Neurological Events (neurological + event)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


New distal embolic protection device the FiberNet® 3 dimensional filter: First carotid human study

CATHETERIZATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Issue 7 2007
Michel Henry
Abstract Objective: Evaluate the performance and safety of the FiberNet® Embolic Protection System during carotid artery intervention. Background: Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting (CAS) can be proposed to treat the majority of carotid stenoses. Brain embolization takes place and routine use of Embolic Protection Devices (EPD) is warranted. Many EPDs have significant limitations, which may be addressed by a new EPD, the FiberNet® (Lumen Biomedical, Plymouth, MN). Methods: The system consists of a 3-dimensional expandable filter made of fibers, which expand radially, mounted onto a 0.014, wire and retrieval catheter. FiberNet can capture particles as small as 40 ,m without compromising flow. Results: 35 lesions treated in 34 patients. Male 67.6%. Age: 71.4 ± 8.8 (50,85). Average stenosis 84.5% ± 7.9 (70,99). 29.4% were symptomatic. Technical success: 34/35 (97%). No stroke or death within 30 days. Neurological events: two permanent amaurosis, one amaurosis fugax. All samples visually contained significant amounts of emboli. The mean surface area of debris caught was 63.8 mm2 (37.7,107.5). Comparisons were made with other EPDs. The mean surface area of debris caught was 12.2 mm2 (2.7,34.3). No changes were noted in CT/MRI at 30-day post procedure. Conclusion: The first human use of this new novel EPD in carotid artery stenting is encouraging. The FiberNet was easy to use and confirmed the ability to capture particles less than 100 ,m. The feasibility of the FiberNet has been demonstrated. Additional patients will demonstrate the overall safety and efficacy of this new EPD device. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Intracardiac Ultrasound Detection of Thrombus on Transseptal Sheath: Incidence, Treatment, and Prevention

JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
KATANEH MALEKI M.D.
Background: Transseptal (TS) catheterization is used for left atrial (LA) ablation procedures and a major risk is thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to assess (1) the value of intracardiac ultrasound (ICUS) monitoring during LA ablation procedures, and (2) a new technique to reduce the risk of thrombus formation. Methods and Results: One hundred and eighty consecutive patients underwent TS catheterization under ICUS guidance with two sheaths for atrial fibrillation ablation and one for other LA procedures. Group I included the initial 90 patients in whom TS sheaths were flushed with a standard 2 U/cc concentration of heparin; group II consisted of the next 90 patients in whom sheaths were flushed with 1,000 U/cc concentration. All patients received bolus and infusion of heparin to maintain ACT between 250,300 seconds. ICUS was monitored throughout. In group I, echodense material at the tip of the sheath consistent with thrombus was observed on ICUS in 8 of 90 patients (9%) within 5,15 minutes of entering the LA. In group II, only 1 of 90 patient (1%) demonstrated thrombus (P < 0.001). There were no significant clinical differences in group I patients with and without thrombus. In all nine patients, the clot was removed with vigorous aspiration. No patients suffered a neurological event. Conclusion: Thrombus formation on TS sheath, detected by ICUS, may be more common than expected despite adequate anticoagulation. Using a higher concentration of heparin for the TS system before deployment reduced the risk. The thrombus was retrieved with aspiration without the need to abort the procedure. [source]


Cutaneous embolization of cardiac myxoma

BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
M.J. García-F-Villalta
Summary Atrial myxoma is the most common primary tumour of the heart. Skin manifestations in patients with a cardiac myxoma are frequent and may be due to cutaneous emboli, or may be specific findings as part of more complex syndromes. We present a 33-year-old-man with a history of episodes of pain in both legs and an ischaemic neurological event, who also had episodes of acral papular erythematous lesions on the legs and feet including the soles. The histological finding of dermal vessels occluded by a myxomatous material was the clue to the diagnosis of a cardiac myxoma. The diagnosis of this entity can be very difficult, because of the broad spectrum of clinical features; rarely the skin manifestations lead to the diagnosis of this tumour. The histological recognition of the myxomatous emboli is of vital importance for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. [source]


