Neurologic Disorders (neurologic + disorders)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Neurologic Disorders in Pregnancy

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 4 2005
K. A. Jellinger
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Neurological manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 4 2010
Carlos E. M. Rodrigues
Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (4): 350,359 Abstract Background, Neurologic disorders are among the most common and important clinical manifestations associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). It is characterized by diverse neurological manifestations. These include stroke, transient ischaemic attack, Sneddon's syndrome, convulsions/epilepsy, dementia, cognitive deficits, headaches/migraine, chorea, multiple sclerosis-like, transverse myelitis, ocular symptoms and Guillain,Barré syndrome. Material and methods, We review the latest data about neurologic disorders and APS. Results, In patients under 45 years of age, 20% of strokes are potentially associated with APS. Our study group recently reported a correlation between primary APS and peripheral neuropathy. Only one study investigated the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy in patients diagnosed with PAPS through electrophysiological study and showed alterations in 35% of patients. The mechanism of nervous system involvement in APS is considered to be primarily thrombotic. However, other mechanisms have been described, such as antiphospholipid antibodies that bind to the neural tissue, deregulating their functions and having an immediate pathogenic effect. Conclusions, This review summarizes the latest data regarding the clinical aspects, radiological and therapeutic of major neurologic manifestations associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. [source]


Neurologic disorders in 432 consecutive patients with small cell lung carcinoma

CANCER, Issue 4 2004
Tatjana Seute M.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND Neurologic complications are an important cause of morbidity and possibly also mortality in patients with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). The current study was undertaken to prospectively investigate survival and the frequency of neurologic disorders in patients with SCLC. METHODS Between October 1980 and September 2001, 432 consecutive patients with microscopically proven SCLC were included in the current study. Patients underwent neurologic examinations on a regular basis prior to, during, and after treatment. Routine imaging of the brain (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) was performed before and after systemic therapy. RESULTS A neurologic disorder was diagnosed in approximately 56% of the SCLC patients. In nearly half of the cases, the neurologic disorder already was present at the time of diagnosis. Brain metastases (BM) were diagnosed most frequently. Seventy-four patients (18%) had BM at the time of diagnosis; in 20 of these patients, the BM did not demonstrate clinical signs. Another 101 patients developed BM during follow-up. The 2-year cumulative risk of BM reached 49% for patients with limited disease (LD) and 65% for patients with extensive disease (ED). Patients with BM as the only site of disease dissemination were found to have a poorer survival compared with LD patients. The majority of the nonmetastatic disorders preceded the diagnosis of SCLC. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) was diagnosed most frequently. CONCLUSIONS In this prospective study, neurologic disorders were diagnosed in greater than half of the patients with SCLC. BM were detected most frequently. Approximately 18% of the patients were found to have BM at the time of diagnosis. In approximately 33% of the cases, these BM did not cause symptoms. BM were found to have a negative effect on survival in patients with SCLC. Cancer 2004;100:801,6. © 2004 American Cancer Society. [source]


Clinical Presentations and Phenomenology of Myoclonus

EPILEPSIA, Issue 2003
Edward Faught
Summary: The term "myoclonus" has been used to describe heterogeneous phenomena involving sudden movements, but there is no generally accepted, precise definition of myoclonus. Myoclonus can often be classified based on electroencephalographic (EEG) and/or electromyographic (EMG) data. Some myoclonic epilepsy syndromes, including juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, may frequently be misdiagnosed because of failure to obtain a complete patient history and/or failure to appreciate characteristic EEG changes. A good understanding of the features associated with myoclonic disorders (particularly the myoclonic epilepsies) and of features associated with other neurologic disorders that are often confused with myoclonic disorders is an invaluable aid in obtaining an accurate diagnosis and will ultimately help in determining the best course of treatment for patients. [source]


Neurological manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 4 2010
Carlos E. M. Rodrigues
Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (4): 350,359 Abstract Background, Neurologic disorders are among the most common and important clinical manifestations associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). It is characterized by diverse neurological manifestations. These include stroke, transient ischaemic attack, Sneddon's syndrome, convulsions/epilepsy, dementia, cognitive deficits, headaches/migraine, chorea, multiple sclerosis-like, transverse myelitis, ocular symptoms and Guillain,Barré syndrome. Material and methods, We review the latest data about neurologic disorders and APS. Results, In patients under 45 years of age, 20% of strokes are potentially associated with APS. Our study group recently reported a correlation between primary APS and peripheral neuropathy. Only one study investigated the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy in patients diagnosed with PAPS through electrophysiological study and showed alterations in 35% of patients. The mechanism of nervous system involvement in APS is considered to be primarily thrombotic. However, other mechanisms have been described, such as antiphospholipid antibodies that bind to the neural tissue, deregulating their functions and having an immediate pathogenic effect. Conclusions, This review summarizes the latest data regarding the clinical aspects, radiological and therapeutic of major neurologic manifestations associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. [source]


