Neurologic Diseases (neurologic + diseases)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Heat Shock Protein-27 Is Upregulated in the Temporal Cortex of Patients with Epilepsy

EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2004
Hans-J Bidmon
Summary:,Purpose: Heat shock protein-27 (HSP-27) belongs to the group of small heat shock proteins that become induced in response to various pathologic conditions. HSP-27 has been shown to protect cells and subcellular structures, particularly mitochondria, and serves as a carrier for estradiol. It is a reliable marker for tissues affected by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress and related cellular defence mechanisms are currently thought to play a major role during experimentally induced epileptic neuropathology. We addressed the question whether HSP-27 becomes induced in the neocortex resected from patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Methods: Human epileptic temporal neocortex was obtained during neurosurgery, and control tissue was obtained at autopsy from subjects without known neurologic diseases. The tissues were either frozen for Western blot analysis or fixed in Zamboni's fixative for the topographic detection of HSP-27 at the cellular level by means of immunohistochemistry. Results: HSP-27 was highly expressed in all epilepsy specimens and in the cortex of a patient who died in the final stage of multiple sclerosis (positive control), whereas only low amounts of HSP-27 were detectable in control brains. In epilepsy patients, HSP-27 was present in astrocytes and in the walls of blood vessels. The intracortical distribution patterns varied strongly among the epilepsy specimens. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that HSP-27 becomes induced in response to epileptic pathology. Although the functional aspects of HSP-27 induction during human epilepsy have yet to be elucidated, it can be concluded that HSP-27 is a marker for cortical regions in which a stress response has been caused by seizures. [source]

Report of an EFNS task force on management of sleep disorders in neurologic disease (degenerative neurologic disorders and stroke)

P. Jennum
A task force to develop guidelines for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of sleep disorders in degenerative neurologic disorders and stroke was initiated by the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS). The aims were to provide evidence-based recommendations in the management of sleep disorders associated with degenerative neurologic disorders and stroke. Neurological patients often have significant sleep disorders like sleep-related breathing disorders (SBD), insomnia, sleep-related motor and rapid eye movement behavioral disorders affecting nocturnal sleep and daytime function. A polysomnography (PSG) is usually a diagnostic minimum for the diagnoses of the most commonly reported sleep disorders in patients with neurologic diseases. A full video-PSG/video-EEG-PSG should be considered in patients with nocturnal motor and/behavior manifestations. Respiratory polygraphy has a moderate sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of SBD without neurologic diseases, but its value in patients with neurologic diseases has not been evaluated. Oximetry has a poor sensitivity-specificity for the identification of SDB. Continuous and bi-level positive airway pressure devices are the most effective treatment of SDB in patients with neurologic diseases. There is a need for further studies focusing on the diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities in patients with sleep disorders and degenerative neurologic diseases and stroke. [source]

Serum S100B in elderly patients with and without delirium

Barbara C. van Munster
Abstract Objective Elevation of S100B has been shown after various neurologic diseases with cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to compare the serum level of S100B of patients with and without delirium and investigate the possible associations with different subtypes of delirium. Methods Acutely admitted medical patients aged 65 years or more were included from 2005 through 2008. Delirium was diagnosed by Confusion Assessment Method, delirium subtype by Delirium Symptom Interview and preexistent global cognitive function by the ,Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline-short form'. S100B levels were determined in serum by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results Samples of 412 patients were included, 91 during delirium, 35 after delirium and 286 of patients without delirium. Patients with delirium (31%) were significantly older, 81.5 versus 76.6 years (p,<,0.001) and experienced significantly more often preexistent cognitive and functional impairment (p,<,0.001). S100B level differed significantly (p,=,0.004) between the three groups: median 0.07,,g/L (inter-quartile ranges: 0.05,0.14,,g/L) during delirium, 0.12,,g/L (0.05,0.29,,g/L) after delirium and 0.06,,g/L (0.03,0.10,,g/L) in patients without delirium. Combining the impact of cognitive impairment, infection and age on S100B, highest S100B was observed in the oldest patients after delirium with preexistent cognitive impaired and infection. Delirium subtype and S100B level were not significantly correlated. Conclusion Higher S100B levels were found in patients with delirium than in patients without delirium, with highest levels of S100B in samples taken after delirium. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the increase of S100B and the possible association with long term cognitive impairment. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Predictors of complications in therapeutic plasma exchange

