Neurological Assessment (neurological + assessment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Motor function and methylphenidate effect in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Liv Larsen Stray
Abstract Aim:, Hyperactivity, impulsivity and poor attention are the core problems of ADHD and central stimulant medication is the preferred treatment. Many children with ADHD also display motor problems. The present study investigated the presence of motor problems in subjects who showed positive response to central stimulants on ADHD symptoms, compared with non-responders. Method:, This is a retrospective study of 73 children diagnosed ADHD, aged 5,17 years, who had been assessed with parts of the ,Motor Function Neurological Assessment' (MFNU) and evaluated with regard to effect of central stimulant medication. The sample was divided into two subgroups based on the responses to methylphenidate: Medicine responders and Non medicine responders. Results:, Stimulant responders showed significantly more motor problems than the non-responders on all sub-tests and on the total problem score of the MFNU. Motor problems were present both in younger (age 5,10 years) and older (11,17 years) stimulant responders. There were no gender differences in motor performance. Conclusion:, Our findings indicate that the probability of positive effect of central stimulants on core problems of ADHD is higher when motor problems are present in addition to ADHD symptoms, than when motor problems are absent. [source]

Two-year follow-up results after treatment of lumbar instability with titanium-coated fusion system

Ya-feng Zhang MD
Objective:, The purpose of this prospective clinical trial, with a minimum two-year follow-up, was to evaluate the clinical effects of a titanium-coated lumbar interbody fusion system in the treatment of lumbar instability. Methods:, The study cohort consisted of 94 patients with lumbar instability who accepted posterior lumbar interbody fusion with a titanium-coated fusion system. The patients were examined at the sixth, 12th and 24th month postoperatively. The clinical outcomes of all patients were evaluated according to the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Radiological studies, which included assessment of loss of disc space height, intervertebral angle and isodense bone bridging, were used to evaluate the fusion. Results:,The overall fusion rate was 95.75% at the 24th month after surgery. Ninety-two (97.87%) patients were able to work while 53 patients (56.38%) were capable of performing heavy manual labor. Neurological assessment showed 77 patients (81.92%) had no sensory or motor deficit. The mean JOA score had increased from 15.34 to 28.92 and ODI had decreased from 45 to 15 at the 24th month after surgery. No implant fracture or displacement was found. Conclusion:, The titanium-coated intervertebral fusion cage is effective and safe for treatment of lumbar instability. [source]

Simple bedside assessment of level of consciousness: comparison of two simple assessment scales with the Glasgow Coma scale,

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 1 2004
A. F. McNarry
Summary Neurological assessment is an essential component of early warning scores used to identify seriously ill ward patients. We investigated how two simple scales (ACDU , Alert, Confused, Drowsy, Unresponsive; and AVPU , Alert, responds to Voice, responds to Pain, Unresponsive) compared to each other and also to the more complicated Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Neurosurgical nurses recorded patients' conscious level with each of the three scales. Over 7 months, 1020 analysable measurements were collected. Both simple scales identified distinct GCS ranges, although some overlap occurred (p < 0.001). Median GCS scores associated with AVPU were 15, 13, 8 and 6 and for ACDU were 15, 13, 10 and 6. The median values of ACDU were more evenly distributed than AVPU and may therefore be better at identifying early deteriorations in conscious level when they occur in critically ill ward patients. [source]

Twelve-month neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants with and without intrauterine growth restriction

Nelly Padilla
Abstract Aim:, To evaluate the neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months' corrected age in preterm infants with and without severe intrauterine growth restriction. Methods:, This prospective follow-up study included 37 infants with severe intrauterine growth restriction and 36 appropriate-for-gestational-age infants born between 26 and 34 weeks. Neonatal and infant data were prospectively recorded. Infants were assessed at 12 2 months' corrected age with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination and the Bayley Scale for Infant Development version-II. Results:, Both groups were similar in demographic characteristics and perinatal status. No significant differences in neurodevelopmental performance were found. The mental development index was 98.8 (SD 9.0) vs 98.4 (SD 13.1) (p = 0.9) and the psychomotor development index was 91.7 (SD 9.9) vs 95.5 (SD 13.4) (p = 0.2) for the study and reference groups respectively. Neurological assessment showed no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion:, Although the study group showed a non-significant trend towards a lower score in the psychomotor development index than the reference group, significant differences at 12 months could not be demonstrated. IUGR infants continued to have significantly lower weight, length and head circumference at 1 year. [source]

