Neurogenic Niche (neurogenic + niche)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Adult neurogenesis in the crayfish brain: Proliferation, migration, and possible origin of precursor cells

DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 7 2009
Yi Zhang
Abstract The birth of new neurons and their incorporation into functional circuits in the adult brain is a characteristic of many vertebrate and invertebrate organisms, including decapod crustaceans. Precursor cells maintaining life-long proliferation in the brains of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Cherax destructor) and clawed lobsters (Homarus americanus) reside within a specialized niche on the ventral surface of the brain; their daughters migrate to two proliferation zones along a stream formed by processes of the niche precursors. Here they divide again, finally producing interneurons in the olfactory pathway. The present studies in P. clarkii explore (1) differential proliferative activity among the niche precursor cells with growth and aging, (2) morphological characteristics of cells in the niche and migratory streams, and (3) aspects of the cell cycle in this lineage. Morphologically symmetrical divisions of neuronal precursor cells were observed in the niche near where the migratory streams emerge, as well as in the streams and proliferation zones. The nuclei of migrating cells elongate and undergo shape changes consistent with nucleokinetic movement. LIS1, a highly conserved dynein-binding protein, is expressed in cells in the migratory stream and neurogenic niche, implicating this protein in the translocation of crustacean brain neuronal precursor cells. Symmetrical divisions of the niche precursors and migration of both daughters raised the question of how the niche precursor pool is replenished. We present here preliminary evidence for an association between vascular cells and the niche precursors, which may relate to the life-long growth and maintenance of the crustacean neurogenic niche. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2009 [source]


Lineage analysis of quiescent regenerative stem cells in the adult brain by genetic labelling reveals spatially restricted neurogenic niches in the olfactory bulb

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
Claudio Giachino
Abstract The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles is the major neurogenic region in the adult mammalian brain, harbouring neural stem cells within defined niches. The identity of these stem cells and the factors regulating their fate are poorly understood. We have genetically mapped a population of Nestin-expressing cells during postnatal development to study their potential and fate in vivo. Taking advantage of the recombination characteristics of a nestin::CreERT2 allele, we followed a subpopulation of neural stem cells and traced their fate in a largely unrecombined neurogenic niche. Perinatal nestin::CreERT2 -expressing cells give rise to multiple glial cell types and neurons, as well as to stem cells of the adult SVZ. In the adult SVZ nestin::CreERT2 -expressing neural stem cells give rise to several neuronal subtypes in the olfactory bulb (OB). We addressed whether the same population of neural stem cells play a role in SVZ regeneration. Following anti-mitotic treatment to eliminate rapidly dividing progenitors, relatively quiescent nestin::CreERT2 -targeted cells are spared and contribute to SVZ regeneration, generating new proliferating precursors and neuroblasts. Finally, we have identified neurogenic progenitors clustered in ependymal-like niches within the rostral migratory stream (RMS) of the OB. These OB-RMS progenitors generate neuroblasts that, upon transplantation, graft, migrate and differentiate into granule and glomerular neurons. In summary, using conditional lineage tracing we have identified neonatal cells that are the source of neurogenic and regenerative neural stem cells in the adult SVZ and occupy a novel neurogenic niche in the OB. [source]


Longterm quiescent cells in the aged human subventricular neurogenic system specifically express GFAP-,

AGING CELL, Issue 3 2010
Simone A. Van Den Berge
Summary A main neurogenic niche in the adult human brain is the subventricular zone (SVZ). Recent data suggest that the progenitors that are born in the human SVZ migrate via the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulb (OB), similar to what has been observed in other mammals. A subpopulation of astrocytes in the SVZ specifically expresses an assembly-compromised isoform of the intermediate filament protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-,). To further define the phenotype of these GFAP-, expressing cells and to determine whether these cells are present throughout the human subventricular neurogenic system, we analysed SVZ, RMS and OB sections of 14 aged brain donors (ages 74-93). GFAP-, was expressed in the SVZ along the ventricle, in the RMS and in the OB. The GFAP-, cells in the SVZ co-expressed the neural stem cell (NSC) marker nestin and the cell proliferation markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Mcm2. Furthermore, BrdU retention was found in GFAP-, positive cells in the SVZ. In the RMS, GFAP-, was expressed in the glial net surrounding the neuroblasts. In the OB, GFAP-, positive cells co-expressed PCNA. We also showed that GFAP-, cells are present in neurosphere cultures that were derived from SVZ precursors, isolated postmortem from four brain donors (ages 63-91). Taken together, our findings show that GFAP-, is expressed in an astrocytic subpopulation in the SVZ, the RMS and the OB. Importantly, we provide the first evidence that GFAP-, is specifically expressed in longterm quiescent cells in the human SVZ, which are reminiscent of NSCs. [source]


