Neuroleptic Treatment (neuroleptic + treatment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cognitive subprocesses and schizophrenia.


Objective:,The aim of the study is to demonstrate that deficits of information processing in schizophrenic patients can be isolated with reaction-time (RT) decomposition paradigms. Method:,Three types of visually presented tasks were applied: simple, disjunctive and choice RT-tasks. RT were split into movement latency and time necessary to execute movements. Comparisons of three samples of schizophrenic patients (295.3) with individually matched (age, sex, education and handedness) healthy controls are presented: Sample 1: 10 drug-naive first-onset patients, Sample 2: 10 neuroleptically treated first-onset patients, Sample 3: 10 neuroleptically treated chronically ill patients. Results:,Findings indicate that schizophrenia affects primarily subprocesses in which percepts are translated into appropriate actions (response-selection). Neuroleptic treatment improves processing at this stage but is accompanied by slowing of movement execution. Conclusion:,Response-selection is selectively impaired in first-onset patients. This disturbance, which might be specific for schizophrenia, can be regarded as indication of a disconnection between frontal and posterior areas. [source]

Hypofrontality in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of functional imaging studies

K. Hill
Objective:, Hypofrontality is not a well-replicated finding in schizophrenia either at rest or under conditions of task activation. Method:, Studies comparing whole brain and frontal blood flow/metabolism in schizophrenic patients and normal controls were pooled. Voxel-based studies were also combined to examine the pattern of prefrontal activation in schizophrenia. Results:, Whole brain flow/metabolism was reduced in schizophrenia to only a small extent. Resting and activation frontal flow/metabolism were both reduced with a medium effect size. Duration of illness significantly moderated resting hypofrontality, but the moderating effects of neuroleptic treatment were consistent with an influence on global flow/metabolism only. Pooling of voxel-based studies did not suggest an abnormal pattern of activation in schizophrenia. Conclusion:, Meta-analysis supports resting hypofrontality in schizophrenia. Task-activated hypofrontality is also supported, but there is little from voxel-based studies to suggest that this is associated with an altered pattern of regional functional architecture. [source]

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome during olanzapine and levomepromazine treatment

K. Järventausta
Objective: To date only five reports of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) related to olanzapine exist. The first case report was published in November 1998. Method: We report the case of a 78-year-old woman suffering from chronic schizophrenia who developed a NMS while being treated with olanzapine and levomepromazine. Before this her medication had been unchanged for more than 2 years. Results: When treated with olanzapine and levomepromazine, the patient had a fulminant NMS which was complicated with pneumonia. When the neuroleptic drug treatment was discontinued, the patient recovered. However, when this combination was restarted later due to severe agitation and hallucinations, the symptoms of NMS reappeared. Conclusion: This case report shows that the neuroleptic malignant syndrome can occur during olanzapine treatment as well as during treatment with conventional neuroleptics. This syndrome may develop even after a long and stable neuroleptic treatment. [source]

PRECLINICAL STUDY: Long-term haloperidol treatment (but not risperidone) enhances addiction-related behaviors in mice: role of dopamine D2 receptors

Rita C. Carvalho
ABSTRACT The high prevalence of psychostimulant abuse observed in schizophrenic patients may be related to the development of mesolimbic dopaminergic supersensitivity (MDS) or nigrostriatal dopaminergic supersensitivity (NDS) in response to the chronic blockade of dopamine receptors produced by typical neuroleptic treatment. We compared the effects of withdrawal from long-term administration of the typical neuroleptic haloperidol (Hal) and/or the atypical agent risperidone (Ris) on MDS and NDS, behaviorally evaluated by amphetamine-induced locomotor stimulation (AILS) and apomorphine-induced stereotypy (AIS) in mice, respectively. We further evaluated the duration of MDS and investigated the specific role of dopamine D2 receptors in this phenomenon by administering the D2 agonist quinpirole (Quin) to mice withdrawn from long-term treatment with these neuroleptics. Withdrawal (48 hours) from long-term (20 days) Hal (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) (but not 0.5 mg/kg Ris i.p.) treatment potentiated both AILS and AIS. Ris co-administration abolished the potentiation of AILS and AIS observed in Hal-withdrawn mice. Ten days after withdrawal from long-term treatment with Hal (but not with Ris or Ris + Hal), a potentiation in AILS was still observed. Only Hal-withdrawn mice presented an attenuation of locomotor inhibition produced by Quin. Our data suggest that the atypical neuroleptic Ris has a pharmacological property that counteracts the compensatory MDS and NDS developed in response to the chronic blockade of dopamine receptors imposed by Ris itself or by typical neuroleptics such as Hal. They also indicate that MDS may be long lasting and suggest that an upregulation of dopamine D2 receptors in response to long-term treatment with the typical neuroleptic is involved in this phenomenon. [source]