Neurological assessment in the first two years of life.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine No. 17
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Factors associated with microcephaly at school age in a very-low-birthweight population

Claudia A Chiriboga MD MPH
The neonatal predictors of microcephaly, defined as a head circumference <5th centile in children born preterm, has not been systematically assessed. Children were drawn from the Developmental Epidemiology Network (DEN) cohort of very low-birth weight children (VLBW: 500,1500g) born from 1991 to 1993 at three sites in the USA. Neurological assessments were carried out among 198 singleton children (mean age 6 years 8 months, SD 0.5 years). Ninety-six children (48.5%) were male. Microcephaly was observed in 30 children (15%) and, using multivariate analysis, it was found to be associated with gestational age <26 weeks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Sonography-defined white-matter damage (WMD, i.e. echolucency or echodensities) was not associated with increased odds of microcephaly, while occurrence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) was in univariate but not multivariate analysis. In analyses that excluded children with IVH/WMD, odds of microcephaly increased in dose-related fashion according to number of days on ventilator: >5 days, OR=4.5; 95%CI=1.4 to 15; >10 days, OR=5.7; 95%CI=1.7 to 19; >15 days OR=8.3; 95% CI=2.3 to 29.2. Among children without BPD, microcephaly was not associated with differences in IQ, while IQ scores among children with BPD or any ventilation were disproportionately lower among those with microcephaly. In multivariate analyses predicting IQ at age 7 years, microcephaly was found to modify the association between neonatal lung disease and IQ. [source]

Early motor development of premature infants with birthweight less than 2000 grams

SJ Pedersen
The aim was to assess motor function during infancy in order to predict later function, mainly cerebral palsy. The neuromotor development of a population-based cohort of 209 of 236 (89%) survivors with a birthweight less than 2000 g was assessed using the Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB) and detailed neurological assessment. The infants were classified as being normal, dystonic, hypotonic or having suspected cerebral palsy (CP) at 4, 7, 13 and 18 mo corrected age if birthweight was less than 1500 g (n= 119) and at 7 and 13 mo if birthweight was 1500,1999 g (n= 90). Those with dystonia or suspected CP were followed until diagnosed as normal or as having CP after at least 36 mo of age. Fourteen (7%) finally developed CP. Motor function at 4 mo was inaccurate in predicting function at 7 mo and later. All who were normal at 7 mo remained normal in the follow-up period. Eight of 65 who were dystonic at 7 mo developed suspected CP, and three judged as suspected CP were eventually normal. The 14 who developed CP were judged as suspected CP (n= 5) or dystonic (n= 8) and one as hypotonic at 7 mo of age. Conclusions: The specificity of motor evaluation at 7 mo corrected age regarding CP is unsatisfactory, since dystonia at this age is most often transient. A normal neuromotor assessment at 7 mo is highly predictive of subsequent normal motor function. [source]

Correlation of a high D-dimer level with poor outcome in traumatic intracranial hemorrhage

J.-R. Kuo
The correlations between D-dimer and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), pupillary light reflex, distance of midline shift on brain computed tomography (CT), and Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) in patients with trauma/non-trauma intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) are not consistent in studies. Ninety-eight traumatic and 59 non-traumatic ICH patients were studied. Pre-existing venous thrombosis, recent surgery, drug use (aspirin or coumadin), or malignancy, were excluded. D-dimer level was estimated within hours after acute insult, and statistical analyses were used for comparisons between groups. Traumatic ICH patients had higher D-dimer levels than controls (2984 vs. 256 ,g/l; P = 0.001). The GCS, midline shift on brain CT, pupillary reflex, and GOS at 3 months were significantly correlated with high D-dimer value in traumatic patients (individual P < 0.001), but not in the non-traumatic group. Using receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC), the cutoff point was 1496 ,g/l, with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 83%, respectively. D-dimer ,1496 ,g/l predicted a poor outcome [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 14.44, 95% CI 1.16,179.27; P = 0.038]. A high D-dimer level is associated with a poor outcome in patients with traumatic ICH. It can be used in addition to neurological assessment to predict the outcome. [source]

