Neuroimaging Studies (neuroimaging + studies)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Neuroimaging Studies

  • functional neuroimaging studies
  • recent neuroimaging studies

  • Selected Abstracts

    Turner syndrome: Neuroimaging findings: Structural and functional

    Ronan Mullaney
    Abstract Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including the parietal lobe; cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus; and basal ganglia; and perhaps differences in "connectivity" between frontal and parieto-occipital regions. Finally, there is preliminary evidence that genomic imprinting, sex hormones and growth hormone have significant modulatory effects on brain maturation in TS. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2009;15:279,283. [source]

    Hippocampal structure and the action of cholinomimetic drugs

    John G. Csernansky
    Abstract Cholinomimetic drugs have become the clinical standard for the treatment of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). However, uncertainty remains as to the proportion of patients that respond to such drugs, and how one might predict the capacity for response before treatment is begun. The thesis of the present review is that the neuroanatomical integrity of the hippocampus determines, at least in part, the capacity of DAT patients to respond to cholinomimetic drugs. Neuroimaging studies suggest that volume losses and other neuroanatomical deformities of the hippocampus are common in patients with even mild DAT. Moreover, more severe neuroanatomical deformities of the hippocampus are associated with more severe dementia symptoms and more rapid clinical decline. Animal research, including studies of cholinergic antagonists, glutamatergic antagonists, hippocampal lesions, and animals with mutant amyloid precursor protein genes, demonstrate that behavioral abnormalities similar to those found in DAT patients, especially those related to memory, are associated with hippocampal pathology. Cholinomimetic drugs, in particular, the cholinesterase inhibitors, have been shown to reverse some but not all of these behavioral abnormalities. More research is needed in DAT patients to determine whether an analysis of hippocampal structure or function can reliably predict the outcome of treatment with cholinomimetic drugs. Further work in animals is also needed to determine the limitations of cholinomimetic drugs for reversing various types of cognitive deficits, and to develop and test other pharmacological strategies for the treatment of DAT. Drug Dev. Res. 56:531,540, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Evolution of striatal degeneration in McLeod syndrome

    P. O. Valko
    Background and purpose:, McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome (MLS) is an X-linked multisystem disorder with CNS manifestations resembling Huntington disease. Neuroimaging studies revealed striatal atrophy with predominance of the caudate nucleus. Our previous cross-sectional MRI study showed an association of volume loss in the caudate nucleus and putamen with the disease duration. Methods:, In the present study, we examined three brothers with genetically confirmed diagnosis of MLS using an observer-independent and fully automated subcortical segmentation procedure to measure striatal volumes. Results:, In a cross-sectional comparison with 20 healthy age-matched control men, the volumes of the caudate nucleus of the three patients were significantly smaller as confirmed by z -score transformations. On an individual basis, volumes in the two more severely affected and older patients were smaller than in the less affected younger brother. Longitudinal MRI-based measurements over 7 years demonstrated a statistical trend towards significant decreased caudate volumes in McLeod patients. Conclusions:, Our findings indicate that structural MRI combined with fully automated computational morphometric analyses represents an objective and observer-independent imaging tool for the representation of progressive striatal degeneration in MLS and might be a valuable methodology for cross-sectional as well as longitudinally volumetric studies in other rare neurodegenerative diseases, even on individual patients. [source]

    Dynamic links between theta executive functions and alpha storage buffers in auditory and visual working memory

    Masahiro Kawasaki
    Abstract Working memory (WM) tasks require not only distinct functions such as a storage buffer and central executive functions, but also coordination among these functions. Neuroimaging studies have revealed the contributions of different brain regions to different functional roles in WM tasks; however, little is known about the neural mechanism governing their coordination. Electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms, especially theta and alpha, are known to appear over distributed brain regions during WM tasks, but the rhythms associated with task-relevant regional coupling have not been obtained thus far. In this study, we conducted time,frequency analyses for EEG data in WM tasks that include manipulation periods and memory storage buffer periods. We used both auditory WM tasks and visual WM tasks. The results successfully demonstrated function-specific EEG activities. The frontal theta amplitudes increased during the manipulation periods of both tasks. The alpha amplitudes increased during not only the manipulation but also the maintenance periods in the temporal area for the auditory WM and the parietal area for the visual WM. The phase synchronization analyses indicated that, under the relevant task conditions, the temporal and parietal regions show enhanced phase synchronization in the theta bands with the frontal region, whereas phase synchronization between theta and alpha is significantly enhanced only within the individual areas. Our results suggest that WM task-relevant brain regions are coordinated by distant theta synchronization for central executive functions, by local alpha synchronization for the memory storage buffer, and by theta,alpha coupling for inter-functional integration. [source]

    Using fMRI to dissociate sensory encoding from cognitive evaluation of heat pain intensity

