Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Neurologic

  • chronic infantile neurologic
  • infantile neurologic

  • Terms modified by Neurologic

  • neurologic abnormality
  • neurologic complications
  • neurologic deficit
  • neurologic disease
  • neurologic diseases
  • neurologic disorder
  • neurologic disorders
  • neurologic dysfunction
  • neurologic evaluation
  • neurologic event
  • neurologic examination
  • neurologic function
  • neurologic impairment
  • neurologic injury
  • neurologic manifestation
  • neurologic outcome
  • neurologic recovery
  • neurologic sequelae
  • neurologic sign
  • neurologic symptom

  • Selected Abstracts

    Shared Mechanisms and Comorbidities in Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders

    HEADACHE, Issue 2001
    Stephen D. Silberstein MD
    Migraine may be comorbid with several other neurologic and psychiatric conditions, including mood disorders (eg, depression, anxiety, panic disorder), epilepsy, stroke, and essential tremor. Comorbidity presents physicians with opportunities and challenges for both diagnosis and treatment. All diseases must be considered, and therapeutic strategies may need to be modified to avoid potential drug interactions. Comorbidities also may provide clues to the pathophysiologies and any shared mechanisms of the two disorders. Longitudinal studies have demonstrated a bidirectional influence between migraine and major depression, but not between migraine and other severe headache. Migraine is strongly and consistently associated with panic disorder. The risk of migraine in epilepsy is increased particularly in individuals with head trauma, partial seizures, and a positive family history of migraine. The influence is bidirectional. There is also growing evidence of an association between migraine and stroke, particularly among women of childbearing age and individuals who experience migraine with aura. Lastly, a bidirectional association between migraine and essential tremor also exists. These findings suggest that migraine, major depression, epilepsy, and essential tremor share one or more common etiologies. Clinicians should be mindful of them as they design treatment strategies, and also should consider the use of a single pharmacologic agent that is effective for all conditions. [source]

    The Effect of Ultra Low Dose Epidural Analgesia on Newborn Breastfeeding Behaviors

    RN assistant professor, Sharon Radzyminski PhD, graduate program director
    Objective: To determine whether a difference in breastfeeding behaviors could be observed between newborns whose mothers received epidural analgesia for labor pain relief and those newborns whose mothers received no pain medication in labor. Design: There were two groups of neonates in this study. One group was born to mothers who received epidural analgesia, and one group was born to mothers who received no pain medication for labor. Both groups were observed for initial breastfeeding behaviors using the Premature Infant Breastfeeding Behavior Scale following birth and at 24 hours. Central nervous system functioning in the newborn was measured with the Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score at 2 and 24 hours of age. Setting: A large tertiary hospital in northeast Ohio. Participants: Fifty-six breastfeeding mother-newborn dyads. All mothers were healthy multiparae who gave birth vaginally to normal, full-term, healthy newborns. Main Outcome Measures: Newborns were observed for rooting, latch on, sucking, swallowing, activity state, and neurobehavior. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in breastfeeding behaviors at birth or at 24 hours of age. Conclusion: A possible cause for the lack of significant results may have been the ultra low dose of bupivacaine and fentanyl used in this sample. [source]

    Late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn

    Özcan Bör
    Abstract Background: Late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN) may occur without an underlying disorder or as a secondary manifestation of an underlying disorder. It may be seen in fully breast-fed infants without a routine supplementation of vitamin K. In contrast, idiopathic late HDN is defined as HDN without the presence of any risk factor, such as gastroenteritis or use of antibiotics. Severe hemorrhagic symptoms frequently occur. Methods: Between March 1987 and May 1997, we evaluated 15 infants with idiopathic late HDN, who were diagnosed by detailed history, physical examination and laboratory findings. Results: The age (mean~SD) at onset of symptoms was 62.4~33.9 days. All children were breast-fed infants and were born at term from healthy mothers. The delivery histories were uneventful. There was no history of vitamin K administration at birth. Signs and symptoms of the patients were convulsions (47%), feeding intolerance and poor sucking (47%), irritability (33%) and pallor (20%). In physical examination; there was bulging or full fontanel in 10 patients (67%), diminished or absent neonatal reflexes in nine patients (60%) and ecchymosis in three patients (20%). Before administration of vitamin K, prothrombin time (PT) was 76.1~43.0 s and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) was 123.4~68.8 s. Six to 12 h after administration of vitamin K, PT was 15.6~1.8 s and PTT was 33.4~1.0 s. Neurologic, gastrointestinal and skin hemorrhagic findings were found in 11 (73%), three (20%) and three patients (20%), respectively. There were both neurologic and skin bleeding symptoms in two patients. The mortality in the present study was 33%. Conclusions: Late HDN results in severe hemorrhage, especially hemorrhage in the central nervous system. Administration of vitamin K (1 mg, i.m.) at the birth can reduce these severe complications. [source]