Transcultural comparison of psychogenic movement disorders

Esther Cubo MD
Abstract Prompted by the lack of cross-cultural comparative data, and because a better understanding in the different clinical presentations of psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) is relevant to neurological assessment and interventions, we compared the phenomenology, anatomical distribution, and functional impairment of PMDs in the United States and Spain. Consecutive patients diagnosed with PMD by a movement disorder specialist from one US site and from eight Spanish university centers were included in the study. The two groups were similar in their movement types, anatomical distribution, and functional impairment. PMDs were more prevalent in women than in men and were most common in upper and lower extremities. Gait and speech dysfunctions were distributed similarly in both countries. We found action tremor to be the most frequent PMD in both countries. 2005 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Guidelines for patient selection and performance of carotid artery stenting

The Carotid Stenting Guidelines Committee
Abstract Background:, The endovascular treatment of carotid atherosclerosis with carotid artery stenting (CAS) remains controversial. Carotid endarterectomy remains the benchmark in terms of procedural mortality and morbidity. At present, there are no consensus Australasian guidelines for the safe performance of CAS. Methods:, We applied a modified Delphi consensus method of iterative consultation between the College representatives on the Carotid Stenting Guidelines Committee (CSGC). Results:, Selection of patients suitable for CAS needs careful consideration of clinical and patho-anatomical criteria and cannot be directly extrapolated from clinical indicators for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Randomized controlled trials (including pooled analyses of results) comparing CAS with CEA for treatment of symptomatic stenosis have demonstrated that CAS is more hazardous than CEA. On current evidence, the CGSC therefore recommends that CAS should not be performed in the majority of patients requiring carotid revascularisation. The evidence for CAS in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis who are considered medically high risk is weak, and there is currently no evidence to support CAS as a treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis. The use of distal protection devices during CAS remains controversial with increased risk of clinically silent stroke. The knowledge requirements for the safe performance of CAS include an understanding of the evidence base from randomized controlled trials, carotid and aortic arch anatomy and pathology, clinical stroke syndromes, the differing treatment options for stroke and carotid atherosclerosis, and recognition and management of periprocedural complications. It is critical that all patients being considered for a carotid intervention have adequate pre-procedural neuro-imaging and an independent, standardized neurological assessment before and after the procedure. Maintenance of proficiency in CAS requires active involvement in surgical/endovascular audit and continuing medical education programs. These standards should apply in the public and private health care settings. Conclusion:, These guidelines represent the consensus of an inter-collegiate committee in order to direct appropriate patient selection and the range of cognitive and technical requirements to perform CAS. Advances in endovascular technologies and the results of randomized controlled trials will guide future revisions of these guidelines. [source]

Comprehensive cognitive neurological assessment in stroke

M. Hoffmann
Background,,, Cognitive syndromes (CS) after stroke may be important to measure and monitor for management and emerging therapies. Aim,,, To incorporate known behavioral neurological and neuropsychiatric syndromes into a bedside cognitive assessment in patients with stroke. Methods,,, A validated cognitive examination (comprehensive cognitive neurological test in stroke, Coconuts) was administered during the first month of stroke presentation and analyzed according to five large-scale networks for cognition and correlated with neuropsychological tests. Validity testing of the test was performed for overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value to stroke in comparison with MRI diagnosis of stroke as well as discriminant validity, construct validity and inter-rater reliability. Results,,, Overall the sensitivity of the Coconuts scale was 91% and specificity 35%, PPV 88% and NPV 41% vs stroke lesions using MRI. Cognitive syndrome frequencies: frontal network syndrome frequency was 908/1796 (51%), left hemisphere network syndrome frequency was 646/1796 (36%), right hemisphere network included 275/1796 (15.3%), occipitotemporal network for complex visual processing 107/1796 (6%), the hippocampal limbic network for amnesias and emotional disorders 397/1796 (22%) and miscellaneous network syndromes 481/1796 (27%). Conclusion,,, The Coconuts is a valid and practical test of a comprehensive array of known behavioral neurological and neuropsychiatric syndromes in patients with stroke. [source]

