Neurological Disability (neurological + disability)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Triptolide promotes spinal cord repair by inhibiting astrogliosis and inflammation

GLIA, Issue 8 2010
Zhida Su
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a cause of major neurological disability, and no satisfactory treatment is currently available. Traumatic SCI directly damages the cell bodies and/or processes of neurons and triggers a series of endogenous processes, including neuroinflammatory response and reactive astrogliosis. In this study, we found that triptolide, one of the major active components of the traditional Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, inhibited astrogliosis and inflammation and promoted spinal cord repair. Triptolide was shown to prevent astrocytes from reactive activation by blocking the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, astrocytic gliosis and glial scar were greatly reduced in injured spinal cord treated with triptolide. Triptolide treatment was also shown to decrease the ED-1 or CD11b-positive inflammatory cells at the lesion site. Using neurofilament staining and anterograde tracing, a significantly greater number of regenerative axons were observed in the triptolide-treated rats. Importantly, behavioral tests revealed that injured rats receiving triptolide had improved functional recovery as assessed by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan open-field scoring, grid-walk, and foot-print analysis. These results suggested that triptolide promoted axon regeneration and locomotor recovery by attenuating glial scaring and inflammation, and shed light on the potential therapeutic benefit for SCI. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Molecular neuropathology of MELAS: level of heteroplasmy in individual neurones and evidence of extensive vascular involvement

J. Betts
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disease is an important genetic cause of neurological disability. A variety of different clinical features are observed and one of the most common phenotypes is MELAS (Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes). The majority of patients with MELAS have the 3243A>G mtDNA mutation. The neuropathology is dominated by multifocal infarct-like lesions in the posterior cortex, thought to underlie the stroke-like episodes seen in patients. To investigate the relationship between mtDNA mutation load, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuropathological features in MELAS, we studied individual neurones from several brain regions of two individuals with the 3243A>G mutation using dual cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) histochemistry, and Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Lenght Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. We found a low number of COX-deficient neurones in all brain regions. There appeared to be no correlation between the threshold level for the 3243A>G mutation to cause COX deficiency within single neurones and the degree of pathology in affected brain regions. The most severe COX deficiency associated with the highest proportion of mutated mtDNA was present in the walls of the leptomeningeal and cortical blood vessels in all brain regions. We conclude that vascular mitochondrial dysfunction is important in the pathogenesis of the stroke-like episodes in MELAS patients. As migraine is a commonly encountered feature in MELAS, we propose that coupling of the vascular mitochondrial dysfunction with cortical spreading depression (CSD) might underlie the selective distribution of ischaemic lesions in the posterior cortex in these patients. [source]

Update on the neurology of Parkinson's disease,

Clare J. Fowler
Abstract The differential diagnosis of a patient with apparent Parkinson's Disease (PD) and bladder symptoms is considered and the bladder dysfunction of Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) is reviewed. Recent insights into the progression of the neuropathology of PD have enabled thinking about the stage of the disease at which bladder dysfunction is likely to occur and the expected clinical context of the problem. Bladder symptoms of neurological origin are likely in a patient who has had treated motor symptoms for some years and in whom the ongoing neuropathology has progressed beyond involvement of the basal ganglia, so that symptoms due to cortical dysfunction as well as the adverse effects of dopaminergic medication are also confounding factors. Bladder symptoms in a man with lesser neurological disability should be investigated to exclude underlying outflow obstruction. Possible management options are considered. Neurourol. Urodynam. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Neonatal MRI in preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia and mild disability

Hideo Jinnou
Abstract Background:, The aim of the present study was to describe the neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of preterm infants with periventricular leukomalacia and mild neurological disability. Methods:, MRI findings at term equivalent were retrospectively investigated in eight preterm infants with mild disability and periventricular leukomalacia diagnosed on MRI in infancy. Results:, Linear, spotted, or macular areas of hyperintensity on T1-weighted imaging and hypointensity on T2-weighted imaging were identified in all subjects in the white matter lateral to the body of the lateral ventricle. No cystic lesions were seen. These findings were more widespread and more clearly visualized on T2-weighted imaging than T1-weighted imaging. Conclusions:, Linear, spotted, or macular lesions that are hyperintense on T1-weighted imaging and hypointense on T2-weighted imaging are possibly compatible with periventricular leukomalacia. [source]

Mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause of axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis patients