    Loop Diuretic Therapy, Thiamine Balance, and Heart Failure

    Domenic A. Sica MD
    Thiamine, or vitamin B1, is a water-soluble B complex vitamin that was first discovered in 1910 in the process of exploring how rice bran cured patients of beriberi. Thiamine is not synthesized in humans, therefore its availability for necessary cellular processes hinges on its continual ingestion. The amount of thiamine one needs to ingest to maintain balance is disease state-dependent or medication-dependent. Severe chronic thiamine deficiency can have significant neurologic and cardiac effects, the latter is reflected in a particular type of heart failure called wet beriberi. This form of heart failure clearly benefits from thiamine supplementation. It is unclear, however, whether thiamine supplementation offers any benefit in other forms of heart failure. Despite this, it is not unreasonable for heart failure patients to routinely ingest a thiamine-containing multivitamin; patients using diuretics have an increased urinary excretion of thiamine and thus are at a higher risk for developing thiamine deficiency. The role of thiamine in heart failure, however, remains arguable. [source]

    Palilalia, echolalia, and echopraxia,palipraxia as ictal manifestations in a patient with left frontal lobe epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2009
    Yang-Je Cho
    Summary Palilalia is a relatively rare pathologic speech behavior and has been reported in various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. We encountered a case of palilalia, echolalia, and echopraxia,palipraxia as ictal phenomena of left frontal lobe epilepsy. A 55-year-old, right-handed man was admitted because of frequent episodes of rapid reiteration of syllables. Video-electroencephalography monitoring revealed stereotypical episodes of palilalia accompanied by rhythmic head nodding and right-arm posturing with ictal discharges over the left frontocentral area. He also displayed echolalia or echopraxia,palipraxia, partially responding to an examiner's stimulus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed encephalomalacia on the left superior frontal gyrus and ictal single photon emission computed tomography showed hyperperfusion just above the lesion, corresponding to the left supplementary motor area (SMA), and subcortical nuclei. This result suggests that the neuroanatomic substrate involved in the generation of these behaviors as ictal phenomena might exist in the SMA of the left frontal lobe. [source]

    The spectrum of benign myoclonus of early infancy: Clinical and neurophysiologic features in 102 patients

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 5 2009
    Roberto H. Caraballo
    Summary Purpose:, To redefine benign myoclonus of early infancy (BMEI) through analysis of clinical and neurophysiologic features in 102 patients with the aim to widen the spectrum of the syndrome, including a number of different clinical expressions of transient nonepileptic paroxysmal movements occurring in normal infants. Methods:, We recruited patients from one center in Argentina and two in Italy, including infants with normal neurologic and psychomotor development presenting with brief paroxysmal abnormal movements. Children with motor phenomena occurring only during sleep were excluded. Patients with abnormal interictal or ictal electroencephalography (EEG) findings were also excluded. The follow-up ranged from 2,40 years. Results:, One hundred and two infants (60 male) met the inclusion criteria. Age at onset ranged from 1,12 months, with a median age of 6.2 months. The following nonepileptic paroxysmal motor phenomena were recognized: (1) myoclonus, (2) spasms and brief tonic contractions, (3) shuddering, (4) atonia or negative myoclonus, (5) more than one type of motor phenomenon. In the majority of cases the episodes occurred only while awake and repeated several times a day. In 45 (44.1%) of the 102 cases contractions appeared in clusters. Conclusions:, Based on the analysis of clinical and EMG features in this large series of infants, we postulate that the spectrum of the syndrome is wider than initially suspected, and that the different transient motor manifestations and their correlation with different EMG patterns will allow recognition of this definitely benign condition comprising a variety of episodic motor phenomena in normal babies. [source]

    Seizure Outcome after Resection of Supratentorial Cavernous Malformations: A Study of 168 Patients

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2007
    Christian R. Baumann
    Summary:,Purpose: The optimal management of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) with epileptic seizures is still a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to examine seizure outcome in the largest published series of surgically treated patients with epilepsy due to a supratentorial CCM, and to define predictors for good surgical outcome. Methods: We retrospectively studied 168 consecutive patients with a single supratentorial CCM and symptomatic epilepsy in a multicenter study. Pre- and postoperative clinical examinations, age at epilepsy onset, age at operation, type of symptoms due to the CCM (seizures, headache, hemorrhage, focal deficits), type and frequency of epileptic seizures, and the localization and size of the CCM were assessed. Seizure outcome was determined in the first, second, and third postoperative years. Results: The CCM was completely resected in all patients. More than two thirds of the patients were classified as seizure free in the first 3 postoperative years. Predictors for good seizure outcome were age older than 30 years at the time of surgery, mesiotemporal CCM localization, CCM size <1.5 cm, and the absence of secondarily generalized seizures. No mortality occurred in our series, but only mild postoperative neurologic deficits in 12 (7%) patients. Conclusions: Considering the natural history of CCMs, the favorable neurologic and seizure outcome, surgical resection of CCMs should be considered in all patients with supratentorial CCMs and concomitant epilepsy, irrespective of the presence or absence of predictors for a favorable seizure outcome. [source]