Safety and efficacy of carotid stenting in the very elderly,

Arthur Grant MD
Abstract Background: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has emerged as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients at high risk for complications from surgery. The very elderly (,80-year-old) are one subgroup of patients identified as being at increased risk for carotid surgery. However, there is concern that the very elderly are also at increased risk for complications of CAS. A stroke and death rate of 12% was reported in very elderly patients during the roll-in phase of Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stent Trial (CREST). We are reporting on a large clinical series of CAS with independent neurological assessment in the very elderly. Methods: Between 1994 and 2008, a consecutive series of 418 CAS patients (,80-year-old) were treated at four high-volume centers with extensive CAS experience. Independent neurologic assessment was performed after CAS procedures. Thirty-day follow-up information was available in 389 patients. Results: The average age was 83.2 2.8 years. Most patients were male (63.2%), and the target lesion carotid stenosis was asymptomatic in two-thirds (68.2%) of patients. The majority of patients treated with CAS had a history of coronary artery disease (74.4%), hypertension (87.8%), and dyslipidemia (71.1%). One third (30.1%) were diabetic and more than half (56.5%) were current or former smokers. Embolic protection devices (EPD) were used in 78.7% of cases with the CAS procedure being performed before EPD availability being the most common reason for not using them. The overall 30-day incidence of stroke and death was 2.8% (11/389). The cumulative incidence of major cardiovascular events (stroke, death, or myocardial infarction) during that time period was 3.3% (13/389). Conclusions: This large series of CAS with independent neurologic assessment is convincing evidence that the very elderly (,80 years) can safely undergo CAS with stroke and death rates comparable to younger patients. The key to obtaining these excellent results is that CAS be performed by high volume, experienced operators who exercise restraint regarding patient selection. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Fits and starts: A mother,infant case-study involving intergenerational violent trauma and pseudoseizures across three generations

Daniel S. Schechter
This case-study presents in detail the clinical assessment of a 29-year-old mother and her daughter who first presented to infant mental health specialists at age 16 months, with a hospital record suggesting the presence of a dyadic disturbance since age eight months. Data from psychiatric and neurological assessments, as well as observational measures of child and mother, are reviewed with attention to issues of disturbed attachment, intergenerational trauma, and cultural factors for this innercity Latino dyad. Severe maternal affect dysregulation in the wake of chronic, early-onset violent-trauma exposure manifested as psychogenic seizures, referred to in the mother's native Spanish as "ataques de nervios," the latter, an idiom of distress, commonly associated with childhood trauma and dissociation. We explore the mechanisms by which the mothers' reexperiencing of violent traumatic experience, together with physiologic hyperarousal and associated negative affects, are communicated to the very young child and the clinician-observer via action and language from moment to moment during the assessment process. The article concludes with a discussion of diagnostic and treatment implications by Drs. Marshall, Gaensbauer, and Zeanah. 2003 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

Epidemiology of tardive dyskinesia: Is risk declining with modern antipsychotics?