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 9 2006
    Jian Kong
    Abstract Neuroimaging studies of painful stimuli in humans have identified a network of brain regions that is more extensive than identified previously in electrophysiological and anatomical studies of nociceptive pathways. This extensive network has been described as a pain matrix of brain regions that mediate the many interrelated aspects of conscious processing of nociceptive input such as perception, evaluation, affective response, and emotional memory. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy human subjects to distinguish brain regions required for pain sensory encoding from those required for cognitive evaluation of pain intensity. The results suggest that conscious cognitive evaluation of pain intensity in the absence of any sensory stimulation activates a network that includes bilateral anterior insular cortex/frontal operculum, dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex, right superior parietal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, orbital prefrontal cortex, and left occipital cortex. Increased activity common to both encoding and evaluation was observed in bilateral anterior insula/frontal operculum and medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex. We hypothesize that these two regions play a crucial role in bridging the encoding of pain sensation and the cognitive processing of sensory input. Hum Brain Mapp, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging response to increased verbal working memory demands among patients with multiple sclerosis

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 1 2006
    Lawrence H. Sweet
    Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients frequently experience impaired verbal working memory (VWM). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may help identify neural mechanisms underlying these deficits. Neuroimaging studies of healthy adults have characterized responses associated with increased VWM demands during the n-Back task, suggesting that this experimental paradigm could help identify neural correlates of VWM deficits among MS patients. Fifteen MS patients and 15 matched control participants completed the n-Back during whole-brain fMRI. Mean signal during adjacent 0-Back blocks was subtracted, on a voxel-wise basis, from mean signal observed during n-Back blocks. Resulting difference scores for 1-, 2-, and 3-Back were compared across groups and difficulty levels. Signal intensity was positively related to difficulty level in anterior regions, including premotor, supplementary motor, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. MS patients exhibited significantly greater intensity in these areas compared to controls during the 1-Back, while portions of the left superior frontal gyrus, cingulate, and parahippocampal gyri were relatively less intense at more difficult levels. MS group responses were slower during the 1-Back and tended to be slower during the 3-Back; however, accuracy did not differ at any level. Lesion load was positively related to only 1-Back activity and unrelated to any performance measure. Results suggest that compensatory activity occurs among MS patients matched on performance accuracy. Furthermore, compensatory activity occurs predominantly in regions associated with VWM, and this may decline relative to controls as task demands increase. These findings may help to explain why MS patient performance decreases as a function of effort on neuropsychological tests. Hum Brain Mapp, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mapping the time course of nonconscious and conscious perception of fear: An integration of central and peripheral measures

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 2 2004
    Leanne M. Williams
    Abstract Neuroimaging studies using backward masking suggest that conscious and nonconscious responses to complex signals of fear (facial expressions) occur via parallel cortical and subcortical circuits. Little is known, however, about the temporal differentiation of these responses. Psychophysics procedures were first used to determine objective thresholds for both nonconscious detection (face vs. blank screen) and discrimination (fear vs. neutral face) in a backward masking paradigm. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were then recorded (n = 20) using these thresholds. Ten blocks of masked fear and neutral faces were presented under each threshold condition. Simultaneously recorded skin conductance responses (SCRs) provided an independent index of stimulus perception. It was found that Fear stimuli evoked faster SCR rise times than did neutral stimuli across all conditions, indicating that emotional content influenced responses, regardless of awareness. In the first 400 msec of processing, ERPs dissociated the time course of conscious (enhanced N4 component) from nonconscious (enhanced N2 component) perception of fear, relative to neutral. Nonconscious detection of fear also elicited relatively faster P1 responses within 100 msec post-stimulus. The N2 may provide a temporal correlate of the initial sensory processing of salient facial configurations, which is enhanced when top-down cortical feedback is precluded. By contrast, the N4 may index the conscious integration of emotion stimuli in working memory, subserved by greater cortical engagement. Hum. Brain Mapping 21:64,74, 2004. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Neuroimaging and Neurologic Complications after Organ Transplantation

    ABSTRACT Neurologic complications are common after transplantation and affect 30-60% of transplant recipients. The etiology of most of the posttransplant neurologic disorders is related to the opportunistic infections, both systemic and involving central nervous system (CNS), toxicity of immunosuppressive medications, and the metabolic insult created by the underlying primary disease and the transplant procedure. Neuroimaging studies are one of the key tools in the evaluation and enable early diagnosis of neurologic complications in transplant patients, especially posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome, central pontine myelinolysis, intracerebral hemorrhage, and fungal and bacterial abscesses. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred technique, but each of the available neuroimaging techniques offers a unique insight into the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying neurologic complications of transplantation. The role of neuroimaging in this population includes early detection of calcineurin inhibitor neurotoxicity, opportunistic infections, neoplasia, metabolic disorders, or cerebrovascular diseases. In addition, we can monitor longitudinal progression of disease and treatment response. [source]