    Community-based, Prospective, Controlled Study of Obstetric and Neonatal Outcome of 179 Pregnancies in Women with Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2006
    Katriina Viinikainen
    Summary:,Purpose: This study evaluated obstetric and neonatal outcome in a community-based cohort of women with active epilepsy (WWAE) compared with the general pregnant population receiving modern obstetric care. Methods: We reviewed the total population who gave birth between January 1989 and October 2000 at Kuopio University Hospital. Obstetric, demographic, and epilepsy data were collected prospectively from 179 singleton pregnancies of women with epilepsy and from 24,778 singleton pregnancies of unaffected controls. The obstetric data from the pregnancy register was supplemented with detailed neurologic data retrieved from the medical records. The data retrieved were comprehensive because of a follow-up strategy according to a predecided protocol. Results: During pregnancy, the seizure frequency was unchanged, or the change was for the better in the majority (83%) of the patients. We found no significant differences between WWAE and controls in the incidence of preeclampsia, preterm labor, or in the rates of caesarean sections, perinatal mortality, or low birth weight. However, the rate of small-for-gestational-age infants was significantly higher, and the head circumference was significantly smaller in WWAE. Apgar score at 1 min was lower in children of WWAE, and the need for care in the neonatal ward and neonatal intensive care were increased as compared with controls. The frequency of major malformations was 4.8% (,0.6,10.2%; 95% confidence interval) in the 127 children of WWAE. Conclusions: Pregnancy course is uncomplicated and neonatal outcome is good in the majority of cases when a predecided protocol is used for the follow-up of WWAE in antenatal and neurologic care. Long-term follow-up of the neurologic and cognitive development of the children of WWAE is still needed. [source]

    Autosomal Recessive Idiopathic Epilepsy in an Inbred Family from Turkey: Identification of a Putative Locus on Chromosome 9q32-33

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 5 2004
    Betül Baykan
    Summary: Purpose: The study describes the clinical features of an inbred family from Turkey with three members affected by seizures and tests possible autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance by means of linkage analysis. Methods: Personal and family history was obtained from each subject, and general physical, neurologic, and EEG examinations were performed. A set of 382 fluorescence-labeled markers was used for the initial genome-wide search. A further set of 83 markers was used to map the locus precisely and to exclude the remaining genome. Results: Twelve individuals from three generations were examined. Two subjects were affected by idiopathic epilepsy, whereas, their brother experienced a single unprovoked generalized seizure. Two siblings affected by idiopathic epilepsy and their unaffected sister showed a photoparoxysmal response to photic stimulation. Nine family members reported migraine. The genome-wide search led to the identification of a unique homozygous, 15.1-cM region shared by subjects with seizures on chromosome 9q32-33 and providing a lod score of 2.9. This locus, however, was not associated with migraine in this pedigree. Conclusions: The study suggests that idiopathic epileptic traits with AR inheritance might be underestimated in the general population and that inbred pedigrees may represent powerful tools for the identification of AR genes. [source]

    Benign Partial Epilepsies of Adolescence: A Report of 37 New Cases

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2001
    G. Capovilla
    Summary: ,Purpose: To delineate the electroclinical features of patients with partial seizures in adolescence with a benign outcome. Methods: Patients were recruited in five different Italian epilepsy centers. Patients were selected among those with partial seizures between ages 11 and 17 years. We excluded benign childhood epilepsies, those with neurologic or mental deficits, and those with neuroradiologically documented lesions. We also excluded patients with less than 3 years' follow-up or who were still receiving antiepileptic therapy. Results: There were 37 (22 male, 15 female) patients. Seizures started at the mean age of 14.5 years (range, 11,16.11). Two main electroclinical patterns emerged: 16 of 37 patients had somatomotor seizures frequently associated with focal theta discharges involving the centroparietal regions. Ten of 37 patients showed versive seizures and interictal spiking involving the posterior regions. A third group had clinical characteristics resembling the cases described by Loiseau. All had a favorable outcome. Conclusions: This relevant multicenter study further confirms the existence of benign partial epilepsies with onset during adolescence. [source]

    New Insights into the Clinical Management of Partial Epilepsies

    EPILEPSIA, Issue S5 2000
    Prof. Edouard Hirsch
    Summary The diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of seizure disorders depend on the correct identification of epileptic syndromes. Partial epilepsies are heterogeneous and can be divided into idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic epilepsies. The most common of the idiopathic localization-related epilepsies is benign epilepsy with rolandic or centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Seizures remain rare and the use of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment in all patients does not appear justified. Children who present with some of the electroclinical characteristics of BECTS may also display severe unusual neurologic, neuropsychological, or atypical symptoms. In some cases, carbamazepine has been implicated as a triggering factor. Primary reading epilepsy and idiopathic occipital lobe epilepsies with photosensitivity are examples of an overlap between idiopathic localization-related and generalized epilepsies and respond well to sodium valproate. Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy and benign familial infantile convulsions are recently described syndromes, differing in several ways from classical idiopathic localization-related epileptic syndromes. In cryptogenic or symptomatic epilepsy, the topography of the epileptogenic zone might influence drug efficacy. An individualized approach to AED selection, tailored to each patient's needs, should be used. Resistance of seizures to antiepileptic therapy may be due to diagnostic and/or treatment error or may be the result of noncompliance. Increasing the dosage, discontinuation or replacement of a drug, or addition of a second drug is indicated in truly resistant cases. The use of more than two AEDs rarely optimizes seizure control, and in some cases reduction of treatment may improve seizure control while lessening side effects. EEG-video assessment of patients with refractory epilepsy is important. Indications for and timing of epilepsy surgery should be reconsidered. Surgical therapy should probably be used more often and earlier than it is at present. [source]

