Neurologic Function (neurologic + function)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest in Denver, Colorado: Epidemiology and Outcomes

Jason S. Haukoos MD
Abstract Objectives:, The annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) in the United States is approximately 6 per 10,000 population and survival remains low. Relatively little is known about the performance characteristics of a two-tiered emergency medical services (EMS) system split between fire-based basic life support (BLS) dispersed from fixed locations and hospital-based advanced life support (ALS) dispersed from nonfixed locations. The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of OOHCA in Denver, Colorado, and to define the prevalence of survival with good neurologic function in the context of this particular EMS system. Methods:, This was a retrospective cohort study using standardized abstraction methodology. A two-tiered hospital-based EMS system for the County of Denver and 10 receiving hospitals were studied. Consecutive adult patients who experienced nontraumatic OOHCA from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2004, were enrolled. Demographic, prehospital arrest characteristics, treatment data, and survival data using the Utstein template were collected. Good neurologic survival was defined by a Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) score of 1 or 2. Results:, During the study period, 1,985 arrests occurred. Of these, 715 (36%) had attempted resuscitation by paramedics and constitute our study sample. The median age was 65 years (interquartile range = 52,78 years), 69% were male, 41% had witnessed arrest, 25% had bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed, and 30% had ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT) as their initial rhythm. Of the 715 patients, 545 (76%) were transported to a hospital, 223 (31%) had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 175 (25%) survived to hospital admission, 58 (8%) survived to hospital discharge, and 42 (6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4% to 8%) had a good neurologic outcome. Conclusions:, Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival in Denver, Colorado, is similar to that of other United States communities. This finding provides the basis for future epidemiologic and health services research in the out-of-hospital and ED settings in our community. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE,2010; 17:391,398 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

Understanding the Patient With Migraine: The Evolution From Episodic Headache to Chronic Neurologic Disease.

HEADACHE, Issue 5 2004
A Proposed Classification of Patients With Headache
Traditionally, episodic primary headache disorders are characterized by a return of preheadache (normal) neurologic function between episodes of headache. In contrast, patients with chronic headache often do not return to normal neurologic function between headache attacks. This article proposes that the evolution from episodic migraine to chronic headache may parallel the neurologic disruption observed during the progression of an acute migraine attack and that changes in baseline neurologic function between episodes of headache may be a more sensitive indicator of headache transformation than headache frequency alone. Early recognition of nonheadache changes in nervous system function may offer a more sensitive and specific approach to migraine prevention. [source]

Inflammatory and Hemodynamic Changes in the Cerebral Microcirculation of Aged Rats after Global Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion

Leslie Ritter
ABSTRACT Effects of aging on inflammation and blood flow in the brain are unclear. Young (three to six months) and aged (19,22 months) male Brown Norway Fisher rats were used to compare (i) leukocyte function in nonischemic conditions and (ii) leukocyte function and hemodynamic changes after ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). In nonischemic studies, polymorphonuclear (PMN) CD11b expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured with flow cytometry and PMN chemotaxis was measured with a Boyden chamber (+/-fMLP). In I-R studies, ischemia was induced by bilateral carotid artery occlusion and hypotension (20 minutes). During early reperfusion (30 minutes), leukocyte adhesion and rolling and blood-shear rates were measured using fluorescence microscopy. During late reperfusion (48 hours), mortality, neurological function, and leukocyte infiltration were measured. Stimulated PMN chemotaxis was increased in nonischemic aged rats (p < 0.05). In early reperfusion, there was a significant increase in leukocyte rolling and adhesion in the cerebral microcirculation and a significant decrease in shear rate in aged rats, compared to the young (p < 0.05). During late reperfusion, neurologic function was worse in aged vs. young rats (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that increased intravascular PMN adhesion and vascular dysfunction may contribute to poor neurologic outcome after cerebral I-R in the aged brain. [source]

Catheter Tip Granuloma Associated with Sacral Region Intrathecal Drug Administration

Fernandez Julius MD
Abstract Spinal cord compression from catheter tip granulomatous masses following intrathecal drug administration may produce devastating permanent neurologic deficits. Some authors have advocated intrathecal catheter placement below the conus medullaris to avoid the possibility of spinal cord involvement. Multiple cases of catheter tip granulomas in the thoracolumbar region have been reported. We present a unique case of a sacral region catheter tip inflammatory mass producing permanent neurologic deficits. A 71-year-old white male with a diagnosis of failed back surgery syndrome was referred to the senior author for evaluation. After more extensive conservative therapy, including spinal cord stimulation, failed to yield adequate pain relief, he was offered implantation of an intrathecal pump for opioid administration. Excellent pain relief was achieved in the postoperative period; however, three years after implantation, he presented with progressive saddle anesthesia and bowel/bladder incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a space occupying lesion associated with the catheter tip. The patient underwent emergent second level complete sacral laminectomy with partial resection of an intradural extra-axial mass and removal of intrathecal catheter. At discharge, the patient had no restoration of neurologic function. Histologic examination of the mass confirmed a sterile inflammatory mass. It has been suggested that intrathecal catheters be placed below the conus medullaris to avoid the possibility of spinal cord involvement. We present an unusual case documenting devastating permanent neurologic deficits from a catheter tip granuloma in the sacral region. [source]

