Neuroimaging Features (neuroimaging + feature)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Extensive Brain Stem Lesions in Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: Repeat Magnetic Resonance Findings

Sun Ah Park MD
ABSTRACT The authors report on an unusual case of extensive brain stem lesions as a manifestation of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). A 28-year-old woman developed rapidly progressive neurologic deficits 5 days after a cesarean delivery. Her condition had been normal after delivery. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extensive T2 hyperintense lesions involving the entire brain stem; only part of the pons showed hyperintense abnormalities in a concomitantly taken diffusion-weighted image. The hematologic evaluations and her clinical course revealed the diagnosis of TTP, so plasma exchange and methyl-prednisolone therapy were initiated. After 10 days of treatment, she developed neurologic improvement. A follow-up MRI on the 75th day revealed dramatically reduced brain stem lesions with only residual punctate lesions in the pons. Her remaining neurologic deficits were dysarthria, limb ataxia, and left hemiparesis. As demonstrated in this study, extensive brain stem involvement should be added as a possible neuroimaging feature of TTP. [source]

Outcome of severe unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia

Aim, Complete or subtotal absence of one cerebellar hemisphere is exceptional; only single cases have been described. We aimed to assess the long-term outcome in children with severe unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia (UCH). Method, As part of a retrospective study we describe neuroimaging features, clinical findings, and cognitive outcomes of seven children with UCH (five males, two females; age at first magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]: median 1y 3mo, range 9d,8y 10mo; age at latest follow-up: median 6y 6mo, range 2y 3mo,14y 11mo). Results, One child had abnormalities on prenatal MRI at 21 weeks' gestation. The left cerebellar hemisphere was affected in five children, and the right hemisphere in two children. The vermis was involved in five children. The volume of the posterior fossa was variable. At the latest follow-up, neurological findings included truncal ataxia and muscular hypotonia in five children, limb ataxia in three patients, and head nodding in two patients. Three children had learning disability*, five had speech and language disorders, and one had a severe behavioural disorder. Interpretation, Severe UCH is a residual change after a disruptive prenatal cerebellar insult, most likely haemorrhagic. The outcome is variable, ranging from almost normal development to marked developmental impairment. Ataxia is a frequent but not a leading sign. It seems that involvement of the cerebellar vermis is often, but not consistently, associated with a poorer cognitive outcome, whereas an intact vermis is associated with normal outcome and no truncal ataxia. [source]

Laryngeal schwannoma in an 8-year-old boy with inspiratory dyspnea

Elisa Rognone MD
Abstract Background Schwannomas of the larynx are rare lesions in the pediatric age group. Methods In this article, we report on the neuroimaging features of a schwannoma arising from the left aryepiglottic fold in an 8-year-old boy with a 6-month history of inspiratory dyspnea. Results Neuroimaging showed a well-defined, avoid mass originating from the left aryepiglottic fold. The lesion was removed endoscopically. Conclusion Complete removal of laryngeal schwannomas is curative, and adjuvant treatment is not required. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2007 [source]

Rheumatoid Leptomeningitis: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pathologic Findings,A Case Report

Alessandro Cianfoni MD
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory multisystem disease with articular and extra-articular manifestations. Intracranial manifestations of RA are rare. Purpose of this article is to report on a rarely described leptomeningeal involvement in RA, and on its neuroimaging features, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). METHODS The authors describe the case of a 74-year-old woman with a 5-year history of RA presenting with progressive left-side weakness and hypoesthesia. The patient underwent laboratory investigation and brain contrast-enhanced MRI, also with DWI, before undergoing brain biopsy. RESULTS Neuroimaging revealed abnormal high T2-signal in right frontal and parietal lobes, restricted diffusion in the subarachnoid space, and diffuse thick linear leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement. These findings were interpreted as rheumatoid leptomeningitis, and brain biopsy confirmed this diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS In summary, rheumatoid meningitis is a rare neurological complication of RA, but it should be considered in the proper clinical setting when patient presentation and laboratory results fail to support the other differential diagnostic possibilities proposed by the MR imaging findings. [source]

Neuroimaging of Tuberculous Myelitis: Analysis of Ten Cases and Review of Literature