    Headache etiology in children: A retrospective study of 125 cases

    Gülhis Deda
    AbstractBackground: To determine the headache etiology in children in the middle Anatolia region of Turkey. Methods: The clinical and laboratory findings of 125 patients, who were followed up after a diagnosis of headache in our hospital, were reviewed retrospectively. The criteria defined by the International Headache Society (IHS) were used in the classification of patients. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to age intervals: (i) group I, 5,10 years of age; and (ii) group II, 11,16 years of age. Results: There were 62 males and 63 females in the study. The patients' ages ranged from 5 to 16 years (mean (± SD) age 10.67~2.72 years). Headache was more commonly noted between 11 and 16 years of age. While headache was more frequent in male children in group I, there was female predominance in group II. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to age and gender (P>0.05). The most frequent cause of headache was migraine and the remaining causes, in decreasing order, included sinusitis (no. 11 according to IHS criteria) and tension-type and psychosomatic headaches (no. 13 according to IHS criteria). Of the 125 patients in the study, 85 (68%) had acute headache and 40 (32%) had chronic headache; 44 (35.2%) patients had acute localized-type headache, 39 (31.2%) suffered from acute recurrent-type headache, 38 (30.4%) had chronic non-progressive headache and acute generalized and chronic progressive-type headache were diagnosed in two (1.6%) patients. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain were performed in 50 and seven patients, respectively; there were abnormal findings in six patients on CT examiniation and in two patients following MRI. Conclusions: In conclusion, we stress that the most frequent cause of headache in childhood is migraine and the remaining causes, in decreasing order of frequency, were sinusitis and tension-type and psychosomatic headaches. Neuroimaging studies, such as CT or MRI, need to be performed, especially in patients with complicated symptoms. [source]

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation: Potential treatment for tinnitus?

    Abstract, Tinnitus is a common and often severely disabling disorder for which there is no satisfactory treatment. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a new, non-invasive method of modifying the excitability of the cerebral cortex, which has proven effective in auditory hallucinations and other disorders. Some early studies have been published in which TMS has been trialed in the treatment of tinnitus. The aim of the present paper was to examine the literature and consider the potential for TMS as a therapy in tinnitus. A thorough search of the tinnitus and TMS literature was conducted, and all available relevant material was examined. Discussions were held with leaders in both fields. Tinnitus is common and there are no effective treatments. It is frequently associated with deafness, and may be the result of a pathological plastic process, secondary to loss of innervation of the outer hair cells of the cochlea. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate increase blood flow to the primary and secondary auditory cortices, particularly on the left side. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive method of perturbing and inducing change in the cerebral cortex. It uses electromagnetic principles and has been successfully employed in the treatment of other conditions associated with increased activity of the cerebral cortex. A small number of studies have suggested that TMS may be effective in the treatment of tinnitus. There is a good theoretical basis and early research evidence suggesting that TMS may have treatment potential in tinnitus. Further, larger studies are necessary. [source]

    Pain during depression and relationship to rejection sensitivity

    A. Ehnvall
    Objective:, Approximately 50% of patients with depression report symptoms of pain, yet the clinical and biological mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Recent neuroimaging studies, however, support the contention that depression, as well as pain distress and rejection distress, share the same neurobiological circuits. In this study, we aimed to examine the hypothesis that perception of increased pain during depression is related to increased rejection sensitivity. Method:, The present study analysed data from a study of 186 treatment-resistant depressed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for depression and had completed a self-report questionnaire regarding currently perceived pain and rejection sensitivity. Results:, A major increase in the experience of pain during depression was predicted by a major increase in rejection sensitivity during depression. Conclusion:, The experience of increased pain during depression is related to increased rejection sensitivity. Research to further elucidate this relationship is required. [source]

    Neuroanatomical substrates of social cognition dysfunction in autism

    Kevin Pelphrey
    Abstract In this review article, we summarize recent progress toward understanding the neural structures and circuitry underlying dysfunctional social cognition in autism. We review selected studies from the growing literature that has used the functional neuroimaging techniques of cognitive neuroscience to map out the neuroanatomical substrates of social cognition in autism. We also draw upon functional neuroimaging studies with neurologically normal individuals and individuals with brain lesions to highlight the insights these studies offer that may help elucidate the search for the neural basis of social cognition deficits in autism. We organize this review around key brain structures that have been implicated in the social cognition deficits in autism: (1) the amygdala, (2) the superior temporal sulcus region, and (3) the fusiform gyrus. We review some of what is known about the contribution of each structure to social cognition and then review autism studies that implicate that particular structure. We conclude with a discussion of several potential future directions in the cognitive neuroscience of social deficits in autism. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2004;10:259,271. [source]