Ranjan Dutta PhD
Objective Degeneration of chronically demyelinated axons is a major cause of irreversible neurological disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Development of neuroprotective therapies will require elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which neurons and axons degenerate. Methods We report ultrastructural changes that support Ca2+-mediated destruction of chronically demyelinated axons in MS patients. We compared expression levels of 33,000 characterized genes in postmortem motor cortex from six control and six MS brains matched for age, sex, and postmortem interval. As reduced energy production is a major contributor to Ca2+-mediated axonal degeneration, we focused on changes in oxidative phosphorylation and inhibitory neurotransmission. Results Compared with controls, 488 transcripts were decreased and 67 were increased (p < 0.05, 1.5-fold) in the MS cortex. Twenty-six nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes and the functional activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and III were decreased in the MS motor cortex. Reduced mitochondrial gene expression was specific for neurons. In addition, pre-synaptic and postsynaptic components of GABAergic neurotransmission and the density of inhibitory interneuron processes also were decreased in the MS cortex. Interpretation Our data supports a mechanism whereby reduced ATP production in demyelinated segments of upper motor neuron axons impacts ion homeostasis, induces Ca2+-mediated axonal degeneration, and contributes to progressive neurological disability in MS patients. Ann Neurol 2006 [source]

Axonal Pathology and Loss Precede Demyelination and Accompany Chronic Lesions in a Spontaneously Occurring Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

Frauke Seehusen
Abstract Axonal damage has been highlighted recently as a cause of neurological disability in various demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis, either as a primary pathological change or secondary due to myelin loss. To characterize and quantify axonal damage and loss in canine distemper demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis (DL), formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cerebella were investigated histochemically and immunohistochemically using the modified Bielschowsky's silver stain as well as antibodies against nonphosphorylated (n-NF), phosphorylated neurofilament (p-NF) and ,-amyloid precursor protein (,-APP). Injured axons characterized by immunoreactivity against n-NF and ,-APP were detected in early distemper lesions without demyelination. In subacute and chronic demyelinating lesions the number of injured axons increased. Moreover, a significant decrease in axonal density was observed within lesions and in the normal appearing white matter in DL as determined by morphometric analyses using Bielschowsky's silver stain and p-NF immunohistochemistry. Summarized, the observed findings indicate that axonal damage (i) occurs early in DL; (ii) can be detected before myelin loss; and (iii) represents a pivotal feature in advanced lesions. It must be postulated that axonal damage plays an important role in the initial phase as a primary event and during progression of nervous distemper as a result of demyelination. [source]

Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taenia solium Taeniasis in California, USA

C. DeGiorgio
Objectives ,Taenia solium Cysticercosis is a leading cause of epilepsy and neurological disability in the developing world. It is caused by ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm, T. solium Taeniasis. The prevalence of either T. solium Cysticercosis or T. solium Taeniasis in the United States in populations at risk is poorly understood. The primary objectives of this study are to perform the first study of the sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in an at-risk community in the USA, specifically rural Southern California; identify T. solium Taeniasis positive individuals, and treat positive individuals for the tapeworm T. solium Taeniasis. Methods , Community based sero-prevalence study of antibodies to T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in 449 subjects living in a federally funded, predominantly Hispanic residential community; and in two migrant farm worker camps in rural Ventura County, California, USA. For this study, fingerstick blood samples were obtained. Serum immunoblots for both T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis were performed. Results , The sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis was 1.8% and the sero-prevalence of T. solium Taeniasis by serum immunoblot was 1.1%. Taenia solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis antibodies were not detected in children. The sero-prevalence of T. solium Taeniasis was highest in the migrant farm worker community. Handwashing frequency was correlated with T. solium Taeniasis sero-positivity. Conclusion , The sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in this population, as detected by serum immunoblot, approximates the prevalence in some endemic areas of Latin America. Importantly, most patients likely had prior exposure, not active infection. This study establishes for the first time, the relative sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in at-risk populations in the United States. [source]

Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: the impact of cerebral cortical malformations

M-L Engman
ABSTRACT Aim:, Cytomegalovirus has been suggested to have a teratogenous influence during the migration of neural cells from the ventricular zones to the cortex during the gestational period. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of congenital cytomegalovirus infections in a cohort of children with neurological disability and cerebral cortical malformations recognized by neuroimaging. Methods:, Twenty-six children with neurological disability and cerebral cortical malformations were investigated retrospectively for congenital cytomegalovirus infection by analysing the dried blood spot samples for cytomegalovirus deoxynucleic acid using qualitative polymerase chain reaction. Results:, CMV DNA in the dried blood spot samples was found in four out of 26 children. Two of these four had severe disabilities with mental retardation, autism, spastic cerebral palsy, epilepsy and deafness. A third child had epilepsy and unilateral cerebral palsy, while the fourth had a mild motor coordination dysfunction and hearing deficit. Conclusion:, In our study, the number of congenital cytomegalovirus infections in children with cerebral cortical malformations was higher (4/26) than expected with reference to the birth prevalence (0.2,0.5%) of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in Sweden. We thus conclude that congenital cytomegalovirus infection should be considered in children with cortical malformations of unknown origin. [source]