    Two German CINCA (NOMID) patients with different clinical severity and response to anti-inflammatory treatment

    Angela Rösen-Wolff
    Abstract: Chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous, articular (CINCA) syndrome is characterized by fever, chronic meningitis, uveitis, sensorineural hearing loss, urticarial skin rash, and a deforming arthritis. In the CIAS1 gene of many but not all CINCA patients, disease-associated mutations have been found recently. We here describe two such patients from Germany. One of them, a 3-yr-old boy, has a 1709A,G, Y570C, mutation, which has previously been described to cause CINCA syndrome. His clinical course is very severe and no satisfying response has been achieved even with high doses of local and systemic steroids. The other patient has a somewhat milder clinical course and considerable improvement could be accomplished with moderate and low doses of steroids. In her CIAS1 gene we have found a 1043C,T, T348M, mutation, which has only been detected in Muckle,Wells syndrome before. Our results suggest that the severity of symptoms in CINCA patients may be influenced by the underlying mutation in the CIAS1 gene. Furthermore, our observations support the view that CINCA syndrome and Muckle,Wells syndrome are essentially the same disease with different degrees of severity. [source]

    Health profiles and quality of life of 518 survivors of thyroid cancer

    Pamela N. Schultz RN
    Abstract Background. Available literature describes the long-term outcome of thyroid cancer survivors with respect to thyroid cancer but not their overall medical and social well-being. Methods. Five hundred eighteen thyroid cancer survivors responded to a survey regarding medical and social impacts of their cancer experience. Results. All had surgery, and 417 (80.5%) also had some radiation. Two thirds (64.5%) reported that cancer created health effects varying by gender and passage of time; neurologic, musculoskeletal, and psychologic problems seemed most prominent. They reported more memory loss and psychologic problems than other cancer survivors and more migraine headaches than both other cancer survivors and the general population. Regarding family and work, they integrated well in society overall. However, unsolicited comments by 24.5% of responders disclosed symptoms reminiscent of thyroid hormone imbalance. Conclusion. Thyroid cancer survivors generally report good health long term but describe distinct, lasting medical problems including symptoms of thyroid dysregulation. The extent and manner in which cancer therapy contributes to the health profile of the group merits further inquiry. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 25: 000,000, 2003 [source]

    Shared Mechanisms and Comorbidities in Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders

    HEADACHE, Issue 2001
    Stephen D. Silberstein MD
    Migraine may be comorbid with several other neurologic and psychiatric conditions, including mood disorders (eg, depression, anxiety, panic disorder), epilepsy, stroke, and essential tremor. Comorbidity presents physicians with opportunities and challenges for both diagnosis and treatment. All diseases must be considered, and therapeutic strategies may need to be modified to avoid potential drug interactions. Comorbidities also may provide clues to the pathophysiologies and any shared mechanisms of the two disorders. Longitudinal studies have demonstrated a bidirectional influence between migraine and major depression, but not between migraine and other severe headache. Migraine is strongly and consistently associated with panic disorder. The risk of migraine in epilepsy is increased particularly in individuals with head trauma, partial seizures, and a positive family history of migraine. The influence is bidirectional. There is also growing evidence of an association between migraine and stroke, particularly among women of childbearing age and individuals who experience migraine with aura. Lastly, a bidirectional association between migraine and essential tremor also exists. These findings suggest that migraine, major depression, epilepsy, and essential tremor share one or more common etiologies. Clinicians should be mindful of them as they design treatment strategies, and also should consider the use of a single pharmacologic agent that is effective for all conditions. [source]

    Long-term exclusive zinc monotherapy in symptomatic Wilson disease: Experience in 17 patients,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Francisca H. H. Linn
    Exclusive monotherapy with zinc in symptomatic Wilson disease is controversial. Seventeen symptomatic patients with Wilson disease were treated with zinc only. The mean age at diagnosis and start of treatment was 18 years (range 13,26) with approximately half presenting as adolescents. Presentation was exclusively hepatic, exclusively neurologic, and combined in seven, five, and five patients, respectively. The median follow-up was 14 years (range 2,30). At baseline, two of the 12 patients with hepatic disease exhibited decompensated cirrhosis, five exhibited compensated cirrhosis, and five had less severe disease. Both patients with decompensated cirrhosis improved to a compensated state after initiation of therapy. Two of the five patients with initial compensated cirrhosis progressed to decompensated state, and three remain stable. Three of the five patients with moderate or mild liver disease remain stable and two improved. Apart from decreasing bilirubin levels, no significant changes occurred in the liver biochemistry or function during long-term follow-up. Nine of 10 neurologic patients improved markedly and one deteriorated. Two patients with exclusively neurologic presentation developed liver disease during zinc treatment. Two patients with exclusively hepatic presentation developed mild neurologic symptoms. According to 24-hour urinary copper excretions (213 ± 38 versus 91 ± 23 ,g: P = 0.01) and serum non,ceruloplasmin-bound copper concentrations (11 ± 2 versus 7 ± 1 ,g/dL: P = 0.1) at the end of follow-up, the efficacy of decoppering was less in the exclusively hepatic than in the neurologic group. The prescribed zinc dose and 24-hour urinary zinc excretions tended to be less in the exclusively hepatic group. Conclusion: The outcome of exclusive zinc therapy is generally good in cases of neurologic disease. A less satisfactory outcome in hepatic disease may relate to less efficient decoppering. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    A case of nevus comedonicus syndrome associated with neurologic and skeletal abnormalities