Carsten P. Bramlage
Abstract Plasma exchange (PE) is used for blood purification to modulate proteins involved in pathological processes. As the number of patients receiving PE treatment and the heterogeneity of the underlying diseases is steadily increasing, we evaluated the most frequent complications and analyzed causes leading to adverse reactions. 883 PE procedures in 113 patients between the years 2000 to 2006 were retrospectively analyzed with respect to complications. Additionally, underlying diseases and settings of PE procedure were analyzed to identify high-risk patients and respective PE settings. A total of 226 adverse reactions were recorded (25.6% of all PE procedures). Most complications were mild (n = 121, 13.7%) or moderate (n = 98, 11.0%). In seven cases (n = 7, 0.7%), severe, life-threatening adverse events were induced by PE either due to severe allergic reactions (n = 4, 0.5%) or to sepsis (n = 3, 0.3%). Patients with neurologic diseases had a significantly higher risk to develop complications compared to those with internal diseases (P = 0.013). This was due to a higher rate of PE associated adverse events (in particular hypotension) and complications associated with vascular access. Among patients from internal medicine those with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) had the highest risk to develop complications. Patients with neurological diseases compared to those with medical conditions and patients with HUS/TTP compared to those with other diseases had a higher risk to develop complications. However, severe adverse events are rare. Thus, PE seems to be a safe and recommendable procedure. J. Clin. Apheresis, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Structure, function, property, and role in neurologic diseases and other diseases of the sHsp22

Zhiping Hu
Abstract Small heat shock proteins are members of the heat shock proteins family. They share important identical features: 1) they form the conserved structure ,,-crystallin domain' with about 80,100 residues in the C-terminal part of the proteins; 2) they have monomeric molecular masses ranging in 12,43 kDa; 3) they associate into large oligomers consisting in many cases of subunits; 4) they increase expression under stress conditions; 5) they exhibit a highly dynamic structure; and 6) they play a chaperone-like role. Hsp22 (also known as HspB8, H11, and E2IG1) retains the structural motif of the ,,-crystallin' family of Hsps and is a member of the superfamily of sHsps. Hsp22 displays chaperone activity, autokinase activity, and trigger or block apoptosis activity. It differs from canonical family members existing as a monomer. A decrease in the HspB8 activity may contribute to the development of some neurologic diseases and others. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Expression Of O-Acetyl Sialic Acid On Cerebral Microcirculation In A Glycine Or Taurine Treated Diabetic Rat Model

A Noe
Expression of sialic acid is altered in Diabetes mellitus. This modification has also been involved with both vascular and neurologic diseases, and with the increase of no enzymatic glycosylation of proteins. In our opinion, the lectins were very useful with specificity for sialic acids in order to determine the level of sialic acid expression on cerebral microcirculation in a diabetic Wistar rat model with streptozotocin. In this model, the glycine (1%) and taurine (0.5%) aminoacids were placed in drinking-water by six months. At the end of this time, the animals were sacrificed, their brains surgically removed and frozen in liquid nitrogen, and the specimens cut in serial sections. Immediately, the sections were incubated with different biotin-labelled lectins specific to sialic acid using peroxidase-labelled avidin as second ligand and H2O2 chromogen. The results showed greater O-acetyl sialic acid expression in cerebral capillaries of untreated diabetic rats than in glycine-, taurine-treated diabetic rats or than in control animals. The minor sialic acid expression may be an indicator of degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or the vascular disease of diabetic patients and probably is related to cellular protective properties of the glycine and taurine aminoacids. These first protective characteristics that have been observed in both ischemia with cellular ATP depletion models, suggest the utilization of aminoacids glycine or taurine in diabetic patient in order to avoid the development of microinfarcts. [source]

The Coxib NSAIDs: Potential Clinical and Pharmacologic Importance in Veterinary Medicine