    Toward a neuro-developmental account of the development of declarative memory

    Patricia J. Bauer
    Abstract The study of the biological bases of memory has a long history. Based on research with patients with specific lesions and disease, animal models, and neuroimaging studies, the neural substrate that supports declarative memory in adults has been relatively well articulated. By contrast, studies of the neural bases of memory in development is in its infancy. Yet joint consideration of the processes involved in building a memory trace, and of the time course of development of the neural structures involved, has contributed to the generation of specific predictions regarding the sources of age-related change. Specifically, there are suggestions that in infancy and very early childhood, encoding and consolidation processes account for substantial age-related variance in long-term declarative memory. With development, the locus of age-related variability in the vulnerability of memory traces shifts to the later-stage processes of memory storage and retrieval. These insights are afforded by consideration of multiple levels of analysis, from the biological to the behavioral. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 50: 19,31, 2008. [source]

    An Xp; Yq Translocation Causing a Novel Contiguous Gene Syndrome in Brothers with Generalized Epilepsy, Ichthyosis, and Attention Deficits

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2003
    Michael J. Doherty
    Summary:,Purpose: We describe two brothers with generalized epilepsy, attention deficits, congenital ichthyosis, and Leri,Weill dyschondrosteosis who harbor an unusual Xp; Yq translocation chromosome, resulting in a novel contiguous gene syndrome because of deletion of genes from the distal short arm of the X chromosome. Methods: Physical examination, neuropsychologic testing, EEG, and neuroimaging studies were performed. Because of their unusual phenotype, karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and further molecular analyses were carried out to refine the break points of the underlying unbalanced sex chromosome rearrangement. Results: The subjects had generalized epilepsy, X-linked ichthyosis, Madelung deformities, mesomelia, normal intelligence, and attention deficits. The brothers' karyotype was unbalanced; they inherited a maternal derivative X chromosome. Deleted distal Xp genes included short-stature homeobox on the X chromosome (SHOX), aryl sulfatase E (ARSE), variably charged X-chromosome mRNA gene A (VCX-A), and steroid sulfatase (STS). The final karyotype was 46,Y,der(X)t(X; Y)(p22.3; q11.2).ish der(X) (DXZ1+, KAL+, STS-, SHOX-) mat. Conclusions: Loss of distal contiguous Xp genes resulted in a syndrome comprising bony deformities, ichthyosis, attention problems, and generalized epilepsy. Candidate epilepsy genes within the deleted segment, such as ASMT, a gene involved in the final synthesis of melatonin, are discussed. Cytogenetic analyses should be included in the clinical evaluation of patients with generalized epilepsy and complex phenotypes. [source]

    Inter-hemispheric inhibition is impaired in mirror dystonia

    S. Beck
    Abstract Surround inhibition, a neural mechanism relevant for skilled motor behavior, has been shown to be deficient in the affected primary motor cortex (M1) in patients with focal hand dystonia (FHD). Even in unilateral FHD, however, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies have provided evidence for bilateral M1 abnormalities. Clinically, the presence of mirror dystonia, dystonic posturing when the opposite hand is moved, also suggests abnormal interhemispheric interaction. To assess whether a loss of inter-hemispheric inhibition (IHI) may contribute to the reduced surround inhibition, IHI towards the affected or dominant M1 was examined in 13 patients with FHD (seven patients with and six patients without mirror dystonia, all affected on the right hand) and 12 right-handed, age-matched healthy controls (CON group). IHI was tested at rest and during three different phases of a right index finger movement in a synergistic, as well as in a neighboring, relaxed muscle. There was a trend for a selective loss of IHI between the homologous surrounding muscles in the phase 50 ms before electromyogram onset in patients with FHD. Post hoc analysis revealed that this effect was due to a loss of IHI in the patients with FHD with mirror dystonia, while patients without mirror dystonia did not show any difference in IHI modulation compared with healthy controls. We conclude that mirror dystonia may be due to impaired IHI towards neighboring muscles before movement onset. However, IHI does not seem to play a major role in the general pathophysiology of FHD. [source]

    Basal ganglia and frontal involvement in self-generated and externally-triggered finger movements in the dominant and non-dominant hand

    Félix-Etienne François-Brosseau
    Abstract Although there are a number of functional neuroimaging studies that have investigated self-initiated and externally-triggered movements, data directly comparing right and left hands in this context are very scarce. The goal of this study was to further understand the role of the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex in the realm of self-initiated and externally-triggered right and left hand movements. Young healthy right-handed adults performed random, follow and repeat conditions of a finger moving task with their right and left hands, while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Significant activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was observed when comparing the self-initiated movements with the repeated control and externally-triggered movements when using either hand in agreement with its role in monitoring. The caudate nucleus activation was found during self-initiated conditions compared with the control condition when either hand was used, showing that it is particularly involved when a new movement needs to be planned. Significant putamen activation was observed in all within-hand contrasts except for the externally-triggered vs. control condition when using the left hand. Furthermore, greater putaminal activation was found for the left vs. the right hand during the control condition, but for the right vs. the left hand subtraction for the self-initiated condition. Our results show that the putamen is particularly involved in the execution of non-routine movements, especially if those are self-initiated. Furthermore, we propose that, for right-handed people performing fine movements, as far as putamen involvement is concerned, the lack of proficiency of the non-dominant hand may prevail over other task demands. [source]

