Neuroimaging Findings (neuroimaging + finding)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Assessment of cerebral visual impairment with the L94 visual perceptual battery: clinical value and correlation with MRI findings

In this article we describe visual perceptual abilities of a clinical population, referred for visual problems to our multidisciplinary team and assessed with the five computer tasks from the L94 visual perceptual battery. Clinical and neuroimaging findings were correlated with the findings on this task battery. Seventy children (35 males, 35 females) constituted our cohort. Age ranged from 4 to 20 years (mean 7y [SD 3y]). Forty children were born before 37 weeks gestational age. Thirty-six children had cerebral palsy (CP), of whom 24 had spastic diplegia, five had spastic hemiplegia, and four had spastic quadriplegia. Three children had ataxic CP. Perceptual visual impairment (PVI) was established in comparison to the performance age obtained on non-verbal intelligence subtests, instead of chronological age. Our results suggest that children with a history of preterm birth and a clinical CP picture are most at risk for a specific PVI. Correlations among other clinical variables did not define a clinical subgroup more at risk. Children with periventricular leucomalacia were almost equally represented in both PVI and non-PVI groups. Normal magnetic resonance imaging did not exclude the presence of PVI. In these children, however, we found another impairment profile, more in favour of dorsal stream impairment. [source]

Magnetic resonance imaging findings in a population-based cohort of children with cerebral palsy

The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and spectrum of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in a population of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who were born in the years 2000 and 2001 in Victoria, Australia. In 2000 and 2001, 221 children (126 males, 95 females; mean age 6y [SD 7mo], range 5,7y) with CP, excluding those with CP due to postneonatal causes (6% of all cases), were identified through the Victorian Cerebral Palsy Register. All medical records were systematically reviewed and all available brain imaging was comprehensively evaluated by a single senior MRI radiologist. MRI was available for 154 (70%) individuals and abnormalities were identified in 129 (84%). The study group comprised 88% with a spastic motor type CP; the distribution was hemiplegia in 33.5%, diplegia in 28.5%, and quadriplegia in 37.6% of children. Overall, pathological findings were most likely to be identified in children with spastic hemiplegia (92%) and spastic quadriplegia (84%). Abnormalities were less likely to be identified in non-spastic motor types (72%) and spastic diplegia (52%). The most common abnormalities identified on MRI were periventricular white matter injury (31%), focal ischaemic/haemorrhagic lesions (16%), diffuse encephalopathy (14%), and brain malformations (12%). Dual findings were seen in 3% of patients. This is the first study to document comprehensively the neuroimaging findings of all children identified with CP born over a consecutive 24-month period in a large geographical area. [source]

Widespread axonal damage in the brain of drug abusers as evidenced by accumulation of ,-amyloid precursor protein (,-APP): an immunohistochemical investigation

ADDICTION, Issue 9 2006
Andreas Büttner
ABSTRACT Background In drug abusers, white matter changes have been described by neuroimaging analyses in different brain regions. A specific pattern of involvement or a predominance of a specific brain region could not be drawn. Aims To examine alterations of the white matter as a possible morphological substrate of the neuroimaging findings. Methods Brain specimens of 30 polydrug abusers and 20 controls were obtained at autopsy. The white matter from 11 different brain regions was analysed by means of immunohistochemistry for ,-amyloid precursor protein (,-APP), a marker of axonal damage. Findings In the white matter of polydrug abusers, ,-APP-immunopositive accumulations were increased significantly compared to controls. They were more prominent in the brains of younger drug abusers than in those of the elderly. With the exception of five cases (four polydrug abusers and one control case), there were no significant white matter changes seen on myelin-stained sections, but there was a concomitant microglial activation. Conclusions Our results show a significant axonal damage in the brains of polydrug abusers, which might represent the morphological substrate of a chronic-progressive drug-induced toxic-metabolic process. It is yet to be established if the observed changes are responsible for the alterations seen in different neuroimaging analyses and which drugs of abuse might be of major pathogenetic significance. [source]

Clinical features of non-hypertensive lobar intracerebral hemorrhage related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy

M. Hirohata
Background and purpose: The present study aims to clarify the clinical features of non-hypertensive cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (CAA-L-ICH). Methods: We investigated clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging findings in 41 patients (30, women; 11, men) with pathologically supported CAA-L-ICH from 303 non-hypertensive Japanese patients aged ,55, identified via a nationwide survey as symptomatic CAA-L-ICH. Results: The mean age of patients at onset of CAA-L-ICH was 73.2 ± 7.4 years; the number of patients increased with age. The corrected female-to-male ratio for the population was 2.2, with significant female predominance. At onset, 7.3% of patients received anti-platelet therapy. In brain imaging studies, the actual frequency of CAA-L-ICHs was higher in the frontal and parietal lobes; however, after correcting for the estimated cortical volume, the parietal lobe was found to be the most frequently affected. CAA-L-ICH recurred in 31.7% of patients during the average 35.3-month follow-up period. The mean interval between intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) was 11.3 months. The case fatality rate was 12.2% at 1 month and 19.5% at 12 months after initial ICH. In 97.1% of patients, neurosurgical procedures were performed without uncontrollable intraoperative or post-operative hemorrhage. Conclusions: Our study revealed the clinical features of non-hypertensive CAA-L-ICH, including its parietal predilection, which will require further study with a larger number of patients with different ethnic backgrounds. [source]

The burden of paediatric stroke and cerebrovascular disorders in Croatia

J. Lenicek Krleza
Pediatric stroke is significantly less common than stroke in adults, but represents a major challenge to public health authorities. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the total and annual number of children younger than 18 years with arterial ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack referred to the Children's Hospital Zagreb, which is a major national centre specialised for the treatment and prevention of stroke in children. We reviewed the medical records of the Department of Neuropediatrics database at the Children's Hospital Zagreb between 1998,2005 in order to provide demographic and clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings in children with arterial ischaemic stroke. In the 7-year period, we identified a total of 124 children from different geographic areas of Croatia with a confirmed diagnosis of transient ischaemic attack (N=77), and arterial ischaemic stroke (N=47). Perinatal and childhood arterial ischaemic stroke were equally represented (23 and 24 children, respectively). The average number of new cases identified each year was 18 cases (range: 12,21), seven arterial ischaemic stroke and 11 transient ischaemic attack cases. Male predominance was found in children with arterial ischaemic stroke with a male : female ratio of 1·76 : 1, and was slightly higher in childhood arterial ischaemic stroke compared with perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke (2 : 1 and 1·56 : 1, respectively). In contrast, transient ischaemic attack was more frequently found in girls, and more likely identified in older children compared with younger children with arterial ischaemic stroke. Obtained data will contribute to better understanding of paediatric stroke in Croatia and will provide a base for the establishment of the national referral center and national pediatric stroke registry. [source]

Multiple sclerosis: Empirical literature for the clinical health psychologist

David C. Mohr
This article reviews the empirical literature related to clinical health psychology in multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is a disease in which the immune system attacks the central nervous system. As such, the interactions between medical and psychological variables are complex, and potentially of considerable importance to patients. Common neuropsychological and psychological problems associated with MS and their etiologies are reviewed. The effects of stress and depression on MS exacerbation are discussed, including clinical, immune, endocrine, and neuroimaging findings. The types of coping common in MS and their effects on adjustment are discussed. The empirical literature on psychological and neuropsychological intervention is reviewed. The small literature on caregiving in MS is also summarized. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol 57: 479,499, 2001 [source]

Correlations between clinical and historical variables, and cerebral structural variables in people with mild intellectual disability and schizophrenia

T. L. Sanderson
Abstract The increased prevalence of schizophrenia in the population with mildly intellectual disability (ID) remains unexplained. The present study explores several possibilities by examining historical/clinical findings in relation to structural neuroimaging findings in three groups: (1) comorbid mild ID and schizophrenia; (2) schizophrenia alone; and (3) mild ID alone. Information about clinical and historical variables was obtained from 101 subjects (39 with comorbidity, 34 with schizophrenia and 28 with mild ID), out of whom 68 (23, 25 and 20, respectively) had had a cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Although a number of significant correlations exist between clinical variables and structural MRI abnormalities in all three groups, no clearly predictive inter- or between-group differences emerged. More striking was the finding that showed small amygdalo-hippocampal size to be associated with a history of central nervous system injury, especially meningitis. These findings provide support for the view that cognitive impairment and comorbid psychosis can result from a common cause, such as meningitis or obstetric complications, possibly interacting with other factors, such as family history. [source]

Frequent Hemorrhagic Lesions in Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in AIDS Patients

Satyakam Bhagavati MD
ABSTRACT Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a frequent complication in immunosuppressed patients such as AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Frequently, lesions are located deep in the brain which are inaccessible for biopsy making rapid diagnosis dependent on accurate interpretation of neuroimaging findings. The commonest cranial CT findings reported in toxoplasmosis are ring enhancing hypodense lesions in basal ganglia or cortical gray matter. Hemorrhage has only rarely been described and is usually seen following antitoxoplasma treatment. We reviewed the records of 11 AIDS patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis and found multiple hemorrhagic cerebral, cerebellar, or brain stem lesions in 7 of 11 patients. Six patients had hemorrhage at the time of initial clinical presentation and one developed hemorrhage following 2 weeks of antitoxoplasma treatment. We conclude that hemorrhagic lesions are frequently found on cranial MRI scans in cerebral toxoplasmosis. AIDS patients presenting with hemorrhagic cerebral lesions should be considered for a trial of presumptive antitoxoplasma treatment. [source]