    Young-Joon Seo MD
    A 12-year-old male was referred to us with recurrent pus discharge from tender nodules on the right axilla dating from the neonatal period. The nodules were black, characterized by scarring with dilated follicular openings and there were black papules filled with comedo-like keratin plugs in both axillae. Physical examination revealed a bowing deformity of the right third finger and retardation in language ability. The patient was referred to the Departments of Neurology and Orthopedics in Chungnam National University Hospital, Korea. Histologic examination of one of the black comedo-like lesions showed a bulbous and dilated infundibulum that contained laminated keratin, indicating a diagnosis of nevus comedonicus. A CT scan of the brain revealed dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. The IQ (intelligence quotient) score of the patient, measured by the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, was 94. The only difficulty noted for ordinary life was learning language. A radiograph of the right hand revealed hyperextension and an ulnar drift deformity of the right middle finger. Corrective osteotomy with external fixation and an iliac bone autograft were performed. Intermittent neurologic follow-up visits were ordered for the noted language deficit. At present the patient only exhibits difficulty in calculation. Oral antibiotics were administered to the skin lesions on occasion for secondary infections and inflammation of the cysts and comedones. Extraction of the comedones was performed as needed. [source]

    Notalgia paresthetica: a study on pathogenesis

    avk MD
    Background Notalgia paresthetica is a sensory neuropathy involving the dorsal spinal nerves. The characteristic symptom is pruritus on the back, occasionally accompanied by pain, paresthesia, and/or hyperesthesia, which results in a well-circumscribed hyperpigmented patch in the symptomatic area. The etiology of this condition has not yet been completely defined. Objective Possible mechanisms that could explain the pathogenesis of notalgia paresthetica were investigated through clinical examination and various diagnostic tests. Methods Ten cases of notalgia paresthetica underwent dermatologic, neurologic, and orthopedic examination. This was followed by skin biopsy, electrodiagnostic investigation, and radiography of the spine. Results All patients had a typical symptomatology and dermatologic picture. Neurologic examination and standard electrodiagnostic investigation results were normal in all cases. Histopathology was compatible with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation; there were no amyloid deposits. In seven cases, degenerative changes in the vertebrae were observed and, in all of these cases, these changes were most prominent in the vertebrae which corresponded to the dermatome of the cutaneous lesion. Conclusions The striking correlation of notalgia paresthetica localization with degenerative changes in the spine suggests that spinal nerve impingement may contribute to the pathogenesis of this entity. [source]

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting as Subacute Delirium in an 82-Year-Old Woman

    George A. Heckman MD
    OBJECTIVES: To describe an older patient with delirium attributed to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to review the literature on neuropsychiatric manifestations of SLE in older people. DESIGN: Case report and literature review. MEDLINE search using terms systemic lupus erythematosus, neurologic, psychiatric, neuropsychiatric, autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody (ANA), antiphospholipid, anticardiolipin, anti-double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (anti-dsDNA), anti-Smith), and elderly. Additional articles obtained from hand-searched references and through experts. SETTING: Hospital (case report). PARTICIPANTS: Case report and literature cases. MEASUREMENTS: None. RESULTS: SLE is increasingly diagnosed in older adults. Onset is insidious and diagnosis is delayed because of a different clinical spectrum and immunological profile than in younger adults. Autoantibodies have an important role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric manifestations, while vasculitis is less common. Aggressive immunosuppressive therapy is typically indicated, although recent case reports suggest that lower doses may suffice. The American College of Rheumatology 1982 revised criteria may be inadequate to diagnose neuropsychiatric lupus in older persons. CONCLUSION: Neuropsychiatric symptoms can be prominent in older people, presenting features of SLE. This case illustrates the lowest dose of corticosteroids shown to be effective in an older patient with delirium due to SLE. [source]

    Improvement of Outcomes after Coronary Artery Bypass II: A Randomized Trial Comparing Intraoperative High Versus Customized Mean Arterial Pressure