    The neuroanatomy of grapheme,color synesthesia

    Lutz Jäncke
    Abstract Grapheme,color synesthetes perceive particular colors when seeing a letter, word or number (grapheme). Functional neuroimaging studies have provided some evidence in favor of a neural basis for this type of synesthesia. Most of these studies have reported extra activations in the fusiform gyrus, which is known to be involved in color, letter and word processing. The present study examined different neuroanatomical features (i.e. cortical thickness, cortical volume and cortical surface area) in a sample of 48 subjects (24 grapheme,color synesthetes and 24 control subjects), and revealed increased cortical thickness, volume and surface area in the right and left fusiform gyrus and in adjacent regions, such as the lingual gyrus and the calcarine cortex, in grapheme,color synesthetes. In addition, we set out to analyze structural connectivity based on fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements in a subsample of 28 subjects (14 synesthetes and 14 control subjects). In contrast to the findings of a recent neuroanatomical study using modern diffusion tensor imaging measurement techniques, we did not detect any statistically significant difference in FA between synesthetes and non-synesthetes in the fusiform gyri. Our study thus supports the hypothesis of local anatomical differences in cortical characteristics in the vicinity of the V4 complex. The observed altered brain anatomy in grapheme,color synesthetes might be the anatomical basis for this particular form of synesthesia but it is also possible that the detected effects are a consequence (rather than the primary cause) of the life-long experience of grapheme,color synesthesia. [source]

    Task-dependent modulation of functional connectivity between hand motor cortices and neuronal networks underlying language and music: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study in humans

    R. Sparing
    Abstract Although language functions are, in general, attributed to the left hemisphere, it is still a matter of debate to what extent the cognitive functions underlying the processing of music are lateralized in the human brain. To investigate hemispheric specialization we evaluated the effect of different overt musical and linguistic tasks on the excitability of both left and right hand motor cortices using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Task-dependent changes of the size of the TMS-elicited motor evoked potentials were recorded in 12 right-handed, musically naive subjects during and after overt speech, singing and humming, i.e. the production of melody without word articulation. The articulation of meaningless syllables served as control condition. We found reciprocal lateralized effects of overt speech and musical tasks on motor cortex excitability. During overt speech, the corticospinal projection of the left (i.e. dominant) hemisphere to the right hand was facilitated. In contrast, excitability of the right motor cortex increased during both overt singing and humming, whereas no effect was observed on the left hemisphere. Although the traditional concept of hemispheric lateralization of music has been challenged by recent neuroimaging studies, our findings demonstrate that right-hemisphere preponderance of music is nevertheless present. We discuss our results in terms of the recent concepts on evolution of language and gesture, which hypothesize that cerebral networks mediating hand movement and those subserving language processing are functionally linked. TMS may constitute a useful tool to further investigate the relationship between cortical representations of motor functions, music and language using comparative approaches. [source]

    The role of puberty in the developing adolescent brain

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 6 2010
    Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
    Abstract Adolescence refers to the period of physical and psychological development between childhood and adulthood. The beginning of adolescence is loosely anchored to the onset of puberty, which brings dramatic alterations in hormone levels and a number of consequent physical changes. Puberty onset is also associated with profound changes in drives, motivations, psychology, and social life; these changes continue throughout adolescence. There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies looking at the development of the brain, both structurally and functionally, during adolescence. Almost all of these studies have defined development by chronological age, which shows a strong,but not unitary,correlation with pubertal stage. Very few neuroimaging studies have associated brain development with pubertal stage, and yet there is tentative evidence to suggest that puberty might play an important role in some aspects of brain and cognitive development. In this paper we describe this research, and we suggest that, in the future, developmental neuroimaging studies of adolescence should consider the role of puberty. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Superior temporal lobe dysfunction and frontotemporal dysconnectivity in subjects at risk of psychosis and in first-episode psychosis

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 12 2009
    Nicolas A. Crossley
    Abstract Background: Superior temporal lobe dysfunction is a robust finding in functional neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia and is thought to be related to a disruption of fronto-temporal functional connectivity. However, the stage of the disorder at which these functional alterations occur is unclear. We addressed this issue by using functional MRI (fMRI) to study subjects in the prodromal and first episode phases of schizophrenia. Methods: Subjects with an at risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, a first psychotic episode (FEP), and controls were studied using fMRI while performing a working memory task. Activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) was assessed using statistical parametric mapping, and its relationship to frontal activation was examined using dynamic causal modeling. Results: The STG was differentially engaged across the three groups. There was deactivation of this region during the task in controls, whereas subjects with FEP showed activation and the response in subjects with ARMS was intermediately relative to the two other groups. There were corresponding differences in the effective connectivity between the STG and the middle frontal gyrus across the three groups, with a negative coupling between these areas in controls, a positive coupling in the FEP group, and an intermediate value in the ARMS group. Conclusions: A failure to deactivate the superior temporal lobe during tasks that engage prefrontal cortex is evident at the onset of schizophrenia and may reflect a disruption of fronto-temporal connectivity. Qualitatively similar alterations are evident in people with prodromal symptoms of the disorder. Hum Brain Mapp, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Two systems of resting state connectivity between the insula and cingulate cortex