Focal Cortical Dysplasia: Improving Diagnosis and Localization With Magnetic Resonance Imaging Multiplanar and Curvilinear Reconstruction

Maria Augusta Montenegro MD
ABSTRACT Objective. To establish the contribution of multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and curvilinear reformatting (CR) to the MRI investigation of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Methods. From a group of patients with intractable frontal lobe epilepsy, we selected patients with neuroimaging diagnosis of FCD. The diagnosis of FCD was based on the neuroimaging findings after a three step evaluation, always in the same order: (a) plain MRI films, (b) MPR, and (c) CR. After the selection of patients, the process of reviewing all the images in the three stages described above was performed by one of us, who did not take part on the selection of patients nor on the initial evaluation, and who was blind to the clinical and EEG findings of the patients. For data analysis, we first assessed the contribution of the additional findings of MPR analysis compared to the results of the evaluation using only plain MRI films, as is usually done in routine practice. Second, we assessed the contribution of CR to the findings of plain MRI films plus MPR. After completing the multistep evaluation, we all went back to review the plain MRI films with knowledge of lesion topography, in order to identify possible subtle features associated with FCD. Results. Seventeen patients met the inclusion criteria. Twelve had imaging diagnosis of FCD and were included in the second step of this project. Plain films of high resolution MRI showed the lesion in 6 (50%) of the 12 patients. By adding MPR to the plain MRI films, we identified lesions in all 12 patients. Furthermore, we found that MPR provided a better lesion localization and ascertainment of its relationship to other cerebral structures in 5 of 6 (83%) patients who had a lesion identified on plain films. By adding CR to the plain MRI films plus MPR analysis, we observed that (a) CR also allowed the identification of the dysplastic lesion in all patients, (b) CR improved lesion localization in one patient, and (c) CR provided a better visualization of the lesion extent in 4 patients (33%), showed a larger lesion in 3, and demonstrated that part of the area suspected as abnormal was more likely volume averaging in 2. Conclusion. MPR and CR analysis add to the neuroimaging evaluation of FCD by improving the lesion diagnosis and localization. CR helps to establish the extent of the lesion more precisely, allowing the visualization of some areas not shown on high resolution MRI and MPR. These techniques are complementary and do not replace the conventional wisdom of MRI analysis. [source]

An fMRI Study of Number Processing in Children With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2010
Ernesta M. Meintjes
Background:, Number processing deficits are frequently seen in children exposed to alcohol in utero. Methods:, Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine the neural correlates of number processing in 15 right-handed, 8- to 12-year-old children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (PFAS) and 18 right-handed, age- and gender-matched controls from the Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) community in Cape Town, South Africa, using Proximity Judgment and Exact Addition tasks. Results:, Control children activated the expected fronto-parietal network during both tasks, including the anterior horizontal intraparietal sulcus (HIPS), left posterior HIPS, left precentral sulcus, and posterior medial frontal cortex. By contrast, on the Proximity Judgment task, the exposed children recruited additional parietal pathways involving the right and left angular gyrus and posterior cingulate/precuneus, which may entail verbally mediated recitation of numbers and/or subtraction to assess relative numerical distances. During Exact Addition, the exposed children exhibited more diffuse and widespread activations, including the cerebellar vermis and cortex, which have been found to be activated in adults engaged in particularly challenging number processing problems. Conclusions:, The data suggest that, whereas control children rely primarily on the fronto-parietal network identified in previous studies to mediate number processing, children with FAS/PFAS recruit a broader range of brain regions to perform these relatively simple number processing tasks. Our results are consistent with structural neuroimaging findings indicating that the parietal lobe is relatively more affected by prenatal alcohol exposure and provide the first evidence for brain activation abnormalities during number processing in children with FAS/PFAS, effects that persist even after controlling statistically for group differences in total intracranial volume and IQ. [source]

