Neurological Practice (neurological + practice)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Are CD MRIs Compatible with Good Neurological Practice?

Mark J. Kupersmith MD

Opportunities afforded by the study of unmyelinated nerves in skin and other organs

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 6 2004
William R. Kennedy MS
Abstract Neurological practice is mainly focused on signs and symptoms of disorders that involve functions governed by myelinated nerves. Functions controlled by unmyelinated nerve fibers have necessarily remained in the background because of the inability to consistently stain, image, or construct clinically applicable neurophysiological tests of these nerves. The situation has changed with the introduction of immunohistochemical methods and confocal microscopy into clinical medicine, as these provide clear images of thin unmyelinated nerves in most organs. One obvious sign of change is the increasing number of reports from several laboratories of the pathological alterations of cutaneous nerves in skin biopsies from patients with a variety of clinical conditions. This study reviews recent methods to stain and image unmyelinated nerves as well as the use of these methods for diagnosing peripheral neuropathy, for experimental studies of denervation and reinnervation in human subjects, and for demonstrating the vast array of unmyelinated nerves in internal organs. The new ability to examine the great variety of nerves in different organs opens opportunities and creates challenges and responsibilities for neurologists and neuroscientists. Muscle Nerve 756,767, 2004 [source]

Assessment of idiopathic normal pressure patients in neurological practice: the role of lumbar infusion testing for referral of patients to neurosurgery

A. Brean
Background and purpose:, In neurological practice patients with tentative idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) usually are referred to neurosurgery based on clinical and radiological findings. Hydrodynamic assessment using lumbar infusion testing might be helpful in selecting patients. To retrospectively analyse lumbar infusion tests done in neurological practice in iNPH patients to see how infusion test results relate to the clinical course and shunt response. Materials and methods:, Sixty-three consecutive patients with Possible/Probable iNPH were tested during a 1-year period. The pre-operative lumbar infusion tests were assessed according to two strategies: (i) Determining the resistance to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow (Rout). (ii) Quantification of the CSF pressure (CSFP) pulsatility during lumbar infusion (Qpulse). The results were related to the prospectively followed clinical course and shunt response after 12 months. Results:, The lumbar infusion-derived parameters Rout and Qpulse related weakly. Shunt response after 12 months was not related to Rout, but was highly related to the Qpulse. False negative results of lumbar infusion testing were observed in 16% of the patients. Discussion:, In neurological practice lumbar infusion testing may be useful for determining which patients to refer to neurosurgery. Our data favour determination of CSFP pulsatility (Qpulse) rather than Rout for prediction of shunt response. [source]

EFNS guideline on the diagnosis and management of alcohol-related seizures: report of an EFNS task force

G. Bråthen
Despite being a considerable problem in neurological practice and responsible for one-third of seizure-related admissions, there is little consensus as to the optimal investigation and management of alcohol-related seizures. The final literature search was undertaken in September 2004. Consensus recommendations are given graded according to the EFNS guidance regulations. To support the history taking, use of a structured questionnaire is recommended. When the drinking history is inconclusive, elevated values of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and/or gammaglutamyl transferase can support a clinical suspicion. A first epileptic seizure should prompt neuroimaging (CT or MRI). Before starting any carbohydrate containing fluids or food, patients presenting with suspected alcohol overuse should be given prophylactic thiamine parenterally. After an alcohol withdrawal seizure (AWS), the patient should be observed in hospital for at least 24 h and the severity of withdrawal symptoms needs to be followed. For patients with no history of withdrawal seizures and mild to moderate withdrawal symptoms, routine seizure preventive treatment is not necessary. Generally, benzodiazepines are efficacious and safe for primary and secondary seizure prevention; diazepam or, if available, lorazepam, is recommended. The efficacy of other drugs is insufficiently documented. Concerning long-term recommendations for non-alcohol dependant patients with partial epilepsy and controlled seizures, small amounts of alcohol may be safe. Alcohol-related seizures require particular attention both in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. Benzodiazepines should be chosen for the treatment and prevention of recurrent AWS. [source]

Occupational therapists and the use of constraint-induced movement therapy in neurological practice

Johanne Walker
No abstract is available for this article. [source]