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 9 2009
    Keri S. Taylor
    Abstract The insula and cingulate cortices are implicated in emotional, homeostatic/allostatic, sensorimotor, and cognitive functions. Non-human primates have specific anatomical connections between sub-divisions of the insula and cingulate. Specifically, the anterior insula projects to the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and the anterior and posterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC and pMCC); the mid-posterior insula only projects to the posterior MCC (pMCC). In humans, functional neuroimaging studies implicate the anterior insula and pre/subgenual ACC in emotional processes, the mid-posterior insula with awareness and interoception, and the MCC with environmental monitoring, response selection, and skeletomotor body orientation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that distinct resting state functional connectivity could be identified between (1) the anterior insula and pACC/aMCC; and (2) the entire insula (anterior, middle, and posterior insula) and the pMCC. Functional connectivity was assessed from resting state fMRI scans in 19 healthy volunteers using seed regions of interest in the anterior, middle, and posterior insula. Highly correlated, low-frequency oscillations (< 0.05 Hz) were identified between specific insula and cingulate subdivisions. The anterior insula was shown to be functionally connected with the pACC/aMCC and the pMCC, while the mid/posterior insula was only connected with the pMCC. These data provide evidence for a resting state anterior insula,pACC/aMCC cingulate system that may integrate interoceptive information with emotional salience to form a subjective representation of the body; and another system that includes the entire insula and MCC, likely involved in environmental monitoring, response selection, and skeletomotor body orientation. Human Brain Mapp 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Spatiotemporal mapping of sex differences during attentional processing

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 9 2009
    Andres H. Neuhaus
    Abstract Functional neuroimaging studies have increasingly aimed at approximating neural substrates of human cognitive sex differences elicited by visuospatial challenge. It has been suggested that females and males use different behaviorally relevant neurocognitive strategies. In females, greater right prefrontal cortex activation has been found in several studies. The spatiotemporal dynamics of neural events associated with these sex differences is still unclear. We studied 22 female and 22 male participants matched for age, education, and nicotine with 29-channel-electroencephalogram recorded under a visual selective attention paradigm, the Attention Network Test. Visual event-related potentials (ERP) were topographically analyzed and neuroelectric sources were estimated. In absence of behavioral differences, ERP analysis revealed a novel frontal-occipital second peak of visual N100 that was significantly increased in females relative to males. Further, in females exclusively, a corresponding central ERP component at around 220 ms was found; here, a strong correlation between stimulus salience and sex difference of the central ERP component amplitude was observed. Subsequent source analysis revealed increased cortical current densities in right rostral prefrontal (BA 10) and occipital cortex (BA 19) in female subjects. This is the first study to report on a tripartite association between sex differences in ERPs, visual stimulus salience, and right prefrontal cortex activation during attentional processing. Hum Brain Mapp 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Comparing MEG and fMRI views to naming actions and objects

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 6 2009
    Mia Liljeström
    Abstract Most neuroimaging studies are performed using one imaging method only, either functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), or magnetoencephalography (MEG). Information on both location and timing has been sought by recording fMRI and EEG, simultaneously, or MEG and fMRI in separate sessions. Such approaches assume similar active areas whether detected via hemodynamic or electrophysiological signatures. Direct comparisons, after independent analysis of data from each imaging modality, have been conducted primarily on low-level sensory processing. Here, we report MEG (timing and location) and fMRI (location) results in 11 subjects when they named pictures that depicted an action or an object. The experimental design was exactly the same for the two imaging modalities. The MEG data were analyzed with two standard approaches: a set of equivalent current dipoles and a distributed minimum norm estimate. The fMRI blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) data were subjected to the usual random-effect contrast analysis. At the group level, MEG and fMRI data showed fairly good convergence, with both overall activation patterns and task effects localizing to comparable cortical regions. There were some systematic discrepancies, however, and the correspondence was less compelling in the individual subjects. The present analysis should be helpful in reconciling results of fMRI and MEG studies on high-level cognitive functions. Hum Brain Mapp, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A voxel-based morphometry study of frontal gray matter correlates of impulsivity,