    Mary E. Charlson M.D.
    Methods: Patients scheduled to undergo primary elective CABG were eligible. In one group, mean arterial pressure target during CPB was 80 mmHg ("high" MAP group); in the other group, MAP target was determined by patients' pre-bypass MAP ("custom" MAP group). The principal outcomes were mortality, major neurologic or cardiac complications, cognitive complications or deterioration in functional status. Results: Of 412 enrolled patients, 36% were women, with overall mean age of 64.7 ± 12.3 years. Duration of bypass was identical for the two randomization groups. Overall complication rates were similar: 16.5% of the high group and 14.6% of the custom group experienced one or more neurologic, cardiac or cognitive complications. When only cardiac and neurologic morbidity and mortality were considered, the rates were 11.7% and 12.6%, in the high and custom groups, respectively. The aggregate outcome rate, including functional deterioration, was 31.6% in the high group and 29.6% in the custom group. Conclusions: There were no statistically significant differences between the high MAP group and the custom MAP group for the combined outcome of mortality cardiac, neurologic or cognitive complications, and deterioration in the quality of life. [source]

    A Short-Term, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Dronedarone versus Amiodarone in Patients with Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: The DIONYSOS Study

    Dronedarone versus Amiodarone in Patients with AF.,,Introduction: We compared the efficacy and safety of amiodarone and dronedarone in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Five hundred and four amiodarone-naïve patients were randomized to receive dronedarone 400 mg bid (n = 249) or amiodarone 600 mg qd for 28 days then 200 mg qd (n = 255) for at least 6 months. Primary composite endpoint was recurrence of AF (including unsuccessful electrical cardioversion, no spontaneous conversion and no electrical cardioversion) or premature study discontinuation. Main safety endpoint (MSE) was occurrence of thyroid-, hepatic-, pulmonary-, neurologic-, skin-, eye-, or gastrointestinal-specific events, or premature study drug discontinuation following an adverse event. Results: Median treatment duration was 7 months. The primary composite endpoint was 75.1 and 58.8% with dronedarone and amiodarone, respectively, at 12 months (hazard ratio [HR] 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28,1.98; P < 0.0001), mainly driven by AF recurrence with dronedarone compared with amiodarone (63.5 vs 42.0%). AF recurrence after successful cardioversion was 36.5 and 24.3% with dronedarone and amiodarone, respectively. Premature drug discontinuation tended to be less frequent with dronedarone (10.4 vs 13.3%). MSE was 39.3 and 44.5% with dronedarone and amiodarone, respectively, at 12 months (HR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.60,1.07; P = 0.129), and mainly driven by fewer thyroid, neurologic, skin, and ocular events in the dronedarone group. Conclusion: In this short-term study, dronedarone was less effective than amiodarone in decreasing AF recurrence, but had a better safety profile, specifically with regard to thyroid and neurologic events and a lack of interaction with oral anticoagulants. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 597-605, June 2010) [source]

    Therapeutic plasma exchange as a nephrological procedure: A single-center experience ,,

    Fred E. Yeo
    Abstract In the United States, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is both performed and requested by a wide range of services, often on an empiric basis (before a diagnosis is established). Whether empiric therapy is beneficial has not been established. Patients were identified from an electronic procedure log that included those patients who received plasmapheresis at Walter Reed Army Medical Center from 1996 to 2003. The clinical indications, referring service, and outcomes (including deaths) that occurred were tabulated. Between March 1997 and August 2003, 568 TPE treatments were performed in 54 patients. The majority of the diagnoses were either neurologic (48%) or hematologic (37%). Thirty-three patients (61%) received TPE for a Category I indication. Twelve cases were performed empirically (without an established diagnosis) at the request of the referring service, most (7) performed for presumed thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Almost 80% of patients required central venous catheters for treatment. Twelve patients (22%) experienced a major complication including death, and six patients (11%) died. Of the patients who died, 5 (83%) were treated empirically versus one death (17%) among patients not treated empirically, P < 0.001 by Chi Square. Only one of the seven patients treated empirically for TTP died, however. In logistic regression analysis, empiric treatment was the only factor independently associated with death, adjusted odds ratio, 34.2, 95% CI, 3.4, 334.8, P = 0.003. The most common indication for TPE was neurological disease, which also accounted for the highest proportion of complications. With the exception of presumed TTP, performing TPE in the absence of a confirmed diagnosis was not beneficial. J. Clin. Apheresis Published 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Learning to Smile: The Neuroanatomic Basis for Smile Training

    ABSTRACT This article demonstrates that although any layperson could recognize that the smile manifests mainly in the oral and periorbital regions, a comprehension of the neurologic and musculoskeletal elements lends the clinician insight into the many aspects of a smile. The neurologic control of a smile consists of a complex process involving many facets. As with any other complex neuromuscular activity, repetitions of the act can train the central nervous system, neural network, and muscular network in efficient performance of and correct musculoskeletal activation involved in the act itself. With functional knowledge of muscles dedicated to a pleasing full smile, together with a battery of easy and effortless exercises, the clinician is able to help the patient change behavior intended to camouflage perceived oral flaws. A patient needs reassurance that behind the guidance from the clinician lies medical evidence that such routine movement of muscles will indeed improve the smile. When asked why or how the exercise succeeds, the clinician can reassure the patient based on a working knowledge of the neurologic and muscular anatomy involved. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE A functional knowledge of muscles dedicated to a pleasing full smile, together with a battery of easy and effortless exercises, provides the clinician with the ability to assist the patient in altering years of behavior intended to camouflage perceived oral flaws. [source]