Agreement between clinical examination and quantitative tests of neurologic function among 384 subjects,

Kyle Steenland
Abstract Background Quantitative neurological tests are often cheaper and easier than clinical examinations, and provide continuous data which may discriminate between exposed and nonexposed groups with more sensitivity than dichotomous (normal/abnormal) examination data. Methods We compare clinical examinations and analogous quantitative tests for arm tremor, postural sway, and vibrotactile sensitivity (finger and toe), for 384 subjects. Results The "abnormal" clinical outcomes studied were relatively common (range, 3,36%), and did not result in impairment of daily activity for affected subjects. All the quantitative tests were reasonably good predictors of the corresponding clinical outcome. The most predictive test was for toe vibrotactile sensitivity. The probability of an abnormal clinical result for those in the worst quartile for the toe test was 0.63, compared with 0.36 for all subjects. Conclusions Our results suggest that certain quantitative tests might be used in epidemiologic studies instead of a physical examination. Am. J. Ind. Med. 39:361,368, 2001. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cytoplasmic Extracts from Adipose Tissue Stromal Cells Alleviates Secondary Damage by Modulating Apoptosis and Promotes Functional Recovery Following Spinal Cord Injury

Soo Kyung Kang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) typically results from sustained trauma to the spinal cord, resulting in loss of neurologic function at the level of the injury. However, activation of various physiological mechanisms secondary to the initial trauma including edema, inflammation, excito-toxicity, excessive cytokine release and apoptosis may exacerbate the injury and/or retard natural repair mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that cytoplasmic extracts prepared from adipose tissue stromal cells (ATSCs) inhibits H2O2 -mediated apoptosis of cultured spinal cord-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) resulting in increased cell survival. The ATSC extracts mediated this effect by decreasing caspase-3 and c-Jun,NH2-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) activity, inhibiting cytochrome c release from mitochondria and reducing Bax expression levels in cells. Direct injection of ATSC extracts mixed with Matrigel into the spinal cord immediately after SCI also resulted in reduced apoptotic cell death, astrogliosis and hypo-myelination but did not reduce the extent of microglia infiltration. Moreover, animals injected with the ATSC extract showed significant functional improvement of hind limbs as measured by the BBB (Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan) scale. Collectively, these studies show a prominent therapeutic effect of ATSC cytoplasmic extracts on SCI principally caused by an inhibition of apoptosis-mediated cell death, which spares white matter, oligodendrocytes and neurons at the site of injury. The ability of ATSC extracts to prevent secondary pathological events and improve neurologic function after SCI suggests that extracts prepared from autologous cells harvested from SCI patients may have clinical utility. [source]

Long-term neurologic and peripheral vascular toxicity after chemotherapy treatment of testicular cancer,

CANCER, Issue 10 2010
Jennifer L Glendenning MD
Abstract BACKGROUND: Testicular cancer is curable in the majority of men, and persisting treatment toxicity is a concern. The authors report a cross-sectional study of the long-term effects of chemotherapy (C) on neurologic function and development of Raynaud phenomenon. METHODS: Seven hundred thirty-nine patients who were treated between 1982 and 1992 gave consent to enter the study. Patients were classified according to the receipt of C (n = 384) or no C (n = 355). Patients completed a general health questionnaire and a quality-of-life form (the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life C30 questionnaire with testicular module). Symptom scores of 3 or 4 were considered clinically significant. Patients were assessed in the clinic, and clinical history was used to diagnose Raynaud phenomenon (RP) and tinnitus. Examinations included peripheral nerve function testing for light touch and vibration sense. Five hundred seventy-seven patients underwent audiometry. RESULTS: On physician assessment, peripheral neuropathy and RP were more common after C (21.7% vs 9.1% [P<.001] and 20.3% vs 1.7% [P<.001], respectively). Similar results were obtained for symptom scores (12.5% vs 5.5% [P = .002] and 9.7% vs 3.7% [P<.001], respectively). On multivariate analysis, for peripheral neuropathy, the significant predictors were cisplatin dose, carboplatin dose, and age. For RP, the significant predictor was bleomycin. Significant differences in hearing thresholds were noted at 8000 hertz only and, on multivariate analysis, were related to age, cisplatin dose, and vincristine dose. Auditory symptom scores did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: With long-term follow-up, peripheral neuropathy and RP remained detectable in approximately 20% of patients and caused significant symptoms in 10% of patients. Detectable effects on high frequency remained but caused little symptomatic problem. These effects persisted and were related to the cumulative chemotherapy dose. Cancer 2010. 2010 American Cancer Society. [source]