The more you have, the less you get: the functional role of inflammation on neuronal differentiation of endogenous and transplanted neural stem cells in the adult brain

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 6 2010
Patricia Mathieu
J. Neurochem. (2010) 112, 1368,1385. Abstract The differentiation of neural stem cells toward a neuronal phenotype is determined by the extracellular and intracellular factors that form the neurogenic niche. In this review, we discuss the available data on the functional role of inflammation and in particular, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, on neuronal differentiation from endogenous and transplanted neural stem/progenitor cells. In addition, we discuss the role of microglial cell activation on these processes and the fact that microglial cell activation is not univocally associated with a pro-inflammatory milieu. We conclude that brain cytokines could be regarded as part of the endogenous neurogenic niche. In addition, we propose that accumulating evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory cytokines have a negative effect on neuronal differentiation, while anti-inflammatory cytokines exert an opposite effect. The clarification of the functional role of cytokines on neuronal differentiation will be relevant not only to better understand adult neurogenesis, but also to envisage complementary treatments to modulate cytokine action that could increase the therapeutic benefit of future progenitor/stem cell-based therapies. [source]


Lineage analysis of quiescent regenerative stem cells in the adult brain by genetic labelling reveals spatially restricted neurogenic niches in the olfactory bulb

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
Claudio Giachino
Abstract The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles is the major neurogenic region in the adult mammalian brain, harbouring neural stem cells within defined niches. The identity of these stem cells and the factors regulating their fate are poorly understood. We have genetically mapped a population of Nestin-expressing cells during postnatal development to study their potential and fate in vivo. Taking advantage of the recombination characteristics of a nestin::CreERT2 allele, we followed a subpopulation of neural stem cells and traced their fate in a largely unrecombined neurogenic niche. Perinatal nestin::CreERT2 -expressing cells give rise to multiple glial cell types and neurons, as well as to stem cells of the adult SVZ. In the adult SVZ nestin::CreERT2 -expressing neural stem cells give rise to several neuronal subtypes in the olfactory bulb (OB). We addressed whether the same population of neural stem cells play a role in SVZ regeneration. Following anti-mitotic treatment to eliminate rapidly dividing progenitors, relatively quiescent nestin::CreERT2 -targeted cells are spared and contribute to SVZ regeneration, generating new proliferating precursors and neuroblasts. Finally, we have identified neurogenic progenitors clustered in ependymal-like niches within the rostral migratory stream (RMS) of the OB. These OB-RMS progenitors generate neuroblasts that, upon transplantation, graft, migrate and differentiate into granule and glomerular neurons. In summary, using conditional lineage tracing we have identified neonatal cells that are the source of neurogenic and regenerative neural stem cells in the adult SVZ and occupy a novel neurogenic niche in the OB. [source]


Expression of Sox11 in adult neurogenic niches suggests a stage-specific role in adult neurogenesis

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 11 2009
Anja Haslinger
Abstract In the mammalian brain, neural stem and progenitor cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus generate new neurons throughout adulthood. The generation of new functional neurons is a complex process that is tightly controlled by extrinsic signals and that is characterized by stage-specific gene expression programs and cell biological processes. The transcription factors regulating such stage-specific developmental steps in adult neurogenesis are largely unknown. Here we report that Sox11, a member of the group C Sox transcription factor family, is prominently expressed in the neurogenic areas of the adult brain. Further analysis revealed that Sox11 expression is strictly confined to doublecortin-expressing neuronally committed precursors and immature neurons but that Sox11 is not expressed in non-committed Sox2-expressing precursor cells and mature neurons of the adult neurogenic lineage. Finally, overexpression of Sox11 promotes the generation of doublecortin-positive immature neurons from adult neural stem cells in vitro. These data indicate that Sox11 is involved in the transcriptional regulation of specific gene expression programs in adult neurogenesis at the stage of the immature neuron. [source]


Sonic Hedgehog signaling in the mammalian brain

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2010
Elisabeth Traiffort
J. Neurochem. (2010) 113, 576,590. Abstract The discovery of a Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway in the mature vertebrate CNS has paved the way to the characterization of the functional roles of Shh signals in normal and diseased brain. Shh is proposed to participate in the establishment and maintenance of adult neurogenic niches and to regulate the proliferation of neuronal or glial precursors in several brain areas. Consistent with its role during brain development, misregulation of Shh signaling is associated with tumorigenesis while its recruitement in damaged neural tissue might be part of the regenerating process. This review focuses on the most recent data of the Hedgehog pathway in the adult brain and its relevance as a novel therapeutic approach for brain diseases including brain tumors. [source]