    Home alone: Assessing mobility independence before discharge,,§¶

    Dennis M. Manning MD, FACC
    Abstract Hospitalists are often confronted with discharge planning responsibility and decisions for elderly patients who live alone. The absence of an in-home helper (spouse, partner, or care-giver) reduces the margin of safety and resilience to any new debility. Research has documented that during hospital stays elderly patients tend to become deconditioned, even if there is no new specific neurologic or motor deficit. In the patient whose pre-hospital mobility independence is not robust, and perhaps marginally compensated, inpatient stays for any diagnosis may result in critical decrements in mobility independence. The present study is an effort to design a bedside tool for the hospitalist by which to discern, or screen, for such debility. The tool is a hierarchical performance test we named I-MOVE (Independent Mobility Validation Examination). It is a quick series of bedside mobility requests to demonstrate capability of fundamental movements critical to independent living. We describe manner in which I-MOVE can be performed. Moreover, we describe the face validity and the high interrater reliability (> 0.90 intra-class correlation coefficient) of two RNs who independently administered and scored I-MOVE for 41 patients on a General Medical Care Unit. Although not yet studied in correlation with outcomes, nor with validated mobility assessment tools, we believe I-MOVE can serve as a useful extension of the nurse's assessment, or the Hospitalist's physical examination. Discerning the continued capability of mobility independence is a desirable, on-going insight for discharge planning of the elderly patient who resides alone. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2009;4:252,254. © 2009 Society of Hospital Medicine. [source]

    Iatrogenic Forearm Compartment Syndrome in a Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Induced by Brachial Artery Puncture and Acute Anticoagulation

    A previously healthy patient developed late compartment syndrome in the cardiac intensive care unit after a brachial artery puncture due to acute heparinization after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and stent implantation. The cardiologists recognized the problem and immediately consulted an orthopedic surgeon, who promptly performed surgery. The latter consisted of decompression and fasciotomy. The patient recovered excellent hand function without any neurologic or muscular deficits. Knowledge and understanding of the clinical aspects of this complication are crucial in this devastating syndrome. [source]

    "Whippets"-Induced Cobalamin Deficiency Manifesting as Cervical Myelopathy

    Alan L. Diamond
    ABSTRACT Background. Nitrous oxide (N O) is inhaled in anesthesia and as a recreational drug from whipped cream dispensers. Its abuse reaches ,10% in some age groups. By inactivating cobalamin (Cbl) (vitamin B12), N O can cause neurologic and hematologic manifestations. We present a case of N O-induced Cbl deficiency presenting as cervical myelopathy. Case History. After regularly inhaling N O for many months, a 31-year-old man developed limb paresthesiae and ataxia over 3 months. Examination revealed finger pseudoathetosis, hyporeflexia, decreased sensation, and gait ataxia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal, but the posterior columns of the cervical and upper thoracic cord revealed patchy nonenhancing hyperintense lesions. Serum Cbl was 98 pg/mL (normal = 170,900 pg/mL). Cbl replacement led to recovery within 3 months.Discussion. This patient presented with the symptoms and signs of Cbl deficiency. The MRI lesions in the posterior columns aided the diagnosis. Physicians need to have a high level of suspicion in cases of unexplained Cbl deficiency and myelopathy. [source]

    Isolated amyloidosis presenting with lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy: description of two cases and pathogenic review

    Shafeeq S. Ladha
    Abstract In this study, we present two cases of infiltrative, localized amyloidosis involving lumbosacral root and plexus, e.g., isolated amyloidomas. Rare and poorly understood amyloidomas may occur in both neurologic and non-neurologic tissues. The described cases emphasize potential for localized peripheral amyloidomas: (1) potential for associated , light chain lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma association; (2) e isolated amyloidosis without evidence for systemic plasma cell dyscrasia; (3) features suggestive of potential pathogenesis; and (4) discussion of treatment options including immunotherapy and resection. The limited literature and experience among other cases is described. [source]

    Neurologic Dysfunction in Hypothyroid, Hyperlipidemic Labrador Retrievers

    Christina L. Vitale
    Background: Hypothyroidism has been associated with a variety of neurologic signs, but the mechanism for this association is not completely understood. Hypothyroidism also is associated with hyperlipidemia that predisposes to atherosclerosis, increased blood viscosity, and thromboembolic events. Objective: The objective is to characterize neurologic signs potentially associated with hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in canine hypothyroidism. Animals: This study used dogs referred to North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of neurologic signs. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in which medical records of dogs with neurologic signs and a diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperlipidemia were reviewed. Details of the history, presenting signs, results of routine blood tests, thyroid tests, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and diagnostic imaging, and response to therapy were compiled. Results: Three Labrador Retrievers and one Labrador Retriever cross fit the inclusion criteria. All dogs were hypothyroid and severely hyperlipidemic. Neurologic signs included tetraparesis, central and peripheral vestibular signs, facial paralysis, and paraparesis. Two dogs had an acute history and rapid resolution of signs consistent with an infarct, the presence of which was confirmed in 1 of the dogs by magnetic resonance imaging. Two dogs had chronic histories of cranial neuropathies and paraparesis. One of these dogs had evidence of iliac thrombosis and atherosclerosis on ultrasound examination. All dogs improved with thyroid hormone supplementation. Clinical Relevance: Labrador Retrievers may be predisposed to the development of severe hyperlipidemia in association with hypothyroidism. One possible consequence of severe hyperlipidemia is the development of neurologic signs due to atherosclerosis and thromboembolic events. [source]