Mohammad Wasay MD
ABSTRACT We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and neuroimaging features of 10 patients with tuberculous myelitis. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (70%) and paraplegia (60%). Bladder and bowel symptoms were present in 90% patients. On MRI, the involvement of the cervical/thoracic segment of the spinal cord was most commonly seen (90%). The most consistent finding was hyperintense signals on T2-weighted MRI. T1-weighted images showed isointense (n= 5) and hypointense (n= 4) signals in the spinal cord lesions. Post-contrast enhancement was present in 6 patients, epidural enhancement in 4 patients, and cord swelling in 2 patients. We reviewed more than 250 published cases with the diagnosis of tuberculous myelitis and radiculomyelitis with special attention to MRI findings. It is predominantly a disease of the thoracic spinal cord. Most spinal cord lesions appear as hyperintense on T2 and iso- or hypointense on T1-weighted images. MRI findings in patients with spinal cord tuberculosis have both diagnostic and prognostic significance. Cord atrophy or cavitation and the presence of syrinx on MRI may be associated with poor outcome. [source]

Neuroimaging Determinants of Cognitive Performances in Stroke Associated With Small Vessel Disease

V. Mok MD
ABSTRACT Background and Purpose. Controversies still exist as to the neuroimaging determinants of cognitive impairment in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). The authors studied the neuroimaging correlates of cognitive performances among patients with stroke associated with SVD. Methods. The authors per formed cerebral computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging among 74 consecu tive patients admitted to the acute stroke unit because of stroke associated with SVD. They examined the association between cognitive performances and the following neuroimaging features: volume of white matter changes (WMC), multiplicity of lacunae, location of lacunae, total cerebral atrophy, and frontal and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Results. Apart from age and education, univariate linear regression analyses revealed that WMC volume, presence of thalamic lacunae, cerebral atrophy, and left frontal lobe atrophy predicted performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination while WMC volume, presence of thalamic infarcts, cerebral atrophy, and frontal lobe atrophy of both sides predicted performance on the Mattis Dementia Rat ing Scale-Initiation/Preservation subscale. In the multivariate analyses, education (R2= 0.22, P < .001), left frontal lobe atrophy (R2= 0.10, P= .004), and presence of thalamic lacunae (R2= 0.04, P= .049) were found to predict performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination while age (R2= 0.23, P < .001) and presence of thalamic lacunae (R2= 0.08, P= .011) were found to predict performance on the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-Initiation/Preservation. Conclusions. Among patients with stroke associated with SVD, thalamic lacunae and frontal lobe atrophy are key determinants of cognitive performances. [source]

Venous Infarction of Brainstem and Cerebellum

Yakup Krespi MD
ABSTRACT The authors describe 2 cases of posterior fossa venous infarction. A 56-year-old woman with essential thrombocytemia presented with fluctuating complaints of headache, nausea, vomiting, left-sided numbness-weakness, and dizziness and became progressively stuporous. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral parasagittal frontoparietal and left cerebellar contrast-enhancing hemorrhagic lesions. On magnetic resonance venography, the left transverse and sigmoid sinuses were occluded. The second patient, a 39-year-old woman, presented with acute onset of diplopia, numbness of the tongue, vertigo, and right-sided weakness following a gestational age stillbirth. MRI revealed lesions in the right half of midbrain and pons and in the superior part of the right cerebellar hemisphere. Digital subtraction angiography showed right transverse and sigmoid sinus occlusion. The authors suggest that one should investigate the possibility of venous infarction in the presence of posterior fossa lesions that are often hemorrhagic and are not within any arterial territory distribution but respect a known venous drainage pattern. Recognition of the observed clinical and neuroimaging features can lead to earlier diagnosis and, potentially, more effective management. [source]

Manganic encephalopathy due to "ephedrone" abuse

Yanush Sanotsky MD
Abstract We describe the clinical and neuroimaging features of 6 drug-abuse patients with self-inflicted manganese poisoning. The patients injected a home-brewed mixture called "ephedrone" (slang term) that contained manganese to produce an amphetamine-like euphoria. The desired chemical product, phenylpropanoneamine (also called methcathinone), was synthesized from a common-cold,remedy compound using permanganate as the catalyst. Manganese was a by-product in the ephedrone mixture. After months of self-injections, a clinical picture emerged, consisting of apathy, bradykinesia, gait disorder with postural instability, and spastic-hypokinetic dysarthria. There was no response to levodopa. The MRI revealed symmetric hyperintense T1-weighted signals in the basal ganglia, typical of manganese accumulation. 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]