Research Review: The neurobiology and genetics of maltreatment and adversity

Eamon McCrory
The neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood maltreatment heightens vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. It is likely that a complex interaction between environmental experiences (including poor caregiving) and an individual's genetic make-up influence neurobiological development across infancy and childhood, which in turn sets the stage for a child's psychological and emotional development. This review provides a concise synopsis of those studies investigating the neurobiological and genetic factors associated with childhood maltreatment and adversity. We first provide an overview of the neuroendocrine findings, drawing from animal and human studies. These studies indicate an association between early adversity and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response, which can predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. We then review the neuroimaging findings of structural and functional brain differences in children and adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment. These studies offer evidence of several structural differences associated with early stress, most notably in the corpus callosum in children and the hippocampus in adults; functional studies have reported atypical activation of several brain regions, including decreased activity of the prefrontal cortex. Next we consider studies that suggest that the effect of environmental adversity may be conditional on an individual's genotype. We also briefly consider the possible role that epigenetic mechanisms might play in mediating the impact of early adversity. Finally we consider several ways in which the neurobiological and genetic research may be relevant to clinical practice and intervention. [source]

A disconnection account of Gerstmann syndrome: Functional neuroanatomy evidence,

Elena Rusconi PhD
Objective To examine the functional neuroanatomy that could account for pure Gerstmann syndrome, which is the selective association of acalculia, finger agnosia, left-right disorientation, and agraphia. Methods We used structural and functional neuroimaging at high spatial resolution in healthy subjects to seek a shared cortical substrate of the Grundstörung posited by Gerstmann, ie, a common functional denominator accounting for this clinical tetrad. We construed a functional activation paradigm that mirrors each of the four clinical deficits in Gerstmann syndrome and determined cortical activation patterns. We then applied fiber tracking to diffusion tensor images and used cortical activation foci in the four functional domains as seed regions. Results None of the subjects showed parietal overlap of cortical activation patterns from the four cognitive domains. In every subject, however, the parietal activation patterns across all four domains consistently connected to a small region of subcortical parietal white matter at a location that is congruent with the lesion in a well-documented case of pure Gerstmann syndrome. Interpretation Our functional neuroimaging findings are not in agreement with Gerstmann's postulate of damage to a common cognitive function underpinning clinical semiology. Our evidence from intact functional neuroanatomy suggests that pure forms of Gerstmann's tetrad do not arise from lesion to a shared cortical substrate but from intraparietal disconnection after damage to a focal region of subcortical white matter. Ann Neurol 2009;66:654,662 [source]

Clinical-neuroimaging characteristics of dysexecutive mild cognitive impairment,

Judy Pa PhD
Objective Subgroups of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have been proposed, but few studies have investigated the nonamnestic, single-domain subgroup of MCI. The goal of the study was to compare clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of two single-domain MCI subgroups: amnestic MCI and dysexecutive MCI. Methods We compared the cognitive, functional, behavioral, and brain imaging characteristics of patients with amnestic MCI (n = 26), patients with dysexecutive MCI (n = 32), and age- and education-matched control subjects (n = 36) using analysis of variance and ,2 tests. We used voxel-based morphometry to examine group differences in brain magnetic resonance imaging atrophy patterns. Results Patients with dysexecutive MCI had significantly lower scores on the majority of executive function tests, increased behavioral symptoms, and left prefrontal cortex atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging when compared with control subjects. In contrast, patients with amnestic MCI had significantly lower scores on tests of memory and a pattern of atrophy including bilateral hippocampi and entorhinal cortex, right inferior parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate gyrus when compared with control subjects. Interpretation Overall, the clinical and neuroimaging findings provide support for two distinct single-domain subgroups of MCI, one involving executive function and the other involving memory. The brain imaging differences suggest that the two MCI subgroups have distinct patterns of brain atrophy. Ann Neurol 2009;65:414,423 [source]

The changing panorama of cerebral palsy in Sweden.


Abstract Aim:, The aim of the study was to describe the prevalence and origin of cerebral palsy (CP), which is the tenth report from the western Swedish study. Methods:, A population-based study covering 85 737 live births in the area in 1999,2002. Birth characteristics and neuroimaging findings were recorded, prevalence of CP was calculated and aetiology was analysed. Results:, CP was found in 186 children. The crude prevalence was 2.18 per 1000 live births. The gestational age-specific prevalence for <28 gestational weeks was 55.6 per 1000 live births, whereas it was 43.7 for 28,31 weeks, 6.1 for 32,36 weeks and 1.43 per 1000 for >36 weeks. There was a female majority among children born at term and a male predominance in children born preterm. Hemiplegia accounted for 38%, diplegia for 32%, tetraplegia for 7%, whereas 17% had dyskinetic CP and 5% ataxia. Neuroimaging showed white-matter lesions in 31% and cortical/subcortical lesions in 29%. The aetiology was considered to be prenatal in 36%, peri/neonatal in 42%, whereas it remained unclassified in 21%. Conclusion:, The decrease in CP prevalence observed since the 1980s had ceased. An increase in children born at term and in dyskinetic CP was found. In children born before 28 weeks of gestation, the prevalence decreased significantly. White-matter and cortical/subcortical lesions dominated on neuroimaging. [source]