IMAGING STUDY: Prefrontal cortex morphometry in abstinent adolescent marijuana users: subtle gender effects

ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
Krista Lisdahl Medina
ABSTRACT Adult human studies suggest frontal dysfunction associated with chronic marijuana (MJ) use, but due to continued neuromaturation, adult studies may not generalize to adolescents. This study characterized prefrontal cortex (PFC) morphometry in chronic MJ-using adolescents following 1 month of monitored abstinence. Data were collected from MJ users (n = 16) and controls (n = 16) aged 16,18. Extensive exclusionary criteria included co-morbid psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Substance use and anatomical measures were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. PFC volumes were ascertained from manual tracing by reliable raters on high-resolution magnetic resonance images. After controlling for lifetime alcohol use, gender and intracranial volume, MJ users did not differ from controls in PFC volume. However, marginal group-by-gender interactions were observed (P < 0.09): female MJ users demonstrated comparatively larger PFC volumes while male MJ users had smaller volumes compared with same-gender controls. Further, group status and total PFC volume interacted in predicting executive functioning (P < 0.05). Among MJ users, smaller PFC total volume was associated with better executive functioning while the opposite pattern was seen among the controls. These preliminary results indicate that gender may moderate the relationship between MJ use and PFC morphometry. Given the relationship between larger PFC total volumes and poorer executive functioning among MJ users, female MJ users may be at increased risk for neurocognitive consequences. Future research will measure PFC gray and white matter separately and follow boys and girls over adolescence to examine the influence of MJ use on neurodevelopment. [source]


Report of an EFNS task force on management of sleep disorders in neurologic disease (degenerative neurologic disorders and stroke)

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 11 2007
P. Jennum
A task force to develop guidelines for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of sleep disorders in degenerative neurologic disorders and stroke was initiated by the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS). The aims were to provide evidence-based recommendations in the management of sleep disorders associated with degenerative neurologic disorders and stroke. Neurological patients often have significant sleep disorders like sleep-related breathing disorders (SBD), insomnia, sleep-related motor and rapid eye movement behavioral disorders affecting nocturnal sleep and daytime function. A polysomnography (PSG) is usually a diagnostic minimum for the diagnoses of the most commonly reported sleep disorders in patients with neurologic diseases. A full video-PSG/video-EEG-PSG should be considered in patients with nocturnal motor and/behavior manifestations. Respiratory polygraphy has a moderate sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of SBD without neurologic diseases, but its value in patients with neurologic diseases has not been evaluated. Oximetry has a poor sensitivity-specificity for the identification of SDB. Continuous and bi-level positive airway pressure devices are the most effective treatment of SDB in patients with neurologic diseases. There is a need for further studies focusing on the diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities in patients with sleep disorders and degenerative neurologic diseases and stroke. [source]


Neuronal pigmented autophagic vacuoles: lipofuscin, neuromelanin, and ceroid as macroautophagic responses during aging and disease

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2008
David Sulzer
Abstract The most striking morphologic change in neurons during normal aging is the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles filled with lipofuscin or neuromelanin pigments. These organelles are similar to those containing the ceroid pigments associated with neurologic disorders, particularly in diseases caused by lysosomal dysfunction. The pigments arise from incompletely degraded proteins and lipids principally derived from the breakdown of mitochondria or products of oxidized catecholamines. Pigmented autophagic vacuoles may eventually occupy a major portion of the neuronal cell body volume because of resistance of the pigments to lysosomal degradation and/or inadequate fusion of the vacuoles with lysosomes. Although the formation of autophagic vacuoles via macroautophagy protects the neuron from cellular stress, accumulation of pigmented autophagic vacuoles may eventually interfere with normal degradative pathways and endocytic/secretory tasks such as appropriate response to growth factors. [source]


Neuroimaging and Neurologic Complications after Organ Transplantation

JOURNAL OF NEUROIMAGING, Issue 2 2007
ivkovi
ABSTRACT Neurologic complications are common after transplantation and affect 30-60% of transplant recipients. The etiology of most of the posttransplant neurologic disorders is related to the opportunistic infections, both systemic and involving central nervous system (CNS), toxicity of immunosuppressive medications, and the metabolic insult created by the underlying primary disease and the transplant procedure. Neuroimaging studies are one of the key tools in the evaluation and enable early diagnosis of neurologic complications in transplant patients, especially posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome, central pontine myelinolysis, intracerebral hemorrhage, and fungal and bacterial abscesses. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred technique, but each of the available neuroimaging techniques offers a unique insight into the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying neurologic complications of transplantation. The role of neuroimaging in this population includes early detection of calcineurin inhibitor neurotoxicity, opportunistic infections, neoplasia, metabolic disorders, or cerebrovascular diseases. In addition, we can monitor longitudinal progression of disease and treatment response. [source]