Mary Sarah Bergh
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to control acute and chronic pain as well as to manage oncologic and neurologic diseases in human and veterinary patients. Despite ongoing research and efforts to improve the safety and efficacy of existing drugs, adverse effects such as gastrointestinal irritation, renal and hepatic toxicity, interference with hemostasis, and reproductive problems persist. The true incidence of NSAID-induced adverse effects in animals is unknown, but is likely underestimated, because cats and dogs may be more sensitive than humans to NSAIDs due to alterations in drug metabolism, absorption, and enterohepatic recirculation. NSAIDs produce both analgesia and toxic adverse effects primarily by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX), thereby decreasing the production of prostaglandins that signal inflammation and pain as well as mediate physiologic functions such as platelet aggregation, gastric protection, and electrolyte balance in the kidney. The presence of at least 2 COX isoforms may account for variability in NSAID efficacy and toxicity both within and among species. This paper reviews and evaluates the published literature on the safety, pharmacology, uses, and complications of a subclass of COX-1,sparing drugs, the coxibs, in veterinary medicine. Coxibs and other COX-1,sparing drugs provide a clinically useful improvement over traditional NSAIDs, but data are incomplete and more in vivo species-specific, target-tissue, and clinical studies are needed. [source]

Metabolite proton T2 mapping in the healthy rhesus macaque brain at 3 T

Songtao Liu
Abstract The structure and metabolism of the rhesus macaque brain, an advanced model for neurologic diseases and their treatment response, is often studied noninvasively with MRI and 1H-MR spectroscopy. Due to the shorter transverse relaxation time (T2) at the higher magnetic fields these studies favor, the echo times used in 1H-MR spectroscopy subject the metabolites to unknown T2 weighting, decreasing the accuracy of quantification which is key for inter- and intra-animal comparisons. To establish the "baseline" (healthy animal) T2 values, we mapped them for the three main metabolites' T2s at 3 T in four healthy rhesus macaques and tested the hypotheses that their mean values are similar (i) among animals; and (ii) to analogs regions in the human brain. This was done with three-dimensional multivoxel 1H-MR spectroscopy at (0.6 0.6 0.5 cm)3 = 180 ,L spatial resolution over a 4.2 3.0 2.0 = 25 cm3 (,30%) of the macaque brain in a two-point protocol that optimizes T2 precision per unit time. The estimated T2s in several gray and white matter regions are all within 10% of those reported in the human brain (mean standard error of the mean): N -acetylaspartate = 316 7, creatine = 177 3, and choline = 264 9 ms, with no statistically significant gray versus white matter differences. Magn Reson Med, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation of Gene Expression

Harini Sampath B.Sc.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), specifically the n-3 series, have been implicated in the prevention of various human diseases, including obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, and inflammatory and neurologic diseases. PUFAs function mainly by altering membrane lipid composition, cellular metabolism, signal transduction, and regulation of gene expression. PUFAs regulate the expression of genes in various tissues, including the liver, heart, adipose tissue, and brain. The role of transcription factors such as SREBP1c and nuclear receptors such as PPAR-,, HNF-4,, and LXR, in mediating the nuclear effects of PUFAs are addressed. [source]

Serologic markers of neurologic diseases: The control groups

Adam B. Cohen MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Native and transformed ,2 -macroglobulin in plasma from patients with multiple sclerosis

M. Gunnarsson
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease with unknown etiology. Various proteinases have been observed in increased levels in the central nervous system of patients with MS, which may contribute to the release of immunogenic myelin components. ,2 -Macroglobulin (,2M) inhibits a broad spectrum of proteinases sterically, undergoing major conformational changes induced by the proteinases themselves. Moreover, ,2M acts as a carrier of several cytokines in the systemic circulation. By use of radial immunodiffusion, we determined the total ,2M levels in plasma from 28 MS patients and 15 control subjects [14 patients with other neurologic diseases (OND) and one healthy individual]. No significant differences in total ,2M concentration were observed between the MS patients and the control subjects. A comparison of the degree of ,2M transformation in MS patients with different disease courses and controls was performed, using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for binding to native and transformed ,2M, respectively. The fractions of transformed ,2M were significantly increased in patients with secondary or primary progressive disease course compared with the controls. No significant differences were obtained using a native-specific mAb. At least a major proportion of ,2M from the MS patients was able to change conformation from its native to its transformed state, as demonstrated by a shift in mAb reactivity, following methylamine treatment of the plasma samples. In conclusion, the results indicate that plasma ,2M may be inactivated at a higher degree in patients with chronic progressive MS compared with patients with OND. This may influence the levels of proteinases and cytokines in the systemic circulation and may furthermore have diagnostic implications. [source]