Neurogenic Potential (neurogenic + potential)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Glutamate enhances proliferation and neurogenesis in human neural progenitor cell cultures derived from the fetal cortex

Masatoshi Suzuki
Abstract Excitatory amino acids such as glutamate play important roles in the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated that a neurosteroid, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), has powerful effects on the cell proliferation of human neural progenitor cells (hNPC) derived from the fetal cortex, and this effect is modulated through NMDA receptor signaling. Here, we show that glutamate can significantly increase the proliferation rates of hNPC. The increased proliferation could be blocked by specific NMDA receptor antagonists, but not other glutamate antagonists for kainate,AMPA or metabotropic receptors. The NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor was detectable in elongated bipolar or unipolar cells with small cell bodies. These NR1-positive cells were colocalized with GFAP immunoreactivity. Detection of the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) revealed that a subset of NR1-positive hNPC could respond to glutamate. Furthermore, we hypothesized that glutamate treatment may affect mainly the hNPC with a radial morphology and found that glutamate as well as DHEA selectively affected elongated hNPC; these elongated cells may be a type of radial glial cell. Finally we asked whether the glutamate-responsive hNPC had an increased potential for neurogenesis and found that glutamate-treated hNPC produced significantly more neurons following differentiation. Together these data suggest that glutamate stimulates the division of human progenitor cells with neurogenic potential. [source]

Temporal control of gene recombination in astrocytes by transgenic expression of the tamoxifen-inducible DNA recombinase variant CreERT2

GLIA, Issue 1 2006
Petra G. Hirrlinger
Abstract Inducible gene modification using the Cre/loxP system provides a valuable tool for the analysis of gene function in the active animal. GFAP-Cre transgenic mice have been developed to achieve gene recombination in astrocytes, the most abundant cells of the central nervous system, with pivotal roles during brain function and pathology. Unfortunately, these mice displayed neuronal recombination as well, since the GFAP promoter is also active in embryonic radial glia, which possess a substantial neurogenic potential. To enable the temporal control of gene deletions in astrocytes only, we generated a transgenic mouse with expression of CreERT2, a fusion protein of the DNA recombinase Cre and a mutated ligand-binding domain of the estrogen receptor, under the control of the human GFAP promoter. In offspring originating from crossbreedings of GFAP-CreERT2-transgenic mice with various Cre-sensitive reporter mice, consecutive intraperitoneal injections of tamoxifen induced genomic recombination selectively in astrocytes of almost all brain regions. In Bergmann glia, which represent the main astroglial cell population of the cerebellum, virtually all cells showed successful gene recombination. When adult mice received cortical stab wound lesions, simultaneously given tamoxifen induced substantial recombination in reactive glia adjacent to the site of injury. These transgenic GFAP-CreERT2 mice will allow the functional analysis of loxP-modified genes in astroglia of the postnatal and adult brain. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Evaluation of human fetal neural stem/progenitor cells as a source for cell replacement therapy for neurological disorders: Properties and tumorigenicity after long-term in vitro maintenance

Daisuke Ogawa
Abstract It is expected that human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNS/PCs) will some day be used in cell replacement therapies. However, their availability is limited because of ethical issues, so they have to be expanded to obtain sufficient amounts for clinical application. Moreover, in-vitro-maintained hNS/PCs may have a potential for tumorigenicity that could be manifested after transplantation in vivo. In the present study, we demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo properties of long-term-expanded hNS/PCs, including a 6-month bioluminescence imaging (BLI) study of their in vivo tumorigenicity. hNS/PCs cultured for approximately 250 days in vitro (hNS/PCs-250) exhibited a higher growth rate and greater neurogenic potential than those cultured for approximately 500 days in vitro (hNS/PCs-500), which showed greater gliogenic potential. In vivo, both hNS/PCs-250 and -500 differentiated into neurons and astrocytes 4 weeks after being transplanted into the striatum of immunodeficient mice, and hNS/PCs-250 exhibited better survival than hNS/PCs-500 at this time point. We also found that the grafted hNS/PCs-250 survived stably and differentiated properly into neurons and astrocytes even 6 months after the surgery. Moreover, during the 6-month observation period by BLI, we did not detect any evidence of rapid tumorigenic growth of the grafted hNS/PCs, and neither PCNA/Ki67-positive proliferating cells nor significant malignant invasive features were detected histologically. These findings support the idea that hNS/PCs may represent a nontumorigenic, safe, and appropriate cell source for regenerative therapies for neurological disorders. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Analysis of neural potential of human umbilical cord blood,derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in response to a range of neurogenic stimuli

Isabel Zwart
Abstract We investigated the neurogenic potential of full-term human umbilical cord blood (hUCB),derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in response to neural induction media or coculture with rat neural cells. Phenotypic and functional changes were assessed by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Naive MSCs expressed both mesodermal and ectodermal markers prior to neural induction. Exposure to retinoic acid, basic fibroblast growth factor, or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) did not stimulate neural morphology, whereas exposure to dibutyryl cAMP and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine stimulated a neuron-like morphology but also appeared to be cytotoxic. All protocols stimulated increases in expression of the neural precursor marker nestin, but expression of mature neuronal or glial markers MAP2 and GFAP was not observed. Nestin expression increases were serum level dependent. Electrophysiological properties of MSCs were studied with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. The MSCs possessed no ionic currents typical of neurons before or after neural induction protocols. Coculture of hUCB-derived MSCs and rat neural cells induced some MSCs to adopt an astrocyte-like morphology and express GFAP protein and mRNA. Our data suggest hUCB-derived MSCs do not transdifferentiate into mature functioning neurons in response to the above neurogenic protocols; however, coculture with rat neural cells led to a minority adopting an astrocyte-like phenotype. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Neural differentiation and potential use of stem cells from the human umbilical cord for central nervous system transplantation therapy

