Neurological Illness (neurological + illness)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Childhood encephalopathy: viruses, immune response, and outcome

Michael Clarke BSc MB ChB FRCPCH
This study examined children with an acute encephalopathy illness for evidence of viral infection, disordered blood-brain barrier function, intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis, and interferon (IFN) production, and related their temporal occurrence to outcome. A prospective study of 22 children (13 males, 9 females; age range 1mo to 13y, median 2y 4mo), recorded clinical details, with serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis near presentation and then on convalescent specimens taken up to day 39 of the neurological illness. Outcome was assessed with standard scales between 18 months and 3 years after presentation. A history consistent with viral infection was given in 17 children but laboratory evidence of viral infection was found in only 7 (7/17). In 18 out of 21 children, an elevated CSF: serum albumin ratio indicative of impairment of the blood,CSF and blood,brain barriers was detected at some stage of the illness. In 14 of the 15 children with a raised immunoglobulin G index, and in 12 of the 14 children where the CSF was positive for oligoclonal bands, this was preceded by, or was observed at the same time as, an abnormal albumin ratio. Sixteen children (16/18) had elevated IFN-, levels in serum, or CSF, or in both. We conclude that these findings indicate an initial disruption of the blood-brain barrier followed by intrathecal antibody production by activated lymphocytes, clonally restricted to a few antigens. This is the first in vivo study to show this as an important pathogenetic mechanism of encephalitis in children. Poor outcome was associated with young age, a deteriorating electroencephalogram pattern from grade 1 to grade 2, and the degree of blood-brain barrier impairment, particularly when prolonged, but not with Glasgow Coma Scale score. The persistence of IFN-, was associated with a good prognosis. [source]

CIDP associated with lung cancer: a paraneoplastic disease?

R Fazio
We describe a 65-year-old smoker male followed for five years for a pure motor demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. The patient had a monthly motor relapse with severe weakness restricting him to a wheelchair, so he needed monthly high dose IVIg. On EMG the MCV were very slowed (30 m/sec) without evidence of conduction blocks while SCV were in the normal range. CSF disclosed a high protein level. Laboratory findings did not reveal any other abnormality except for the presence of monoclonal gammopathy IgMk and high titer anti GD1a serum IgM antibodies (1:5000). In March 2003 he had the most severe relapse with flaccid tetraplegia and respiratory failure so severe that he required ventilatory support. A total body CT scan revealed a nodular lung lesion with diffuse lymphangiitis. Biopsy disclosed a lung adenocarcinoma with a severe infiltration of CD8 cells. Surgical eradication of the tumor caused the last severe relapse. At the moment the patient is relapse-free and no more treatment was administered. The clinical course of the motor demyelinating relapsing neuropathy suggests a possible paraneoplastic pathogenesis of the neurological illness also supported by the severe inflammatory infiltration of the tumor. [source]

The movement disorder of Maurice Ravel

Francisco Cardoso MD
It has long been known that in the last years of his life Maurice Ravel (1875,1937) suffered from a progressive neurological illness. Despite several proposed diagnostic hypotheses, the precise nature of his illness remains elusive. 2004 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Lower urinary tract symptoms following neurological illness may be influenced by multiple factors: Observations from a neurorehabilitation service in a developing country,,

Jalesh N. Panicker
Abstract Aims To evaluate the pattern of lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) in patients with neurological disease in the setting of a rehabilitation service in a developing country, and analyze causes for unexpected lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods Patients with neurological disorders and having significant LUTS were prospectively evaluated. Level of neurological lesion was localized by neurological examination and investigations. LUTD was evaluated by symptom analysis, bladder diaries and ultrasonography. Storage symptoms were managed using antimuscarinic medications and voiding dysfunction, when significant, was managed by catheterization and patients were regularly followed up. Patients with symptoms that had not been expected based upon their level of neurological lesion were further evaluated. Results Fifty patients (mean age 43.5,,18.3 years) were included and according to neurological localization, were categorized into suprapontine (n,=,9; 18%), infrapontine/suprasacral (n,=,25; 50%) or infrasacral (n,=,16; 32%) groups. Incontinence was more common in patients with suprapontine and infrapontine/suprasacral lesions (n,=,20) (P,<,0.03), hesitancy more common with infrapontine/suprasacral lesions (n,=,20) (P,=,0.004) and retention more with infrasacral lesions (n,=,13) (P,<,0.001). Patients belonging to suprapontine and infrapontine/suprasacral groups more likely showed improvement at follow up (P,=,0.008). Fourteen patients (28%) had unexpected LUTS and this was due to urological causes (n,=,6) or multiaxial neurological involvement (n,=,8). Potentially treatable factors were managed, resulting in symptom relief. Conclusion LUTS in neurological disease may be at variance with the pattern expected based upon level of neurological lesion. Such patients may require further evaluation and consideration should be given to concomitant urological conditions and multiaxial neurological involvement. Neurourol. Urodynam. 29:378,381, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

EBV-Associated Leukoencephalopathy with Late Onset of Central Nervous System Lymphoma in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

A. Vaglio
Central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a rare posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), which usually has a poor outcome. To date, no specific conditions predisposing to this complication have been identified. We here describe the case of a renal transplant patient who was initially diagnosed as having Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated leukoencephalopathy and ultimately developed EBV-positive CNS lymphoma. The patient was a young lady who, 2 years after transplantation, presented with focal neurological and electroencephalographic abnormalities and diffuse white matter lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging. EBV-DNA was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction. After acyclovir therapy and immunosuppressive drug tapering, the symptoms and electroencephalographic abnormalities subsided, and EBV-DNA disappeared from the CSF. Ten years later, a bulky cerebral mass was found. After excision, a diagnosis of EBV-positive, Hodgkin-like monomorphic B-cell PTLD was made. This case illustrates the potential pathophysiological relationships between EBV infection, leukoencephalopathy and CNS lymphoma; although a long time elapsed from the initial neurological illness to CNS lymphoma, a link between these two conditions cannot be excluded. Therefore, a careful long-term follow-up of EBV-related encephalopathy is advisable. [source]

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of white matter in bipolar disorder: a pilot study

William T Regenold
Objective:, Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown increased sensitivity in detecting brain white matter disease compared to traditional T2-weighted MRI. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can quantitatively assess the microstructural integrity of white matter using the average apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCav), a measure of the extent to which water molecules move freely within tissue. On the basis of numerous studies suggesting white matter disease in bipolar patients, particularly patients with more severe illness, this study aimed to test the utility of DWI in assessing the white matter integrity of bipolar patients with severe illness. Methods:, The existing MRI scans of eight bipolar patients and eight age-matched controls with neurological illness were examined retrospectively. ADCav values for pixels within white matter regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated and used to plot ADCav frequency histograms for each ROI. Mean ADCav values for the two groups were then compared by ANCOVA. Results:, The bipolar mean ADCav (0.855 0.051 10,3 mm2/s) for combined white matter ROIs significantly exceeded that of controls (0.799 0.046 10,3 mm2/s), while covarying for age (F = 4.47, df = 3, p = 0.025). Conclusions:, This is the first report of an elevated ADCav in the white matter of a group of patients with bipolar disorder. In this group of patients with severe illness, increased white matter ADCav suggests microstructural changes consistent with decreased white matter integrity. DWI may be an additional, useful tool to assess white matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder. [source]