Neurological Damage (neurological + damage)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Lifestyle limitations of children and young people with severe cerebral palsy: a population study protocol

Collette Donnelly
Abstract Title.,Lifestyle limitations of children and young people with severe cerebral palsy: a population study protocol Aim., This paper is a presentation of a study protocol to establish the prevalence of orthopaedic problems (hip dislocation, pelvic obliquity, spinal deformity and contractures) and their impact on pain, function, participation and health in a population of children and young people with severe cerebral palsy. Background., Cerebral palsy is the commonest cause of motor impairment in childhood and is associated with life-long disability. An estimated 30% of people with cerebral palsy have severe forms and are non-ambulant. Although the underlying neurological damage is not amenable to correction, many health services are dedicated to providing therapeutic and adaptive support to help people with the condition reach their potential. Method., A cross-sectional survey of children and young people, aged 4,25 years with severe, non-ambulant cerebral palsy as defined using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (Levels IV and V). Study participants will be identified from a pre-existing, geographically defined case register and recruited via a healthcare professional known to them. Two assessments will be undertaken: one involving parents/carers at home and using questionnaires; the other involving the child/young person ideally in one of three settings and including X-rays if clinically indicated. Discussion., This study will contribute to our knowledge of the history and epidemiology of orthopaedic problems in children and young people with cerebral palsy and how these problems accumulate and impact on participation, health and well-being. The study will also identify unmet need and make recommendations for good practice in relation to the orthopaedic care and management for people with severe cerebral palsy. [source]

High intrathecal bupivacaine for severe pain in the head and neck

Background: Severe pain in the head and neck is associated with a lowered quality of life and conventional pain therapy often does not provide adequate relief. The aims of this study were to investigate the efficacy, pain relief, benefits and adverse effects of intracisternal or high cervical (IHC) administration of bupivacaine in patients with severe pain in the head, neck and face regions. Methods: Between 1990 and 2005, 40 patients (age 27,84 years) were treated with continuous IHC infusions of bupivacaine for various non-cancer (n=15) or cancer-related (n=25) refractory pain conditions (duration 1 month,18 years) in the head, neck, mouth and shoulder regions. Results: Visual analogue scale scores and opioid requirements decreased markedly after the start of the treatment and remained lowered throughout the study. No tachyphylaxis for bupivacaine was observed. Major side effects were few and most often transient. Most patients showed unchanged or improved mobility. There was no mortality, neurological damage or other severe events attributable to procedures in the study protocol. Conclusion: For patients with severe and refractory pain in areas innervated by cranial and upper cervical nerves, cervical high spinal analgesia can provide safe and effective analgesia. [source]

Ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency: A clinical, biochemical and genetic diagnosis

G Alex
Abstract: A case of ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency, in conjunction with supportive genetic studies, is reported. This is a neurodegenerative condition that involves a mutation in the tocopherol (,) transfer protein gene (TTPA). Measurement of serum vitamin E concentration should be included as part of the investigations in children with progressive ataxia, even in the absence of fat malabsorption. Early treatment with vitamin E may protect such patients against further neurological damage. [source]

Socio-cognitive Habilitation Using the Math Interactive Learning Experience Program for Alcohol-Affected Children

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2007
Julie A. Kable
Background: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) has been recognized as a disabling condition with a significant impact on the neurobehavioral functioning of affected individuals, including cognition, behavior, and academic functioning, but little research has been performed on targeted interventions for these children. Methods: A socio-cognitive habilitative program focused on improving behavior and math functioning in children 3 to 10 years of age (n=61) was developed and evaluated. The intervention provided parental instruction on FAS, advocacy, and behavioral regulation via workshops and interactive math tutoring with children. All families received parental instruction and were then randomly assigned to either the math instruction or standard psychoeducational care groups. Results: Satisfaction with workshops was very high, with over 90% agreeing that trainers were knowledgeable and materials easy to understand and helpful. Significant gains in knowledge were found for information provided in the instructional groups. At posttesting, caregivers reported fewer problem behaviors on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, Internalizing Problem Behavior, Externalizing Problem Behavior, and Total Problem Behavior summary scales. After 5 months, both groups of children demonstrated gains in math knowledge but significantly higher gains were found in the group receiving direct math instruction. The math treatment group was also more likely to demonstrate a gain of over 1 standard deviation on any of the 4 math outcome measures used. Conclusions: These findings suggest that parents of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FAS(D)) benefit from instruction in understanding their child's alcohol-related neurological damage and strategies to provide positive behavioral supports and that targeted psychoeducational programs may be able to remediate some of the math deficits associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. [source]