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 4 2009
    Koji Matsuo
    Abstract Impulsivity is a personality trait exhibited by healthy individuals, but excessive impulsivity is associated with some mental disorders. Lesion and functional neuroimaging studies indicate that the ventromedial prefrontal region (VMPFC), including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala may modulate impulsivity and aggression. However, no morphometric study has examined the association between VMPFC and impulsivity. We hypothesized that healthy subjects with high impulsivity would have smaller volumes in these brain regions compared with those with low impulsivity. Sixty-two healthy subjects were studied (age 35.4 ± 12.1 years) using a 1.5-T MRI system. The Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS) was used to assess impulsivity. Images were processed using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) protocol. We calculated the correlations between BIS scale scores and the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes of VMPFC and amygdala. GM volumes of the left and right OFC were inversely correlated with the BIS total score (P = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Left ACC GM volumes had a tendency to be inversely correlated with the BIS total score (P = 0.05). Right OFC GM volumes were inversely correlated with BIS nonplanning impulsivity, and left OFC GM volumes were inversely correlated with motor impulsivity. There were no significant WM volume correlations with impulsivity. The results of this morphometry study indicate that small OFC volume relate to high impulsivity and extend the prior finding that the VMPFC is involved in the circuit modulating impulsivity. Hum Brain Mapp 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Functional connectivity of default mode network components: Correlation, anticorrelation, and causality

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 2 2009
    Lucina Q. Uddin
    Abstract The default mode network (DMN), based in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), exhibits higher metabolic activity at rest than during performance of externally oriented cognitive tasks. Recent studies have suggested that competitive relationships between the DMN and various task-positive networks involved in task performance are intrinsically represented in the brain in the form of strong negative correlations (anticorrelations) between spontaneous fluctuations in these networks. Most neuroimaging studies characterize the DMN as a homogenous network, thus few have examined the differential contributions of DMN components to such competitive relationships. Here, we examined functional differentiation within the DMN, with an emphasis on understanding competitive relationships between this and other networks. We used a seed correlation approach on resting-state data to assess differences in functional connectivity between these two regions and their anticorrelated networks. While the positively correlated networks for the vmPFC and PCC seeds largely overlapped, the anticorrelated networks for each showed striking differences. Activity in vmPFC negatively predicted activity in parietal visual spatial and temporal attention networks, whereas activity in PCC negatively predicted activity in prefrontal-based motor control circuits. Granger causality analyses suggest that vmPFC and PCC exert greater influence on their anticorrelated networks than the other way around, suggesting that these two default mode nodes may directly modulate activity in task-positive networks. Thus, the two major nodes comprising the DMN are differentiated with respect to the specific brain systems with which they interact, suggesting greater heterogeneity within this network than is commonly appreciated. Hum Brain Mapp, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Selective visuo-haptic processing of shape and texture

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 10 2008
    Randall Stilla
    Abstract Previous functional neuroimaging studies have described shape-selectivity for haptic stimuli in many cerebral cortical regions, of which some are also visually shape-selective. However, the literature is equivocal on the existence of haptic or visuo-haptic texture-selectivity. We report here on a human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which shape and texture perception were contrasted using haptic stimuli presented to the right hand, and visual stimuli presented centrally. Bilateral selectivity for shape, with overlap between modalities, was found in a dorsal set of parietal areas: the postcentral sulcus and anterior, posterior and ventral parts of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS); as well as ventrally in the lateral occipital complex. The magnitude of visually- and haptically-evoked activity was significantly correlated across subjects in the left posterior IPS and right lateral occipital complex, suggesting that these areas specifically house representations of object shape. Haptic shape-selectivity was also found in the left postcentral gyrus, the left lingual gyrus, and a number of frontal cortical sites. Haptic texture-selectivity was found in ventral somatosensory areas: the parietal operculum and posterior insula bilaterally, as well as in the right medial occipital cortex, overlapping with a medial occipital cortical region, which was texture-selective for visual stimuli. The present report corroborates and elaborates previous suggestions of specialized visuo-haptic processing of texture and shape. Hum Brain Mapp 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Posterior cingulate activation during moral dilemma in adolescents

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 8 2008
    Jesus Pujol
    Abstract Neuroimaging research examining correlates of adolescent behavioral maturation has focused largely on issues related to higher cognitive development. Currently few studies have explored neural correlates of emotional reactivity in adolescent groups. In this study, we sought to examine the nature of posterior cingulate activation during situations of moral dilemma in normal adolescents. We focused on this region because of emerging evidence that suggests its role in emotionally self-relevant mental processing. Ten healthy teenagers, aged from 14 to 16 years, underwent three fMRI sequences designed to examine (i) brain responses during moral dilemma; (ii) brain responses during passive viewing of the moral dilemma outcome; and (iii); "deactivation" during a simple cognitive task compared with resting-state activity. Our main finding was that during moral dilemma, all subjects showed significant activation of the posterior cingulate cortex, and more variable activation of the medial frontal cortex and angular gyrus. Interestingly, these findings were replicated in each subject using the passive viewing task, suggesting that the previous pattern was not specific to moral reasoning or decision making. Finally, six of the ten subjects showed deactivation of the same posterior cingulate region during the cognitive task, indicating some commonality of function between posterior cingulate activity during moral dilemmas and rest. We propose that these posterior cingulate changes may relate to basic neuronal activities associated with processing self-relevant emotional stimuli. Given the high single-subject reproducibility of posterior cingulate activations, our findings may contribute to further characterize adolescent emotional reactivity in developmental neuroimaging studies. Hum Brain Mapp, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A systematic review and quantitative appraisal of fMRI studies of verbal fluency: Role of the left inferior frontal gyrus