Interactions between neural membrane glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid mediators: A recipe for neural cell survival or suicide

JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 9 2007
Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Abstract The neural membranes contain phospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol, and proteins. Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are precursors for lipid mediators involved in signal transduction processes. Degradation of glycerophospholipids by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) generates arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA). Arachidonic acid is metabolized to eicosanoids and DHA is metabolized to docosanoids. The catabolism of glycosphingolipids generates ceramide, ceramide 1-phosphate, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate. These metabolites modulate PLA2 activity. Arachidonic acid, a product derived from glycerophospholipid catabolism by PLA2, modulates sphingomyelinase (SMase), the enzyme that generates ceramide and phosphocholine. Furthermore, sphingosine 1-phosphate modulates cyclooxygenase, an enzyme responsible for eicosanoid production in brain. This suggests that an interplay and cross talk occurs between lipid mediators of glycerophospholipid and glycosphingolipid metabolism in brain tissue. This interplay between metabolites of glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism may play an important role in initiation and maintenance of oxidative stress associated with neurologic disorders as well as in neural cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recent studies indicate that PLA2 and SMase inhibitors can be used as neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic agents. Development of novel inhibitors of PLA2 and SMase may be useful for the treatment of oxidative stress, and apoptosis associated with neurologic disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and head and spinal cord injuries. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Resolving Feeding Difficulties With Early Airway Intervention in Pierre Robin Sequence

THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 1 2008
Michael E. Lidsky MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: To observe rates of gastrostomy tube (g-tube) placement in Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) and to determine whether relieving airway obstruction solves feeding difficulties. Study Design: All PRS referrals to a multidisciplinary cleft team for children at a tertiary pediatric hospital from January 1988 to June 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Methods: Patients were analyzed for occurrence of g-tube placement, neurologic disorders, and airway intervention including tracheotomy and mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Results: Sixty-seven PRS patients were divided into two categories: 51 (76.1%) isolated PRS (iPRS) and 16 (23.9%) with additional disorders and syndromes (sPRS). Patients were then placed into two subgroups: those who received early airway intervention and those who received late or no airway intervention. Of the 51 iPRS children, 12 (23.5%) received early airway intervention, none of whom required a g-tube. There were 39 (76.5%) children who received late or no airway intervention, and 5 (12.8%) of these required g-tube placement. Of the 16 sPRS children, 8 (50%) received early airway intervention, and 7 (87.5%) of these still required a g-tube. Of the remaining 8 (50%) sPRS patients who received late or no airway intervention, 5 (62.5%) required a g-tube. Conclusion: In children with iPRS, feeding difficulties can be resolved with early airway intervention. Delaying airway intervention may necessitate feeding assistance because all of the iPRS children who required a g-tube fell into this category. The presence of additional disorders and syndromes further complicates treatment because most of the sPRS children required g-tubes regardless of airway intervention. [source]


Treatment of pediatric neurologic disorders

ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 2 2006
John Bodensteiner
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Neurologic disorders in 432 consecutive patients with small cell lung carcinoma

CANCER, Issue 4 2004
Tatjana Seute M.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND Neurologic complications are an important cause of morbidity and possibly also mortality in patients with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). The current study was undertaken to prospectively investigate survival and the frequency of neurologic disorders in patients with SCLC. METHODS Between October 1980 and September 2001, 432 consecutive patients with microscopically proven SCLC were included in the current study. Patients underwent neurologic examinations on a regular basis prior to, during, and after treatment. Routine imaging of the brain (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) was performed before and after systemic therapy. RESULTS A neurologic disorder was diagnosed in approximately 56% of the SCLC patients. In nearly half of the cases, the neurologic disorder already was present at the time of diagnosis. Brain metastases (BM) were diagnosed most frequently. Seventy-four patients (18%) had BM at the time of diagnosis; in 20 of these patients, the BM did not demonstrate clinical signs. Another 101 patients developed BM during follow-up. The 2-year cumulative risk of BM reached 49% for patients with limited disease (LD) and 65% for patients with extensive disease (ED). Patients with BM as the only site of disease dissemination were found to have a poorer survival compared with LD patients. The majority of the nonmetastatic disorders preceded the diagnosis of SCLC. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) was diagnosed most frequently. CONCLUSIONS In this prospective study, neurologic disorders were diagnosed in greater than half of the patients with SCLC. BM were detected most frequently. Approximately 18% of the patients were found to have BM at the time of diagnosis. In approximately 33% of the cases, these BM did not cause symptoms. BM were found to have a negative effect on survival in patients with SCLC. Cancer 2004;100:801,6. © 2004 American Cancer Society. [source]