    Spontaneous Feline Hypertension: Clinical and Echocardiographic Abnormalities, and Survival Rate

    Valerie Chetboul
    Systemic hypertension was diagnosed in 58 of 188 untreated cats referred for evaluation of suspected hypertension-associated ocular, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and urinary disease, or diseases frequently associated with hypertension (hyperthyroidism and chronic renal failure). Hypertensive cats were significantly older than normotensive subjects (13.0 ± 3.5 years versus 9.6 ± 5.0 years; P < .01), and had a greater prevalence of retinal lesions (48 versus 3%; P < .001), gallop rhythm (16 versus 0%; P < .001), and polyuria-polydipsia (53 versus 29%; P < .01). Blood pressure was significantly higher (P < .001) in cats with retinopathies (262 ± 34 mm Hg) than in other hypertensive animals (221 ± 34 mm Hg). Hypertensive cats had a thicker interventricular septum (5.8 ± 1.7 versus 3.7 ± 0.64 mm; P < .001) and left ventricular free wall (6.2 ± 1.6 versus 4.1 ± 0.51 mm; P < .001) and a reduced diastolic left ventricular internal diameter (13.5 ± 3.2 versus 15.8 ± 0.72 mm; P < .001) than control cats. Left ventricular geometry was abnormal in 33 of 39 hypertensive subjects. No significant difference was found in age or blood pressure at the initial visit between cats that died or survived over a 9-month period after initial diagnosis of hypertension. Mean survival times were not significantly different between hypertensive cats with normal and abnormal left ventricular patterns. Further prospective studies are needed to clearly identify the factors involved in survival time in hypertensive cats. [source]

    Major nutritional issues in the management of Parkinson's disease,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 13 2009
    Michela Barichella MD
    Abstract As with other neurodegenerative diseases, neurologic and nutritional elements may interact affecting each other in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the long-term effects of such interactions on prognosis and outcome have not been given much attention and are poorly addressed by current research. Factors contributing to the clinical conditions of patients with PD are not only the basic features of PD, progression of disease, and the therapeutic approach but also fiber and nutrient intakes (in terms of both energy and protein content), fluid and micronutrient balance, and pharmaconutrient interactions (protein and levodopa). During the course of PD nutritional requirements frequently change. Accordingly, both body weight gain and loss may occur and, despite controversy, it seems that both changes in energy expenditure and food intake contribute. Nonmotor symptoms play a significant role and dysphagia may be responsible for the impairment of nutritional status and fluid balance. Constipation, gastroparesis, and gastro-oesophageal reflux significantly affect quality of life. Finally, any micronutrient deficiencies should be taken into account. Nutritional assessments should be performed routinely. Optimization of pharmacologic treatment for both motor and nonmotor symptoms is essential, but nutritional interventions and counseling could and should also be planned with regard to nutritional balance designed to prevent weight loss or gain; optimization of levodopa pharmacokinetics and avoidance of interaction with proteins; improvement in gastrointestinal dysfunction (e.g., dysphagia and constipation); prevention and treatment of nutritional deficiencies (micronutrients or vitamins). A balanced Mediterranean-like dietary regimen should be recommended before the introduction of levodopa; afterward, patients with advanced disease may benefit considerably from protein redistribution and low-protein regimens. © 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Frequency of social phobia and psychometric properties of the Liebowitz social anxiety scale in Parkinson's disease,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 12 2008
    Arthur Kummer MD
    Abstract There are few studies about social anxiety disorder in Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of this study was to assess its frequency and to explore the psychometric properties of the Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS) in PD. Ninety patients with PD underwent neurologic and psychiatric examination. Psychiatric examination was composed by a structured clinical interview (MINI-Plus) followed by the application of the LSAS, the Hamilton depression rating scale (Ham-D), and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (Ham-A). Neurologic examination included the MMSE, the UPDRS, the Hoehn-Yahr Scale, and the Schwab-England scale of activities of daily living. Social phobia was diagnosed in 50% of PD patients. The disorder was not associated with any sociodemographic or neurological feature, but was associated to major depression (P = 0.023), generalized anxiety disorder (P = 0.023), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (P = 0.013). The score of LSAS correlated positively with the scores of Ham-D and Ham-A (P < 0.001 for both). A ROC curve analysis of the LSAS suggested that a cutoff score in 41/42 provided the best balance between sensitivity and specificity. This disorder seems to be more common and not just restricted to performance as previously thought. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society [source]