Neuroimaging Data (neuroimaging + data)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Testing effective connectivity changes with structural equation modeling: What does a bad model tell us?

Andrea B. Protzner
Abstract Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a statistical method that can assess changes in effective connectivity across tasks or between groups. In its initial application to neuroimaging data, anatomical connectivity provided the constraints to decompose interregional covariances to estimate effective connections. There have been concerns expressed, however, with the validity of interpreting effective connections for a model that does not adequately fit the data. We sought to address this concern by creating two population networks with different patterns of effective connectivity, extracting three samples sizes (N = 100, 60, 20), and then assessing whether the ability to detect effective connectivity differences depended on absolute model fit. Four scenarios were assessed: (1) elimination of a region showing no task differences; (2) elimination of connections with no task differences; (3) elimination of connections that carried task differences, but could be expressed through alternative indirect routes; (4) elimination of connections that carried task differences, and could not be expressed through indirect routes. We were able to detect task differences in all four cases, despite poor absolute model fit. In scenario 3, total effects captured the overall task differences even though the direct effect was no longer present. In scenario 4, task differences that were included in the model remained, but the missing effect was not expressed. In conclusion, it seems that when independent information (e.g., anatomical connectivity) is used to define the causal structure in SEM, inferences about task- or group-dependent changes are valid regardless of absolute model fit. Hum Brain Mapp, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Permutation tests for factorially designed neuroimaging experiments

John Suckling
Abstract Permutation methods for analysis of functional neuroimaging data acquired as factorially designed experiments are described and validated. The F ratio was estimated for main effects and interactions at each voxel in standard space. Critical values corresponding to probability thresholds were derived from a null distribution sampled by appropriate permutation of observations. Spatially informed, cluster-level test statistics were generated by applying a preliminary probability threshold to the voxel F maps and then computing the sum of voxel statistics in each of the resulting three-dimensional clusters, i.e., cluster "mass." Using simulations comprising two between- or within-subject factors each with two or three levels, contaminated by Gaussian and non-normal noise, the voxel-wise permutation test was compared to the standard parametric F test and to the performance of the spatially informed statistic using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Validity of the permutation-testing algorithm and software is endorsed by almost identical performance of parametric and permutation tests of the voxel-level F statistic. Permutation testing of suprathreshold voxel cluster mass, however, was found to provide consistently superior sensitivity to detect simulated signals than either of the voxel-level tests. The methods are also illustrated by application to an experimental dataset designed to investigate effects of antidepressant drug treatment on brain activation by implicit sad facial affect perception in patients with major depression. Antidepressant drug effects in left amygdala and ventral striatum were detected by this software for an interaction between time (within-subject factor) and group (between-subject factor) in a representative two-way factorial design. Hum. Brain Mapping 22:193,205, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

When does Parkinson's disease begin?,

Carles Gaig MD
Abstract Pathological and neuroimaging studies have shown that in Parkinson's disease (PD) there is a "subclinical" or "premotor" period during which dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) degenerate but typical motor symptoms have not yet developed. Post-mortem studies based on nigral cell counts and evaluating dopamine levels in the striata, and imaging studies assessing the nigrostriatal pathway in vivo, have estimated that this time period could last 3 to 6 years. In addition, emerging evidence indicates that the neuropathological process of PD does not start in the SN but more likely elsewhere in the nervous system: in the lower brainstem and the olfactory bulb, or even more distant from the SN, such as in the peripheral autonomic nervous system. Patients with PD frequently can present non-motor symptoms, such as hyposmia or constipation, years before the development of classical motor signs. The physiopathology of these "premotor" symptoms, though still unclear, is currently thought to be related to early involvement by the pathological process underlying PD of non-dopaminergic lower brainstem structures or autonomic plexuses. However, the answer to the question "when does PD start" remains uncertain. Here, we review clinical, pathological, and neuroimaging data related to the onset of the pathological process of PD, and propose that its onset is non-motor and that non-motor symptoms could begin in many instances 10 and 20 years before onset of motor symptoms. The variable course of the disorder once the motor symptoms develop, suggests that the start and progression of premotor PD is also highly variable andgiven the heterogeneous nature of PD, may differ depending on the cause/s of the syndrome. When and where the neuropathological process develops in PD remains uncertain. © 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]