Mental health practitioner's attitude towards maintenance neuroleptic treatment for people with schizophrenia

N. HARRIS phd bsc(hons) rmn rgn
Pharmacological relapse prevention treatment for people with schizophrenia can last for years if not the person's lifetime. The attitude mental health practitioners (MHPs) hold regarding this treatment can have profound effects on service users' decisions related to treatment. The small number of studies focusing on this issue concentrates on the use of ,depot' preparations. To develop a validated inventory to assess the attitudes of MHPs towards treatment and evaluate the attitudes of a sample of MHPs. The inventory was developed in three stages; item selection, piloting and psychometric testing. The validated inventory was administered to a sample of 50 MHPs undertaking a degree level course in the psycho-social management of psychosis. The final inventory consisted of 21 attitudinal items and four items related to the practitioner's confidence. Results from the sample revealed areas of agreement, variation and uncertainty. A valid and reliable inventory has been developed. The administration of the inventory to 50 MHPs returned results which reflect variable attitudes and perceptions of competency towards maintenance neuroleptic treatment. This diversity in attitudes may have an impact on management of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and clinical outcomes. [source]

Consent and long-term neuroleptic treatment

N. R. Harris phd bsc(hons) rmn
The involvement of clients in the process of developing their care and treatment package is well established. If a genuine collaboration in treatment is achieved one of the fundamental bases of this process lies with ,informed consent'. Neuroleptic medication forms the basis of relapse prevention treatment for people suffering from schizophrenia with non-adherence to treatment seen as the largest cause of relapse. This paper reviews the complex and difficult issues in obtaining informed consent for this client group from within the context of the nurse's role and the problems that arise as a consequence of the blurring of professional boundaries. Throughout the paper reference is made to the expectations made by the UKCC, which provides clarification of nurses' practice in this area. [source]

Genetic, clinical, and imaging characterization of one patient with late-onset, slowly progressive, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration

Angelo Antonini MD
Abstract We report on a patient with late-onset, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) who revealed two new heterozygous mutations at gene testing and showed asymmetric moderately reduced striatal dopamine transporter binding with single photon emission computed tomography, possibly due to prolonged neuroleptic treatment. These findings expand the genetic and imaging spectrum of this rare disorder. © 2005 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Symmetry reversal in schizophrenia

Roland Kalb
Abstract Schizophrenia is associated with cortical asymmetries concentrated in the left fronto-temporal hemisphere. In order to look for functional asymmetries between the two hemispheres, the stimulus,response times of patients were split into smaller periods and the interhemispheric and intrahemispheric correlations between these periods were investigated. Three groups were compared to each other: 22 patients with schizophrenia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn; DSM-IV) treated with neuroleptics; 24 psychiatric neuroleptic-treated patients without schizophrenia; and 30 healthy subjects. All subjects were investigated by simple (one stimulus,one response) and complex (two stimuli,two responses), auditory and visual, right-hemispheric and left-hemispheric stimulus,response tasks. There were no intrahemispheric but significant interhemispheric correlations between the two auditory and between the two visual time fragments in both the healthy and the neuroleptic control group. In contrast there was a significant intrahemispheric correlation between the auditory and visual time fragment in the left hemisphere of patients with schizophrenia and no interhemispheric correlation between the auditory times. The reduction of the interhemispheric auditory correlation is interpreted as an auditory disintegration, the appearance of the left-hemispheric audiovisual correlation as an audiovisual ,hyperintegration' in patients with schizophrenia. It is questionnable as to whether these findings are due to schizophrenia or to the neuroleptic treatment. [source]