Prognostic implications of admission inflammatory profile in acute ischemic neurological events

ACTA NEUROLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 4 2002
T. Anuk
Anuk T, Assayag EB, Rotstein R, Fusman R, Zeltser D, Berliner S, Avitzour D, Shapira I, Arber N, Bornstein NM. Prognostic implications of admission inflammatory profile in acute ischemic neurological events. Acta Neurol Scand 2002: 106: 196,199. © Blackwell Munksgaard 2002. Objective, To reveal the potential prognostic implications of admission inflammatory markers in patients with acute ischemic neurological events. Patients and methods, Sixty patients with an acute ischemic neurological event who were examined within 24 h from the appearance of symptomatology. We determined the high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen concentrations and degree of erythrocyte adhesiveness/aggregation. Results, A significant correlation was noted between baseline hs-CRP concentrations, ESR as well as adhesiveness/aggregation and the outcome of the ischemic neurological event as determined by the modified Rankin scale 8,12 months following the insult. Conclusion, Admission inflammatory markers have long-term prognostic implications in patients with acute ischemic neurological events. These findings are relevant in view of the new therapeutic interventions now available for reducing the inflammatory response. [source]


Routine Transesophageal Echocardiography for the Evaluation of Cerebral Emboli in Elderly Patients

ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 9 2005
Sergey Vitebskiy M.D.
Background: Approximately 20% of cerebral infarctions are cardioembolic in nature. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is widely regarded as the initial study of choice for evaluating cardiac source of embolism. Although the majority of cerebrovascular accidents occur in elderly patients, the value of TEE in this population is poorly defined. Methods: We compared 491 patients older than 65 years with suspected embolic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) who had undergone TEE evaluation between April 2000 and February 2004 to an age-, sex-, and time-matched control group that consisted of 252 patients. Studies were reviewed for abnormalities associated with thromboembolic disease. Results: The overall incidence of stroke risk factors was significantly higher in the study than in the control group. However, the four patients with left atrial thrombi had a history of atrial fibrillation. Although ascending and aortic arch sessile atheromata were observed more frequently in the study than control group, there were no significant differences in the incidence of either complex or mobile aortic atheromata. The incidence of atrial septal aneurysm was higher in the stroke/TIA group, but not in association with patent foramen ovale. Finally, there were also no differences in the incidence of spontaneous echocontrast, and/or patent foramen ovale between study and control groups. Conclusions: We conclude: (1) There is a higher incidence of abnormalities implicated as sources of thromboembolic disease on TEE in elderly patients with cerebral infarctions, but (2) this incidence is driven by the presence of sessile aortic atheroma and atrial septal aneurysm. Until the benefits of specific therapies for these conditions are known, routine TEE in elderly patients with suspected embolic neurological events appears to be unwarranted. [source]


Cortical lesions associated with transient neurological symptoms , not always a matter of cause and effect

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 6 2003
S. Kipervasser
The occurrence of transient recurrent stereotypical neurological events mandates the exclusion of an underlying brain lesion. When imaging studies demonstrate the presence of a structural brain lesion, a cause and effect relationship between the two entities is assumed, and the decision for surgical intervention may then follow almost automatically. We describe five patients with transient neurological events suspected as being seizures that were referred for surgery because of an associated structural brain lesion. Video electroencephalographic recordings revealed that the events that brought these patients to neurosurgical attention were non-epileptic seizures. None of these patients underwent surgical intervention, and all were referred for behavioral therapy. Therefore, even in the presence of a confirmed brain lesion, the presenting paroxysmal events may be of a non-organic origin and should not necessarily be assumed to be caused by the concomitantly existing structural abnormality. [source]


Immediate Clinical Outcome after Prolonged Periods of Brain Protection: Retrospective Comparison of Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest, Retrograde, and Antegrade Perfusion

JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 5 2009
Anil Z. Apaydin M.D.
Methods: Between 1993 and 2006, 339 patients underwent proximal aortic operations using a period of cerebral protection. Among these, 161 patients (mean age of 55 ± 12 years) who required cerebral protection longer than 25 minutes were included in the analysis. Ascending aorta with or without root was replaced in all patients. In addition, total arch replacement was performed in 36 patients. All patients were cooled to rectal temperature of 16 °C. Hypothermic circulatory arrest without adjunctive perfusion was used in 48 patients. Retrograde or antegrade cerebral perfusion was added in 94 and 19 patients, respectively. The mean duration of total cerebral protection was 42 ± 17 minutes. Results: Overall mortality was 15.5% (25/161) and did not differ among the perfusion groups. There was no difference in the incidence of overall neurological events, temporary neurological dysfunction, or major stroke among the groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that transfusion of >3 units of blood (p < 0.03) was an incremental risk factor for mortality. History of hypertension (p < 0.03), coexisting systemic diseases (p < 0.005), and transfusion of >3 units of blood (p < 0.04) were predictors of temporary neurological dysfunction. Conclusion: In proximal aortic operations requiring prolonged periods of cerebral protection, the mortality and neurological morbidity are not determined by the type of cerebral protection method only. Factors like hypertension and diabetes may play a role in the development of temporary neurological dysfunction. [source]


Avecor Trillium Oxygenator Versus Noncoated Monolyth Oxygenator: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study

JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 4 2008
Frédéric Vanden Eynden M.D.
This study was designed to study the effects of the surface coating of a hollow fiber membrane oxygenator on coagulation, inflammation markers, and clinical outcomes. The biomaterials used to coat the membrane include heparin, polyethylene oxide chains (PEO), and sulfate/sulfonate groups. The coated membrane was compared to an uncoated oxygenator made of polypropylene. Methods: Two hundred patients who were scheduled to undergo valve repair and/or replacement surgery with or without coronary surgery were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomized to undergo CPB with either the Avecor oxygenator with TrilliumÔ (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA), a biopassive surface, or the Monolyth (Sorin, Irvine, CA, USA) oxygenator without coating. The primary and secondary endpoints were the differences between these oxygenators in regard to patients' biochemistry, coagulation profiles, inflammatory mediators, and clinical outcomes, including blood loss and neurological events. Results: There were no differences between the two groups in terms of biochemistry, coagulation profile, inflammatory mediator release, and blood loss. Five patients in the Avecor group showed clinical evidence of a stroke confirmed with computerized tomography (CT) scan imaging, and none in the noncoated oxygenator group. Conclusion: The oxygenator Avecor offers similar results in terms of inflammation and coagulation profiles and blood loss during valvular surgery compared to a standard uncoated control oxygenator. The rate of neurological events was unusually elevated in the former group of patients, with only speculative explanation at this point. Further studies are warranted to clarify this aspect. [source]


Transcatheter Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale in Patients with Paradoxical Embolism.

JOURNAL OF INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
Follow-up Results after Implantation of the Starflex® Occluder Device with Conjunctive Intensified Anticoagulation Regimen, Procedural
Background:Prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) is higher in patients with paradoxical embolism and associated with increased risk for recurrent thromboembolic events. By percutaneous closure of PFO, surgical closure or permanent oral anticoagulation can be avoided. So far, published series included different occluder systems and various indications and regimens of postprocedural anticoagulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short- and long-term results after implantation of the Starflex® occluder in patients with PFO using an intensified anticoagulation regimen. Methods and Results:154 patients with PFO (94 men; age: 44 ± 13 years) and >1 thromboembolic event were included. Other causes for embolism were excluded. PFO closure was successful in 147 patients (95.5%). All patients were treated with phenprocoumon (INR 2.5) and aspirin (100 mg/die) for 6 months. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was repeated at 6 months. Mean clinical follow-up period was 26 ± 18 months. After 6 months, five patients had a significant residual shunt, and five patients had suspected thrombus formation on the occluder. In three of these five patients, the occluder was surgically removed and foreign body reaction was noted. During follow-up, nine patients suffered from neurological events (two strokes, seven transient ischemic attacks [TIA]), though complete closure of the PFO was documented by TEE. Two patients died during follow-up; three patients had bleeding complications. Conclusion:Percutaneous closure of PFO in symptomatic patients by Starflex® occluder represents an effective therapy with a low incidence of periinterventional complications and recurrent thromboembolism. However, thrombus formation at the occluder system may occur in some patients despite an aggressive anticoagulation regimen. [source]