Thoracic epidural anaesthesia and analgesia: United Kingdom practice

F. O'Higgins
Background: Thoracic epidural analgesia has become increasingly practised in recent years. Complications are rare but potentially serious and, consequently, careful evaluation is required before undertaking this technique. The practice surrounding this procedure varies widely amongst anaesthetists. Methods: A postal survey to examine the practice of thoracic epidural analgesia was sent to all Royal College of Anaesthetists tutors in the United Kingdom. Results: Responses were received from 240 tutors, representing a return rate of 83%. When obtaining consent for thoracic epidural cannulation, 42% of respondents mentioned risk of a dural tap complication and 11% mentioned neurological damage. Fifty percent of respondents performed epidural cannulation following induction of general anaesthesia. The practice of epidural insertion in patients with abnormal coagulation varied, although over 80% of respondents did not consider concurrent treatment with either aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs a contraindication. Sterile precautions for epidural insertion also varied between anaesthetists. Postoperatively, 95% of respondents used an opioid-based bupivacaine solution for epidural infusions, and these were most commonly nursed on general surgical wards (63%). Seventy-eight percent of hospitals provided an acute pain team to review epidural analgesia. Conclusion: In the United Kingdom, there is little consensus in the practice of thoracic epidural analgesia relating to the issues of informed consent, epidural cannulation in patients with deranged clotting and the sterile precautions taken prior to performing epidural insertion. Most respondents use an opioid-based bupivacaine solution to provide postoperative epidural analgesia. Most hospitals in the UK now provide an acute pain service for thoracic epidural follow-up. [source]

Comparison of Flexiblade‘ and Macintosh laryngoscopes: cervical extension angles during orotracheal intubation

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 7 2010
S. Uzun
Summary The FlexibladeTM is a new laryngoscope with a flexible blade, a handle and a lever, allowing gradual flexion over the distal half of the blade. In this study, we aimed to compare cervical vertebral movements during tracheal intubation with the Flexiblade and Macintosh laryngoscope in 32 patients undergoing elective surgery requiring general anaesthesia (n = 16 per group). Fluoroscopic images of cervical movement were captured before, during and after intubation and evaluated by a radiologist. C1,C2 cervical vertebral movement was significantly reduced during the intubation in the Flexiblade group (p < 0.0001). C2,C3 cervical movement was similar in both groups (p = 0.81). No significant differences were noted in success rates for intubation, oxygen saturation levels, haemodynamic variables or intubation-related injury. The decreased extension angle between C1,C2 during Flexiblade laryngoscopy compared with Macintosh laryngoscopy may be an advantage where neurological damage with cervical movement is a concern. [source]

Erectile function and male reproduction in men with spinal cord injury: a review

ANDROLOGIA, Issue 3 2010
F. Dimitriadis
Summary Spinal cord injury (SCI) in men results in defects in erectile function, ejaculatory process and male reproductive potential. There are alterations in the capacity of men with SCI to achieve reflexogenic, psychogenic and nocturnal erections. The sexual function in different stages after SCI and the types of erections depend mainly on the completeness of the injury and the level of neurological damage. Furthermore, most of the SCI men demonstrate defects concerning the entrance of semen into the posterior urethra and the expulsion of the semen through the penile urethra and the urethral orifice. In addition, SCI men develop defects in the secretory function of the Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and the male accessory genital glands. The overall result is a decreased quality of the semen is recovered either with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) or with electroejaculation. Nowadays the therapeutic andrological approach of SCI men focuses on achievement of erectile function, recovery of spermatozoa and assisted reproductive technology. The first line of therapy recommended for infertility in SCI men is collection of semen via PVS with concomitant evaluation of total motile sperm yields for assisted conception which may include intravaginal insemination, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Patients failing PVS may be referred for electroejaculation or surgical sperm retrieval. [source]