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 10 2006
    Sergi G. Costafreda
    Abstract The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) has consistently been associated with both phonologic and semantic operations in functional neuroimaging studies. Two main theories have proposed a different functional organization in the LIFG for these processes. One theory suggests an anatomic parcellation of phonologic and semantic operations within the LIFG. An alternative theory proposes that both processes are encompassed within a supramodal executive function in a single region in the LIFG. To test these theories, we carried out a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies employing phonologic and semantic verbal fluency tasks. Seventeen articles meeting our pre-established criteria were found, consisting of 22 relevant experiments with 197 healthy subjects and a total of 41 peak activations in the LIFG. We determined 95% confidence intervals of the mean location (x, y, and z coordinates) of peaks of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses from published phonologic and semantic verbal fluency studies using the nonparametric technique of bootstrap analysis. Significant differences were revealed in dorsal,ventral (z -coordinate) localizations of the peak BOLD response: phonologic verbal fluency peak BOLD response was significantly more dorsal to the peak associated with semantic verbal fluency (confidence interval of difference: 1.9,17.4 mm). No significant differences were evident in antero,posterior (x -coordinate) or medial,lateral (y -coordinate) positions. The results support distinct dorsal,ventral locations for phonologic and semantic processes within the LIFG. Current limitations to meta-analytic integration of published functional neuroimaging studies are discussed. Hum Brain Mapp, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Quantitative evaluation of automated skull-stripping methods applied to contemporary and legacy images: Effects of diagnosis, bias correction, and slice location

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 2 2006
    Christine Fennema-Notestine
    Abstract Performance of automated methods to isolate brain from nonbrain tissues in magnetic resonance (MR) structural images may be influenced by MR signal inhomogeneities, type of MR image set, regional anatomy, and age and diagnosis of subjects studied. The present study compared the performance of four methods: Brain Extraction Tool (BET; Smith [2002]: Hum Brain Mapp 17:143,155); 3dIntracranial (Ward [1999] Milwaukee: Biophysics Research Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin; in AFNI); a Hybrid Watershed algorithm (HWA, Segonne et al. [2004] Neuroimage 22:1060,1075; in FreeSurfer); and Brain Surface Extractor (BSE, Sandor and Leahy [1997] IEEE Trans Med Imag 16:41,54; Shattuck et al. [2001] Neuroimage 13:856,876) to manually stripped images. The methods were applied to uncorrected and bias-corrected datasets; Legacy and Contemporary T1 -weighted image sets; and four diagnostic groups (depressed, Alzheimer's, young and elderly control). To provide a criterion for outcome assessment, two experts manually stripped six sagittal sections for each dataset in locations where brain and nonbrain tissue are difficult to distinguish. Methods were compared on Jaccard similarity coefficients, Hausdorff distances, and an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. Methods tended to perform better on contemporary datasets; bias correction did not significantly improve method performance. Mesial sections were most difficult for all methods. Although AD image sets were most difficult to strip, HWA and BSE were more robust across diagnostic groups compared with 3dIntracranial and BET. With respect to specificity, BSE tended to perform best across all groups, whereas HWA was more sensitive than other methods. The results of this study may direct users towards a method appropriate to their T1 -weighted datasets and improve the efficiency of processing for large, multisite neuroimaging studies. Hum. Brain Mapping, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A comparison of label-based review and ALE meta-analysis in the Stroop task

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 1 2005
    Angela R. Laird
    Abstract Meta-analysis is an important tool for interpreting results of functional neuroimaging studies and is highly influential in predicting and testing new outcomes. Although traditional label-based review can be used to search for agreement across multiple studies, a new function-location meta-analysis technique called activation likelihood estimation (ALE) offers great improvements over conventional methods. In ALE, reported foci are modeled as Gaussian functions and pooled to create a statistical whole-brain image. ALE meta-analysis and the label-based review were used to investigate the Stroop task in normal subjects, a paradigm known for its effect of producing conflict and response inhibition due to subjects' tendency to perform word reading as opposed to color naming. Both methods yielded similar activation patterns that were dominated by response in the anterior cingulate and the inferior frontal gyrus. ALE showed greater involvement of the anterior cingulate as compared to that in the label-based technique; however, this was likely due to the increased spatial level of distinction allowed with the ALE method. With ALE, further analysis of the anterior cingulate revealed evidence for somatotopic mapping within the rostral and caudal cingulate zones, an issue that has been the source of some conflict in previous reviews of the anterior cingulate cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 25:6,21, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]