Neutral Images (neutral + image)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Descriptive information about Down syndrome: a content analysis of serum screening leaflets

Louise D. Bryant
Abstract It is recommended practice that prior to prenatal screening, women receive information about the condition(s) being tested for. The present study critically evaluated information about Down syndrome as contained in 80 leaflets provided to pregnant women in the UK prior to serum screening. First, a content analysis by information type was conducted to give an overall picture of the material provided. Second, the image of the condition as conveyed by the content was analysed and compared with a similar study of cystic fibrosis (CF) screening leaflets. The majority of information (89%) was of a medico-clinical nature, with 11% addressing other issues associated with Down syndrome. The median number of sentences describing the condition was one, with 33% of the leaflets containing no descriptive information. Overall, a negative image of Down syndrome was conveyed by the leaflets, which contrasted with a more neutral image of CF in the comparison study. In order to facilitate informed choices, more attention should be paid to providing women with information about Down syndrome prior to serum screening. Such information needs to be more balanced in its construction, with thought given to the needs of the reader, and to the tone and the content of the message conveyed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The effect of image complexity on attentional bias towards alcohol-related images in adult drinkers

ADDICTION, Issue 5 2010
Melissa A. Miller
ABSTRACT Aim Visual probe tasks are often used to measure attentional bias (AB) towards alcohol-related images in drinkers, but little is known about the effect of the properties of the images used in this task: specifically, image complexity. Methods AB was examined in a group of adult drinkers (n = 25). Two measures of attentional bias were obtained from a modified visual probe task. First, a traditional dot probe detection task measured attentional bias in drinkers based on their reaction times to probes replacing neutral and alcohol-related images. Secondly, an eye-tracking measure was applied to this task to directly assess the drinkers' eye gazes to the alcohol-related and neutral images. The effect of image complexity was examined by comparing AB towards images classified as simple and complex. Findings Results showed that drinkers displayed AB only towards simple alcohol-related images as measured by both probe RT and fixation times. Conclusion These findings suggest that complex alcohol-related images might be less effective at capturing drinkers' attention and could result in less attentional bias when used in visual probe tasks. [source]

The effects of acute exercise on attentional bias towards smoking-related stimuli during temporary abstinence from smoking

ADDICTION, Issue 11 2009
Kate Janse Van Rensburg
ABSTRACT Rationale Attentional bias towards smoking-related cues is increased during abstinence and can predict relapse after quitting. Exercise has been found to reduce cigarette cravings and desire to smoke during temporary abstinence and attenuate increased cravings in response to smoking cues. Objective To assess the acute effects of exercise on attentional bias to smoking-related cues during temporary abstinence from smoking. Method In a randomized cross-over design, on separate days regular smokers (n = 20) undertook 15 minutes of exercise (moderate intensity stationary cycling) or passive seating following 15 hours of nicotine abstinence. Attentional bias was measured at baseline and post-treatment. The percentage of dwell time and direction of initial fixation was assessed during the passive viewing of a series of paired smoking and neutral images using an Eyelink II eye-tracking system. Self-reported desire to smoke was recorded at baseline, mid- and post-treatment and post-eye-tracking task. Results There was a significant condition time interaction for desire to smoke, F(1,18) = 10.67, P = 0.004, eta2 = 0.36, with significantly lower desire to smoke at mid- and post-treatment following the exercise condition. The percentage of dwell time and direction of initial fixations towards smoking images were also reduced significantly following the exercise condition compared with the passive control. Conclusion Findings support previous research that acute exercise reduces desire to smoke. This is the first study to show that exercise appears to also influence the salience and attentional biases towards cigarettes. [source]

Reactivity to images in health and irritable bowel syndrome

Summary Background, We have been using a medical artist to record and paint the images patients have of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and have hypothesized that the reaction to such images might differ in health and IBS, which could have practical implications for future research. Aim, To examine reactivity to images in health and IBS. Methods, Twelve paintings of IBS were shown to 70 patients to determine the four most evocative images. The spontaneous response to these images and four ,non-IBS painful' and four neutral paintings was assessed in another 100 IBS patients and 100 controls. The prompted reaction in terms of whether an image evoked the notion of pain, bloating or discomfort and to what degree was also recorded. Results, Four images depicting bloating and pain scored the highest. These IBS images triggered significantly different reactivity between patients and controls in terms of their spontaneous and prompted responses. Even ,non-IBS painful' and neutral images resulted in exaggerated and frequently significantly different responses in patients than in controls. Conclusions, Visual hypersensitivity appears to be another manifestation of the tendency of IBS patients to react adversely to a variety of endogenous and exogenous stimuli. Identifying how individuals relate to different images might also give useful insights into understanding gastrointestinal symptoms. [source]

The selective processing of briefly presented affective pictures: An ERP analysis

Harald T. Schupp
Abstract Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies revealed the selective processing of affective pictures. The present study explored whether the same phenomenon can be observed when pictures are presented only briefly. Toward this end, pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures from the International Affective Pictures Series were presented for 120 ms while event related potentials were measured by dense sensor arrays. As observed for longer picture presentations, brief affective pictures were selectively processed. Specifically, pleasant and unpleasant pictures were associated with an early endogenous negative shift over temporo-occipital sensors compared to neutral images. In addition, affective pictures elicited enlarged late positive potentials over centro-parietal sensor sites relative to neutral images. These data suggest that a quick glimpse of emotionally relevant stimuli appears sufficient to tune the brain for selective perceptual processing. [source]