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes , patients' cohort profile in the Czech Republic

Reported paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are rare disabling neurological diseases with supposed autoimmune pathogenesis. The aims of this study were to evaluate frequency, clinical course and therapeutic response in the cohort of PNS positive patients (n=10) in the Czech Republic for the first time. Second, we determined the presence and distribution of oligoclonal IgG bands (OB IgG) in PNS and compared the clinical and laboratory features of OB IgG positive and negative patients. A total of 2355 suspicious serum and/or CSF samples were screened by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry with definite confirmation by Western blot. OB IgG were detected by isoelectric focusing and immunoenzymatic staining and clinical status was scored according to modified Rankin scale (RS). Four patients had anti-Yo antibody, ovarian cancer and the score in range (2,5) on RS. Five patients had anti-Hu antibody, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), prostate cancer and the score between 1,4 grade on RS. One patient with SCLC and anti-Ri antibody had grade 2. Five of 10 patients with PNS had positive OB IgG and average value 4.2 on RS comparing with negative OB IgG patients with average value 2.6. Finally, we add well-defined cohort of PNS patients to emerging European profile of PNS and conclude that the presence of OB IgG in PNS seems to reflect enhanced immune response with more severe neurological damage and clinical course. [source]

Carbon Monoxide Has Direct Toxicity on the Myocardium Distinct from Effects of Hypoxia in an Ex Vivo Rat Heart Model

Selim Suner MD
Abstract Objectives:, Carbon monoxide (CO) toxicity causes significant central nervous system and cardiac injury. Although the neurological damage caused by CO toxicity is extensively described, the mechanisms underlying myocardial insult are unclear. The authors used an externally perfused isolated rat heart model to examine the effects of a physiological saline solution (Krebs Henseleit HEPES, KHH) aerated with CO on cardiac function. Methods:, Fifteen rats were equally divided into three groups: the control group (KHH + 100% O2), the nitrogen control group (KHH + 70% O2, 30% N2), and the CO group (KHH + 70% oxygen, 30% CO). Left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPsP), end diastolic pressure (LVEdP), and coronary perfusion pressure were measured while the isolated heart was paced and perfused on a modified Langendorf apparatus. Results:, Left ventricular generated pressure (LVGP = LVPsP , LVEdP) decreased in the nitrogen control and CO groups compared to the control group. There was higher LVGP in the recovery phase between the nitrogen control group compared to the CO group. Both groups had increased lactic acid levels in the experimental phase. Conclusions:, Carbon monoxide with hypoxia and hypoxemic hypoxia both result in similar depression of cardiac function. Hearts poisoned with CO with hypoxia do not recover function to the extent that hearts rendered hypoxic with nitrogen do when perfused with 100% oxygen after the insult. This suggests that CO causes direct myocardial toxicity distinct from the effects of hypoxia. [source]

Clinical manifestations of infants with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency due to maternal dietary deficiency

E Zengin
Abstract Aim: In developing countries, nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in infants due to maternal diet without adequate protein of animal origin has some characteristic clinical features. In this study, haematological, neurological and gastrointestinal characteristics of nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency are presented. Methods: Hospital records of 27 infants diagnosed in a paediatric haematology unit between 2000 and 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. Results: The median age at diagnosis was 10.5 months (3,24 months). All the infants were exclusively breast fed and they presented with severe nonspecific manifestations, such as weakness, failure to thrive, refusal to wean, vomiting, developmental delay, irritability and tremor in addition to megaloblastic anaemia. The diagnosis was confirmed by complete blood counts, blood and marrow smears and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. The median haemoglobin level was 6.4 g/dL (3.1,10.6) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was 96.8 fL (73,112.3). Some patients also had thrombocytopaenia and neutropaenia. All the infants showed clinical and haematological improvement with vitamin B12 administration. Patients with severe anaemia causing heart failure received packed red blood cell transfusions as the initial therapy. Conclusion: Paediatricians must consider nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency due to maternal dietary deficiency in the differential diagnosis of some gastrointestinal, haematological, developmental and neurological disorders of infants with poor socioeconomic status. Delay in diagnosis may cause irreversible neurological damage. [source]

