where A* is the local excited planar and B* is the relaxed twisted state of the molecule. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


N,N -Diethyl- N,-[(E)-4-pyridylmethylene]benzene-1,4-diamine: a combined X-ray and density functional theory study

ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION C, Issue 8 2009
Rüdiger W. Seidel
The crystal structure of the title compound, C16H19N3, comprises neutral molecules of a dipolar Schiff base chromophore. A density functional theory (DFT) optimized structure at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level is compared with the molecular structure in the solid state. The compound crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric space group Pna21 with a herring-bone packing motif and is therefore a potential candidate for nonlinear optical effects in the bulk. [source]


Three Polymorphic Forms of the Co-Crystal 4,4,-Bipyridine/Pimelic Acid and their Structural, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization

CHEMISTRY - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, Issue 32 2008
Dario Braga Prof.
Abstract Three crystal forms of the co-crystal 4,4,-bipy/pimelic acid (bipy: bipyridine), [NH4C5 -C5H4N],[HOOC(CH2)5COOH], have been prepared and their relationship investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, variable-temperature X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Both X-ray and NMR spectroscopic results indicate that no proton transfer takes place, that is, the three crystal forms are true co-crystals of neutral molecules. Forms,I and II both convert into Form,III at high temperature, Forms,II and III being the thermodynamically stable forms at room and high temperature, respectively. [source]


Highly Conjugated p -Quinonoid ,-Extended Tetrathiafulvalene Derivatives: A Class of Highly Distorted Electron Donors

CHEMISTRY - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, Issue 8 2004
Marta C. Díaz
Abstract A new class of ,-extended TTF-type electron donors (11,a,c) has been synthesized by Wittig,Horner olefination of bianthrone (9) with 1,3-dithiole phosphonate esters (10,a,c). In cyclic voltammetry experiments, donors 11,a,c reveal a single, electrochemically irreversible oxidation,yielding the corresponding dicationic products,at relatively low oxidation potentials (,0.7,0.8 V). Theoretical calculations, performed at the DFT level (B3,P86/6-31,G*), predict a highly-folded C2h structure for 11,a. In the ground state, the molecule adopts a double saddle-like conformation to compensate the steric hindrance. The calculations suggest that the intramolecular charge transfer associated with the HOMO,LUMO transition is responsible for an absorption band observed above 400 nm. While the radical cation 11,a.+ retains the folded C2h structure predicted for the neutral molecule as the most stable conformation, the dication 11,a2+ has a fully aromatic D2 structure, formed by an orthogonal 9,9,-bianthryl central unit to which two singly-charged dithiole rings are attached. The drastic conformational changes that compounds 11 undergo upon oxidation account for their electrochemical properties. By means of pulse radiolysis measurements, radical-induced one-electron oxidation of 11,a,c was shown to lead to the radical cation species (11,a,c.+), which were found to disproportionate with generation of the respective dication species (11,a,c2+) and the neutral molecules (11,a,c). Una nueva familia de moléculas dadoras de electrones de tipo TTF , -extendido, altamente conjugadas, (11,a,c) se han sintetizado mediante la reacción de olefinación de Wittig,Horner de la biantrona (9) con fosfonatos de 1,3-ditiol (10,a,c). En los experimentos de voltamperometría cíclica, los dadores 11,a,c muestran una única onda de oxidación electroquímicamente irreversible,dando lugar a los productos dicatiónicos,a potenciales relativamente bajos (,0.7,0.8 V). Cálculos teóricos, llevados a cabo a nivel DFT (B3,P86/6-31,G*), predicen una estructuraC2haltamente distorsionada para 11,a. La molécula adopta una conformación en forma de doble mariposa para aliviar el impedimento estérico. Los cálculos sugieren que la transferencia de carga intramolecular asociada a la transición HOMO,LUMO es responsable de la banda de absorción observada por encima de 400 nm en el espectro electrónico. El catión radical 11,a.+retiene la estructura C2hplegada predicha para la molécula neutra como la conformación más estable. Por el contrario, el dicatión 11,a2+muestra una estructuraD2totalmente aromática,formada por una unidad central de 9,9,-biantrilo ortogonal, unida a los anillos cargados de ditiol. Los profundos cambios conformacionales que experimentan los compuestos 11 tras la oxidación explican sus propiedades electroquímicas. Medidas de radiólisis de pulso, esto es, la oxidación monoelectrónica de 11,a,c inducida por radicales, conduce a las especies catión radical (11,a,c.+), las cuales dismutan para generar las respectivas especies dicatiónicas (11,a,c2+) y la molécula neutra (11,a,c). [source]


Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Evaluation of Salt Effects on Electron-Transfer Equilibria between Donor/Acceptor and Ion-Radical Pairs in Organic Solvents

CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 16 2008
Sergiy V. Rosokha Dr.
Abstract Addition of "inert" tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (Bu4NPF6) to a solution of TMDO/DDQ in dichloromethane (where TMDO=2,2,6,6-tetramethylbenzo[1,2-d;4,5-d]bis[1,3]-dioxole, donor, and DDQ=diclorodicyano-p-benzoquinone, acceptor) is accompanied by drastic changes in the electronic spectrum, which are related to the appearance of the DDQ,. and TMDO+. ion radicals and a decrease in the concentration of the neutral molecules and the charge-transfer complex [TMDO,DDQ]. These changes point to a considerable rise (of about three orders of magnitude) in the apparent electron-transfer equilibrium constant (KET) for this donor/acceptor pair upon increasing the electrolyte concentration from 0 to 0.5,M. Accordingly, the ion-radical fractions and KET values are higher in dichloromethane, at high electrolyte concentrations, than in acetonitrile (where the effect of Bu4NPF6 is less pronounced). Similar trends of the apparent equilibrium constants are observed for the tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine/tetracyanoethylene pair. Electron-transfer equilibrium constants for both donor/acceptor dyads obtained from spectral measurements are related to those derived from the redox potentials of the reactants. The effects of media variations on the electron-transfer equilibria are discussed within the ion-pairing and ionic-activity frameworks. [source]


Studies on the Novel Calix [4] pyrrole and Its High Selectivity for p -Nitrophenol

CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, Issue 7 2001
Xun-Cheng Su
Abstract Synthesis of novel neutral molecule receptor calix [4] pyrrole (2) from pyrrole and tropinone has been described and its ability of binding neutral molecules was tested. Spectroscopic titrations indicate that receptor 2 shows the highest selectivity for p -nitrophenol among m,o,p -nitrophenols due to the coincidence between the host's binding sites and the guest's geometry. [source]


Chiral recognition mechanisms with macrocyclic glycopeptide selectors,

CHIRALITY, Issue 1 2009
Alain Berthod
Abstract Macrocyclic glycopeptide selectors are naturally occurring antibiotics produced by microorganisms. They were found to be excellent chiral selectors for a wide range of enantiomers, including amino acids. Four selectors are commercialized as chiral stationary phases (CSP) for chromatography. They are ristocetin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, and the teicoplanin aglycone (TAG). The key docking interaction for amino acid recognition was established to be a charge,charge interaction between the anionic carboxylate group of the amino acid and a cationic amine group of the macrocyclic peptidic selector basket. The carbohydrate units are responsible for secondary interactions. However, they hinder somewhat the charge,charge docking interaction. The TAG selector is more effective for amino acid enantioseparations than the other CSPs. The "sugar" units are however useful allowing for chiral recognitions of other analytes, e.g., ,-blockers, not possible with the aglycone. Thermodynamic studies established that normal phase and reversed phase enantioseparations were enthalpy-driven. With polar waterless mobile phases used in the polar ionic mode, some separations were enthalpy-driven and others were entropy-driven. The linear solvation energy method was tentatively used to gain knowledge about the chiral recognition mechanism. It appeared to be a viable approach with neutral molecules but it failed with ionizable solutes. With molecular solutes and the teicoplanin CSP, the study showed a significant role of the surface charge-induced dipole interaction and steric effects. The remarkable complementary enantioselectivity effect observed with the four CSPs is discussed. Chirality, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]