European Carotid PROCAR Trial: Prospective Multicenter Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Performance of the ev3 ProtégéÔ Stent in the Treatment of Carotid Artery Stenosis,1- and 6-Month Follow-Up

JOURNAL OF INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
JENNIFER SUGITA
Background: The purpose of the European PROCAR Trial was to evaluate the safety and performance of the Protégé stent in the treatment of common and/or internal carotid artery stenoses with adjunctive use of a filter embolic protection device. Method: The Protégé® GPS stent is a self-expanding Nitinol stent system mounted on a 6 Fr 0.018, (6,9 mm stent) or 7 Fr 0.035, (10 mm stent) over-the-wire delivery system. Study patient assessments were conducted at baseline, periprocedure, discharge, and 1 and 6 months postprocedure. A total of 77 patients have been enrolled in the trial. Results: In the 77 lesions treated (31 symptomatic, 46 asymptomatic), the procedure was technically successful in 76 (99%), with an average residual stenosis of less than 30%. One procedure failed because the embolic protection device could not be retrieved and the patient was sent to surgery. Within 30 days, there were four (5.2%) major adverse neurological events (MANEs). Three of the MANEs were major strokes (3.9%), one a minor stroke. The fifth MANE occurred prior to the 6-month follow-up visit; this patient had a major stroke 75 days after the procedure and died 36 days later. One additional death occurred because of urosepsis. Conclusions: The PROCAR trial shows that the Protégé stent with adjuvant use of a filter embolic protection device satisfies safety and performance criteria for the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. The incidence of MANEs for the Protégé stent is comparable to the incidence of these events in other recent carotid stent studies and standard carotid endarterectomy (CEA). [source]


Perforation of Aortic Root as Secondary Complication after Implantation of Patent Foramen Ovale Occlusion Device in a 31-Year-Old Woman

JOURNAL OF INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
STEFAN A. LANGE M.D.
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed a 3-mm-large patent foramen ovale (PFO). No other reason for these neurological events could be found and the patient underwent percutaneous closure of the PFO with a CARDIA® Star 03/30 device without periprocedural complications. Four weeks later, the patient underwent a routine control of device without any adverse clinical symptoms. Surprisingly, echocardiography revealed a perforation of the aortic root by an umbrella strut with a small shunt from the aortic root to the right atrium. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the diagnosis of device malposition. Consecutively, the patient underwent minimal invasive surgery. After removal of the single perforating strut, the bleeding lesion was closed. The patient remained free of any additional complications during the postoperative course and up until now has had uneventful follow-ups. [source]