Mutation analysis of Wilson disease in the Spanish population , identification of a prevalent substitution and eight novel mutations in the ATP7B gene

E Margarit
Wilson disease (WD) is a copper metabolism disorder characterized by hepatic and/or neurological damage. More than 200 mutations in the ATP7B gene causing this autosomal recessive defect have been reported. In certain populations, a high prevalence of particular mutations allows rapid screening and diagnosis of the disease. We identified the ATP7B alterations in Spanish patients with WD. Mutations in the ATP7B gene were analysed in a total of 64 individuals from 40 different WD families by PCR amplification, single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing. Twenty-one different ATP7B gene mutations were identified, eight of which were novel. 74% of the disease alleles were characterized among the 40 unrelated probands. We identified a prevalent mutation in our population (Met645Arg), present in 55% of this 40 patients. The frequency of the remaining ATP7B alterations was low. In addition, 17 different polymorphic variants were found. There is remarkable allele heterogeneity in WD in the Spanish population. Nevertheless, SSCP screening for the most frequent mutations in our population is feasible and leads to the detection of about 74% of the mutated chromosomes. Molecular diagnosis of WD is very useful in clinical practice to confirm or support clinical suspicion. [source]

Cerebral venous thrombosis and Escherichia coli infection in neonates

H Farstad
Aim: To present a possible association between cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) and infection with Escherichia coli. Methods: Four neonates with deep CVT occurring during an E. coli infection are presented. Results: In these patients the thrombotic disease was found by Doppler ultrasonography. The thrombosis involved at least the sagittal sinus and the transverse sinus according to subsequent MRI scans. The E. coli strains did not produce verotoxin or haemolysin. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was not demonstrated. Three patients presented with seizures. At discharge, all of the patients had signs of neurological damage, but two of them have improved significantly since then. None of the patients has had recurrent (venous) thrombosis. Conclusion: E. coli infections in neonates may predispose to CVT, a finding that has clinical implications. [source]

Cell proliferation and death in the brain of active and hibernating frogs

Silvia Cerri
Abstract ,Binomial' cell proliferation and cell death have been studied in only a few non-mammalian vertebrates, such as fish. We thought it of interest to map cell proliferation/apoptosis in the brain of the frog (Rana esculenta L.) as this animal species undergoes, during the annual cycle, physiological events that could be associated with central nervous system damage. Therefore, we compared the active period and the deep underground hibernation of the frog. Using western blot analysis for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), we revealed a positive 36 kDa band in all samples and found higher optical density values in the hibernating frogs than in active frogs. In both active and hibernating frogs, we found regional differences in PCNA-immunoreactive cells and terminal transferase dUTP nick-end labelling apoptotic cells in the ventricular zones and parenchyma areas of the main encephalon subdivisions. During the active period of the frogs, the highest concentration of PCNA-immunoreactive cells was found in the ventricle dorsal zone of the cerebral hemispheres but only some of the cells were apoptotic. By contrast, the tectal and cerebellar ventricular zones had a small or medium amount of PCNA-immunoreactive cells, respectively, and a higher number of apoptotic cells. During hibernation, an increased PCNA-immunoreactive cell number was observed in both the brain ventricles and parenchyma compared with active frogs. This increase was primarily evident in the lateral ventricles, a region known to be a proliferation ,hot spot'. Although differences existed among the brain areas, a general increase of apoptotic cell death was found in hibernating frogs, with the highest number of apoptotic cells being detected in the parenchyma of the cerebral hemispheres and optic tectum. In particular, the increased number of apoptotic cells in the hibernating frogs compared with active frogs in the parenchyma of these brain areas occurred when cell proliferation was higher in the corresponding ventricular zones. We suggest that the high number of dying cells found in the parenchymal regions of hibernating frogs might provide the stimulus for the ventricular zones to proliferate. Hibernating frogs could utilize an increased cell proliferation in the brain areas as a neuroprotective strategy to face cell death and the onset of neurological damages. Therefore, the hibernator promises to be a valuable model for studying the mechanisms naturally carried out by the central nervous system in order to adapt itself or survive adverse conditions. [source]