Choon Bing Low
Abstract The human umbilical cord is a rich source of autologous stem and progenitor cells. Interestingly, subpopulations of these, particularly mesenchymal-like cells from both cord blood and the cord stroma, exhibited a potential to be differentiated into neuron-like cells in culture. Umbilical cord blood stem cells have demonstrated efficacy in reducing lesion sizes and enhancing behavioral recovery in animal models of ischemic and traumatic central nervous system (CNS) injury. Recent findings also suggest that neurons derived from cord stroma mesenchymal cells could alleviate movement disorders in hemiparkinsonian animal models. We review here the neurogenic potential of umbilical cord stem cells and discuss possibilities of their exploitation as an alternative to human embryonic stem cells or neural stem cells for transplantation therapy of traumatic CNS injury and neurodegenerative diseases. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Human neural stem cells genetically modified for brain repair in neurological disorders

Seung U. Kim
Existence of multipotent neural stem cells (NSC) has been known in developing or adult mammalian CNS, including humans. NSC have the capacity to grow indefinitely and have multipotent potential to differentiate into three major cell types of CNS, neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Stable clonal lines of human NSC have recently been generated from the human fetal telencephalon using a retroviral vector encoding v-myc. One of the NSC lines, HB1.F3, carries normal human karyotype of 46XX and has the ability to self-renew, differentiate into cells of neuronal and glial lineages, and integrate into the damaged CNS loci upon transplantation into the brain of animal models of Parkinson disease, HD, stroke and mucopolysaccharidosis. F3 human NSC were genetically engineered to produce L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) by double transfection with cDNA for tyrosine hydroxylase and guanosine triphosphate cylohydrolase-1, and transplantation of these cells in the brain of Parkinson disease model rats led to L-DOPA production and functional recovery. Proactively transplanted F3 human NSC in rat striatum, supported the survival of host striatal neurons against neuronal injury caused by 3-nitropro-pionic acid in rat model of HD. Intravenously introduced through the tail vein, F3 human NSC were found to migrate into ischemic lesion sites, differentiate into neurons and glial cells, and improve functional deficits in rat stroke models. These results indicate that human NSC should be an ideal vehicle for cell replacement and gene transfer therapy for patients with neurological diseases. In addition to immortalized human NSC, immortalized human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell lines have been generated from human embryonic bone marrow tissues with retroviral vectors encording v-myc or teromerase gene. These immortalized cell lines of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into neurons/glial cells, bone, cartilage and adipose tissue when they were grown in selective inducing media. There is further need for investigation into the neurogenic potential of the human bone marrow stem cell lines and their utility in animal models of neurological diseases. [source]

Depletion of the neural precursor cell pool by glucocorticoids

Shuang Yu MD
Objective Glucocorticoids (GCs) are indicated for a number of conditions in obstetrics and perinatal medicine; however, the neurodevelopmental and long-term neurological consequences of early-life GC exposure are still largely unknown. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that GCs have a major influence on hippocampal cell turnover by inhibiting neurogenesis and stimulating apoptosis of mature neurons. Here we examined the fate of the limited pool of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) after GC administration during neonatal development; the impact of this treatment on hippocampal structure was also studied. Methods Phenotype-specific genetic and antigenic markers were used to identify cultured NPCs at various developmental stages; the survival of these cells was monitored after exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX). In addition, the effects of neonatal DEX treatment on the neurogenic potential of the rat hippocampus were examined by monitoring the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine and expression of Ki67 antigen at various postnatal ages. Results Multipotent nestin-expressing NPCs and T,1-tubulin,expressing immature neurons succumb to GC-induced apoptosis in primary hippocampal cultures. Neonatal GC treatment results in marked apoptosis among the proliferating population of cells in the dentate gyrus, depletes the NPC pool, and leads to significant and sustained reductions in the volume of the dentate gyrus. Interpretation Both NPCs and immature neurons in the hippocampus are sensitive to the proapoptotic actions of GCs. Depletion of the limited NPC pool during early life retards hippocampal growth, thus allowing predictions about the potential neurological and psychiatric consequences of neonatal GC exposure. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:21,30 [source]

Lithium Restores Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone of the Ts65Dn Mouse, a Model for Down Syndrome

Patrizia Bianchi
Abstract Down syndrome (DS), a high-incidence genetic pathology, involves brain hypoplasia and mental retardation. Emerging evidence suggests that reduced neurogenesis may be a major determinant of brain underdevelopment in DS. To establish whether it is possible to improve neurogenesis in DS, Ts65Dn mice,the most widely used model for DS,and euploid mice were treated with control or lithium chow for 1 month. During the last 3 days animals received one daily injection of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU),a marker of proliferating cells,and were sacrificed 24 h after the last injection. Neurogenesis was examined in the subventricular zone (SVZ), a region that retains a neurogenic potential across life. We found that Ts65Dn mice had less (,40%) BrdU+ cells than euploid mice, indicating severe proliferation impairment. Treatment with lithium increased the number of Brdu+ cells in both euploid and Ts65Dn mice. In the latter the number of Brdu+ cells became similar to that of untreated euploid mice. Our study shows that lithium is able to restore cell proliferation in the SVZ of the Ts65Dn mouse and point at treatments with mood stabilizers as a potential tool to improve neurogenesis in patients with DS. [source]