Gray matter atrophy is related to long-term disability in multiple sclerosis

ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 3 2008
Leonora K. Fisniku MRCP
Objective To determine the relation of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) brain volumes, and WM lesion load, with clinical outcomes 20 years after first presentation with clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Seventy-three patients were studied a mean of 20 years from first presentation with a clinically isolated syndrome (33 of whom developed relapsing-remitting MS and 11 secondary-progressive MS, with the rest experiencing no further definite neurological events), together with 25 healthy control subjects. GM and WM volumetric measures were obtained from three-dimensional T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance images using Statistical Parametric Mapping 2. Results Significant GM (p < 0.001) and WM atrophy (p = 0.001) was seen in MS patients compared with control subjects. There was significantly more GM, but not WM atrophy, in secondary-progressive MS versus relapsing-remitting MS (p = 0.003), and relapsing-remitting MS versus clinically isolated syndrome (p < 0.001). GM, but not WM, fraction correlated with expanded disability status scale (rs = ,0.48; p < 0.001) and MS Functional Composite scores (rs = 0.59; p < 0.001). WM lesion load correlated with GM (rs = ,0.63; p < 0.001), but not with WM fraction. Regression modeling indicated that the GM fraction explained more of the variability in clinical measures than did WM lesion load. Interpretation In MS patients with a relatively long and homogeneous disease duration, GM atrophy is more marked than WM atrophy, and reflects disease subtype and disability to a greater extent than WM atrophy or lesions. Ann Neurol 2008 [source]


Association between intraplaque haemorrhage in the carotid atherosclerotic lesion, the degree of internal carotid artery stenosis and timing of ischaemic neurological events

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 4 2001
R. Mofidi
Background: Expansion of carotid atherosclerotic plaques as a result of intraplaque haemorrhage has been implicated in the development of ischaemic neurological events. The relationship between the quantity of haemorrhage in the dominant atherosclerotic lesion, the degree of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and the chronology of patients' symptoms was examined. Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were included. The nature and timing of symptoms were recorded. Aortic arch injection digital subtraction angiography was performed before operation. Carotid endarterectomy specimens were serially sectioned and examined histologically. The amount of intraplaque haemorrhage was measured with digital image analysis. The influence of timing of symptoms on the quantity of intraplaque haemorrhage was compared with Kaplan,Meier analysis. Correlation between degree of ICA stenosis and quantity of intraplaque haemorrhage was assessed by means of regression analysis. Results: Seventy-four patients (20 asymptomatic, 54 symptomatic) were included. The median latency of symptoms was 28 (1,600) days. Intraplaque haemorrhage was common: 54 (73 per cent) of 74 patients. Mean(s.e.m.) cumulative symptom-free survival before operation for patients with no intraplaque haemorrhage was 0·71(0·11), compared with 0·58(0·11) in those exhibiting haemorrhage in less than 50 per cent of the plaque area, and 0·20(0·07) in lesions with over 50 per cent (P = 0·002). A close correlation was observed between the degree of ICA stenosis and haemorrhagic content of the dominant atherosclerotic lesion (r2 = 0·433, P < 0·001). Conclusion: These results confirm the association between intraplaque haemorrhage and the degree of ICA stenosis. They further demonstrate an association between the size of haemorrhage and timing of neurological events, suggesting a causative role for intraplaque haemorrhage in the development of ischaemic neurological events. © 2001 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]


Prognostic implications of admission inflammatory profile in acute ischemic neurological events

ACTA NEUROLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 4 2002
T. Anuk
Anuk T, Assayag EB, Rotstein R, Fusman R, Zeltser D, Berliner S, Avitzour D, Shapira I, Arber N, Bornstein NM. Prognostic implications of admission inflammatory profile in acute ischemic neurological events. Acta Neurol Scand 2002: 106: 196,199. © Blackwell Munksgaard 2002. Objective, To reveal the potential prognostic implications of admission inflammatory markers in patients with acute ischemic neurological events. Patients and methods, Sixty patients with an acute ischemic neurological event who were examined within 24 h from the appearance of symptomatology. We determined the high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen concentrations and degree of erythrocyte adhesiveness/aggregation. Results, A significant correlation was noted between baseline hs-CRP concentrations, ESR as well as adhesiveness/aggregation and the outcome of the ischemic neurological event as determined by the modified Rankin scale 8,12 months following the insult. Conclusion, Admission inflammatory markers have long-term prognostic implications in patients with acute ischemic neurological events. These findings are relevant in view of the new therapeutic interventions now available for reducing the inflammatory response. [source]