Daniel Tarsy MD
Abstract Second-generation antipsychotic drugs (APDs), including aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, and ziprasidone dominate outpatient and inpatient clinical practice, having largely displaced the older neuroleptics. Modern APDs have relatively low risk for acute extrapyramidal syndromes characteristic of older neuroleptics, particularly acute dystonia and Parkinsonism, with variable risks of akathisia and the rare neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Anticipated reduction in risk of tardive dyskinesia (TD) is less well documented. Nearly 50 years after initial reports on TD, it is appropriate to reexamine the epidemiology of this potentially severe late adverse effect of long-term APD treatment in light of current research and practice. We compared recent estimates of incidence and prevalence of TD identified with some modern APDs to the epidemiology of TD in the earlier neuroleptic era. Such comparisons are confounded by complex modern APD regimens, uncommon exposure limited to a single modern APD, effects of previous exposure to typical neuroleptics, and neurological assessments that are rarely prospective or systematic. Available evidence suggests that the risk of TD may be declining, but longitudinal studies of patients never treated with traditional neuroleptics and exposed to only a single modern APD are required to quantify TD risks with specific drugs. Long-term use of APDs should continue to be based on research-supported indications, with regular specific examination for emerging TD. 2006 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Long-term neurological and functional outcome in Nipah virus infection

James J. Sejvar MD
Objective Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging zoonosis. Central nervous system disease frequently results in high case-fatality. Long-term neurological assessments of survivors are limited. We assessed long-term neurologic and functional outcomes of 22 patients surviving NiV illness in Bangladesh. Methods During August 2005 and May 2006, we administered a questionnaire on persistent symptoms and functional difficulties to 22 previously identified NiV infection survivors. We performed neurologic evaluations and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results Twelve (55%) subjects were male; median age was 14.5 years (range 6,50). Seventeen (77%) survived encephalitis, and 5 survived febrile illness. All but 1 subject had disabling fatigue, with a median duration of 5 months (range, 8 days,8 months). Seven encephalitis patients (32% overall), but none with febrile illness had persistent neurologic dysfunction, including static encephalopathy (n = 4), ocular motor palsies (2), cervical dystonia (2), focal weakness (2), and facial paralysis (1). Four cases had delayed-onset neurologic abnormalities months after acute illness. Behavioral abnormalities were reported by caregivers of over 50% of subjects under age 16. MRI abnormalities were present in 15, and included multifocal hyperintensities, cerebral atrophy, and confluent cortical and subcortical signal changes. Interpretation Although delayed progression to neurologic illness following Nipah fever was not observed, persistent fatigue and functional impairment was frequent. Neurologic sequelae were frequent following Nipah encephalitis. Neurologic dysfunction may persist for years after acute infection, and new neurologic dysfunction may develop after acute illness. Survivors of NiV infection may experience substantial long-term neurologic and functional morbidity. Ann Neurol 2007 [source]

Predicting neurodevelopmental impairment in preterm infants by standardized neurological assessments at 6 and 12 months corrected age

I Grimmer
Abstract Aim:, Neurodevelopmental impairment in very preterm infants can be reasonably diagnosed by 18,24 months corrected age, whereas the predictive value of earlier assessments is debated. We hypothesized that neurological findings at 6 and 12 months indicative of subsequent cerebral palsy predict 18,24 months' neurodevelopmental impairment. Methods:, Neurodevelopmental examinations (Griffiths scales) at 20 months of age in 561 preterm infants (birth weight <1 500 g) were compared with results of standardized neurological examinations (Early Motor Pattern Profile; EMPP) and Griffiths scales at 6 (n = 451) and 12 months (n = 496) corrected age. Results:, Griffiths developmental quotients at 20 months were weakly but significantly related to EMPP scores at 6 (Rs = 0.328) and 12 months (Rs = 0.493). Areas under receiver operator characteristic curves for the EMPP to predict neurodevelopmental impairment (Griffiths scores ,75) at 20 months were 0.772 (0.890) at 6 (12) months, compared to 0.915 (0.962) for Griffiths scores. By contrast, EMPP and Griffiths scores had equal power to predict unability to walk unaided at 2 years of age (EMPP 6/12 months: 0.946/0.983; Griffiths 6/12 months: 0.935/0.985). Conclusion:, Neurological examinations with the EMPP at 6 and 12 months corrected age are of limited value to predict neurodevelopmental impairment at 20 months. [source]