BIOETHICS, Issue 6 2009
ABSTRACT Purpose: Whereas ethical considerations on imaging techniques and interpretations of neuroimaging results flourish, there is not much work on their preconditions. In this paper, therefore, we discuss epistemological considerations on neuroimaging and their implications for neuroethics. Results: Neuroimaging uses indirect methods to generate data about surrogate parameters for mental processes, and there are many determinants influencing the results, including current hypotheses and the state of knowledge. This leads to an interdependence between hypotheses and data. Additionally, different levels of description are involved, especially when experiments are designed to answer questions pertaining to broad concepts like the self, empathy or moral intentions. Interdisciplinary theoretical frameworks are needed to integrate findings from the life sciences and the humanities and to translate between them. While these epistemological issues are not specific for neuroimaging, there are some reasons why they are of special importance in this context: Due to their inferential proximity, ,neuro-images' seem to be self-evident, suggesting directness of observation and objectivity. This has to be critically discussed to prevent overinterpretation. Additionally, there is a high level of attention to neuroimaging, leading to a high frequency of presentation of neuroimaging data and making the critical examination of their epistemological properties even more pressing. Conclusions: Epistemological considerations are an important prerequisite for neuroethics. The presentation and communication of the results of neuroimaging studies, the potential generation of new phenomena and new ,dysfunctions' through neuroimaging, and the influence on central concepts at the foundations of ethics will be important future topics for this discipline. [source]

Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a disorder of dysplasia: The importance of distinguishing features, consequences, and complications,

Vincent Michael Riccardi
BACKGROUND: The disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is caused by mutations in the NF1 gene, which influences the availability of activated Ras and the latter's control of cellular proliferation. Emphasis on this aspect of NF1 has focused attention on the tumor suppression function of NF1 and thereby displaced attention from the gene's role in initial normal tissue formation, maintenance, and repair. METHODS: Clinical and neuroimaging data systematically compiled over more than 30 years are analyzed to document the involvement of multiple organs and tissues, often with an embryonic origin. In addition, recent literature based on selective knockout mouse experiments is cited to corroborate embryonic dysplasia as an element of NF1 pathogenesis. RESULTS: Tissue dysplasia, both ab initio and as part of tissue maintenance and wound healing, is a key clinical and pathogenetic aspect of NF1 and thereby provides a rationale for differentiating the elements of NF1 into features, consequences, and complications. CONCLUSIONS: NF1 is a histogenesis control gene that also has properties that overlap with those of a tumor suppressor gene. Both its neoplastic and dysplastic manifestations become more amenable to understanding and treatment if they are differentiated at three levels,specifically, features, consequences and complications. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The clinical and neuroimaging studies in Holmes tremor

A. Gajos
Gajos A, Bogucki A, Schinwelski M, So,tan W, Rudzi,ska M, Budrewicz S, Koszewicz M, Majos A, Górska-Chrz,stek M, Bie,kiewicz M, Ku,mierek J, S,awek J. The clinical and neuroimaging studies in Holmes tremor. Acta Neurol Scand: 2010: 122: 360,366. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Munksgaard. Aim,,, Holmes tremor (HT) is a combination of rest, postural and action tremor. A parallel dysfunction of cerebello-thalamic and nigrostriatal pathways seems necessary to produce this kind of tremor. We present the clinical and neuroimaging study verifying that hypothesis. Material and methods,,, A total of 10 patients: five male, five female, fulfilling consensus criteria were included. Demographic, clinical and neuroimaging data (MRI = 9; CT = 1, SPECT with the use of 123-I-FP CIT: DaTSCAN in six patients to assess the presynaptic dopaminergic nigrostriatal system involvement, indices of asymmetry for ligand uptake for each striatum were calculated) were analyzed. Results,,, Hemorrhage was the most frequent etiology and thalamus , the most commonly involved structure. Contrary to the previous reports, the visual assessment did not reveal remarkable interhemispheric differences of DaTSCAN uptake. Quantitative measurements showed only minimal differences. Conclusions,,, It is open to debate whether nigrostriatal pathway damage is crucial for the phenomenology of HT. Alternative hypothesis is presented that HT represents the heterogeneous spectrum of tremors with similar phenomenology, but different pathophysiology. [source]