Neurological Improvement (neurological + improvement)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Thrombotic occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) in acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (TPA)

V. K. Sharma
Although common carotid artery (CCA) occlusions are rare, acute clinical presentations vary from mild to devastating strokes primarily due to tandem occlusions in the intracranial arteries. Three patients with acute CCA occlusions were treated with systemic tissue plasminogen activator (TPA). Blood pressures were kept at the upper limits allowed with TPA therapy with fluid balance and the ,head-down' position. Recanalization occurred in intracranial vessels only. Marked early neurological improvement occurred in two of three patients. CCA occlusions should not be considered contra-indication to systemic thrombolysis. [source]

The association of post-stroke neurological improvement with risk of subsequent deterioration due to stroke events

S. Aslanyan
We sought to simultaneously confirm that substantial recovery at day 1 and day 7 after acute ischaemic stroke onset is associated with subsequent neurological deterioration in patients of the Acute Stroke Therapy by Inhibition of Neutrophils randomized clinical trial. Substantial recovery was assessed by improvement in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS). Neurological deterioration was defined as any stroke event or NIHSS worsening from recovery assessment to day 90. After adjusting for age, t-PA and day 1 NIHSS, there was a non-significant tendency of substantial (pre-specified as 75%) recovery at day 1 to be associated with later deterioration [odds ratio (OR) 2.47; 95% CI, 0.95,6.50]. The corresponding OR for substantial (pre-defined as 65%) recovery at day 7 was 1.84 (0.85,3.96). Other thresholds for recovery were significantly associated with later deterioration: >50%, 80%, 90% and 100% for day 1 and >50%, 60%, 70%, 90% and 100% for day 7. The effect of recovery at day 1 was more important than that of later recovery. This study confirms the association between recovery and subsequent neurological deterioration and is the first to indicate the greater importance of acute recovery at day 1 in comparison with later recovery. [source]

Intra-Arterial Milrinone for Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome

HEADACHE, Issue 1 2009
Manon Bouchard MD
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) usually presents with recurrent thunderclap headaches and is characterized by multifocal and reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries that can sometimes evolve to severe cerebral ischemia and stroke. We describe the case of a patient who presented with a clinically typical RCVS and developed focal neurological symptoms and signs despite oral treatment with calcium channel blockers. Within hours of neurological deterioration, she was treated with intra-arterial milrinone, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which resulted in a rapid and sustained neurological improvement. [source]

Postprocedure Intravenous Eptifibatide Following Intra-Arterial Reteplase in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

Adnan I. Qureshi MD
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Early use of intravenous platelet glycoprotein IIB/IIIA antagonists after intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis may reduce the risk of reocclusion and microvascular compromise. METHODS We performed a retrospective study to determine the in-hospital outcomes using serial neurological evaluations and imaging among patients treated with intravenous eptifibatide administered as a 135 microg/kg single-dose bolus, followed by 0.5 microg/kg/min infusions for 20 to 24 hours following treatment with IA reteplase. RESULTS Twenty patients were treated (mean age standard deviation, 68.4 14.5 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score was 17). The dose of reteplase ranged from 0.5 to 4 units. Eleven patients demonstrated early neurological improvement, defined as a decline of ,4 points on the 24 hours NIHSS score compared with initial NIHSS score; neurological deterioration, defined as an increase of ,4 points on the 24 hours NIHSS score as compared with initial NIHSS score, was observed in one patient. Two asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages were observed while no symptomatic hemorrhages were observed on serial computed tomographic scans. CONCLUSIONS The use of intravenous eptifibatide within 24 hours in selected patients after IA thrombolysis is feasible and safe. Further studies are required to determine the benefit of early use of intravenous eptifibatide following thrombolysis. [source]

Hemispheric brain volume replacement with free latissimus dorsi flap as first step in skull reconstruction

MICROSURGERY, Issue 4 2005
Anton H. Schwabegger M.D.
Large skull defects lead to progressive depression deformities, with resulting neurological deficits. Thus, cranioplasty with various materials is considered the first choice in therapy to restore cerebral function. A 31-year-old female presented with a massive left-sided hemispheric substance defect involving bone and brain tissue. Computed tomography showed a substantial convex defect involving the absence of calvarial bone as well as more than half of the left hemisphere of the brain, with a profound midline shift and a compression of the ventricular system. There was a severe problem due to multiple deep-skin ulcerations at the depression margin, prone to skin perforation with a probability of intracranial infection. In a first step, a free myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap was transplanted for volume replacement of the hemispheric brain defect, and 4 months later, artificial bone substitute was implanted in order to prevent progressive vault depression deformity. Healing was uneventful, and the patient showed definite neurological improvement postoperatively. Free tissue transfer can be a valuable option in addition to cranioplasty in the treatment of large bony defects of the skull. Besides providing stable coverage for the reconstructed bone or its substitute, it can also serve as a volume replacement. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery 25:325,328, 2005. [source]

Acute hyperglycemia produces transient improvement in glucose transporter type 1 deficiency

Cigdem I. Akman MD
Objective Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1-DS) is characterized clinically by acquired microcephaly, infantile-onset seizures, psychomotor retardation, choreoathetosis, dystonia, and ataxia. The laboratory signature is hypoglycorrhachia. The 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to assess cerebral function and systemic carbohydrate homeostasis during acute hyperglycemia, in the knowledge that GLUT1 is constitutively expressed ubiquitously and upregulated in the brain. Methods Thirteen Glut1-DS patients completed a 5-hour OGTT. Six patients had prolonged electroencephalographic (EEG)/video monitoring, 10 patients had plasma glucose and serum insulin measurements, and 5 patients had repeated measures of attention, memory, fine motor coordination, and well-being. All patients had a full neuropsychological battery prior to OGTT. Results The glycemic profile and insulin response during the OGTT were normal. Following the glucose load, transient improvement of clinical seizures and EEG findings were observed, with the most significant improvement beginning within the first 30 minutes and continuing for 180 minutes. Thereafter, clinical seizures returned, and EEG findings worsened. Additionally, transient improvement in attention, fine motor coordination, and reported well-being were observed without any change in memory performance. Interpretation This study documents transient neurological improvement in Glut1-DS patients following acute hyperglycemia, associated with improved fine motor coordination and attention. Also, systemic carbohydrate homeostasis was normal, despite GLUT1 haploinsufficiency, confirming the specific role of GLUT1 as the transporter of metabolic fuel across the blood-brain barrier. The transient improvement in brain function underscores the rate-limiting role of glucose transport and the critical minute-to-minute dependence of cerebral function on fuel availability for energy metabolism. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:31,40 [source]

Correlation of neurological manifestations and MR images in a patient with Wilson's disease after liver transplantation

J-C. Wu
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has been applied to patients with Wilson's disease (WD) for correction of irreversible liver cirrhosis. However, the neurological outcome and the correlation between clinical manifestations and neuroimage findings after OLT remain uncertain. We present a WD patient who showed an improvement in both liver functions and neurological manifestations after OLT. Serum levels of ceruloplasmin and copper returned to normal rapidly after the operation. His ataxic gait was improved 5 months later and dysmetria and tremor disappeared 11 months later. The high signal intensities on T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance images regressed at bilateral thalami 5 months later and disappeared in bilateral thalami and red nuclei 16 months after OLT. We conclude that the neurological improvement could be expected in WD patients after OLT. The improvement was correlated with the MRI changes in red nuclei and bilateral thalami. [source]