Neurogenic Bladder (neurogenic + bladder)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Urodynamic findings in children with cerebral palsy

Abstract Aim: More than one-third of children with cerebral palsy are expected to present with dysfunctional voiding symptoms. The voiding dysfunction symptoms of the cerebral palsy patients in the present study were documented. Methods: Of the study group, 16 were girls and 20 were boys (mean age: 8.2 years). Children with cerebral palsy were evaluated with urodynamics consisting of flow rate, filling and voiding cystometry, and electromyography findings of the external urethral sphincter to determine lower urinary tract functions. Treatment protocols were based on the urodynamic findings. Anticholinergic agents to reduce uninhibited contractions and to increase bladder capacity were used as a treatment. Clean intermittent catheterization and behavioral modification were used for incomplete emptying. Results: Of the children, 24 (66.6%) were found to have dysfunctional voiding symptoms. Daytime urinary incontinence (47.2%) and difficulty urinating (44.4%) were the most common symptoms. Urodynamic findings showed that neurogenic detrusor overactivity (involuntary contractions during bladder filling) with a low bladder capacity was present in 17 (47.2%) children, whereas detrusor,sphincter dyssynergia was present in four patients (11%). The mean bladder capacity of patients with a neurogenic bladder was 52.2% of the expected capacity. Conclusions: The present study concluded that voiding dysfunction was seen in more than half of the children with cerebral palsy, which is a similar result to other published studies. We propose that a rational plan of management of these patients depends on the evaluation of the lower urinary tract dysfunction with urodynamic studies. These children benefit from earlier referral for assessment and treatment. [source]

Perinephric urinoma secondary to neurogenic bladder with vesicoureteral reflux: Report of an adult case

Abstract We report a case of infectious perinephric urinoma in a 73-year-old woman who had a neurogenic bladder with vesico-ureteral reflux. The patient was admitted to our emergency room with right lumbago and high fever. Ultrasounds and computed tomography demonstrated a right large perinephric cystic mass, bilateral hydronephrosis and much residual urine. Percutaneous drainage of the cystic mass was performed with an indwelling urethral catheter. The content of the mass was urine infected with Escherichia coli. Antibiotic therapy was performed successfully and we then examined the cause of the urinoma. A urodynamic study demonstrated a low-compliance small bladder and detrusor,sphincter dyssynergia. A voiding cystourethrogram revealed right grade III vesicoureteral reflux. The patient was unable to be cleared with intermittent catheterization and had an indwelling urethral catheter inserted. In 1 year, the voiding cystourethrogram showed no vesicoureteral reflux and the patient was well with no evidence of recurrent urinoma without the urethral catheter. There have been only two reported cases of urinoma caused by neurogenic bladder with vesico-ureteral reflux in children and this is the first case reported in an adult. [source]

Appendicovesicostomy for pubescent patients with neurogenic bladder using umbilicus as a stomal site

Akiko Uda
Abstract We experienced two cases of neurogenic bladder in which clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) had been performed since early childhood. In both cases, CIC had not provided adequate voiding control and incontinence persisted. According to the Mitrofanoff Principle, we used the appendix as a catheterizable conduit, which was constructed to the umbilicus. [source]

Comparison study of autonomous activity in bladders from normal and paraplegic rats,,

Thomas Gevaert
Abstract Aim To identify differences in the pattern of pressure generated by isolated bladders from normal and paraplegic rats. Materials and Methods Nine female Wister rats were made paraplegic by spinal cord transsection at the vertebral level T8-T9 and sacrificed between D21 and D28. A further group (n,=,9) was used as a control group. Each bladder was excised and placed in an organ bath where intravesical pressures were measured. Pressure changes were divided in two well-defined groups: macro-transients and spikes. The effects of intravesical volume load and muscarinic (M) agonists were studied. Results We demonstrated a higher frequency, a longer duration, and a higher variance of duration in macro-transients in the neurogenic group. Intravesical volume load influenced the amplitude and frequency of macro-transients in both groups similarly. The effects of the muscarinic (M2)-selective agonist arecaïdine were different in neurogenic bladder; the effects of the non-selective muscarinic (M)-agonist carbachol were similar in both groups. Conclusion We showed that the pattern of autonomous activity was significantly different between normal and neurogenic rat bladders. We also found evidence for alterations in the muscarinic response of isolated neurogenic rat bladders. This model offers an exciting new research tool to evaluate the detrusor activity in neurogenic and normal conditions. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A new minimally invasive procedure for pudendal nerve stimulation to treat neurogenic bladder: Description of the method and preliminary data

Michele Spinelli
Pudendal nerve stimulation has beneficial effects on numerous pelvic floor function impairments such as urinary and/or fecal incontinence, retention, and constipation. In preceding literature the implant technique required a fairly complex and invasive surgery, although recent advances with percutaneous placement of the lead through an introducer have made the procedure much less invasive. We performed staged procedure similar to that of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) to place tined lead near the pudendal nerve, using neurophysiological guidance that allowed accurate pudendal nerve stimulation through either perineal or posterior approach. We have named this approach chronic pudendal nerve stimulation (CPNS). Methods Fifteen neurogenic patients (eight male, seven female) with symptoms of urge incontinence due to neurogenic overactive bladder underwent CPNS. All patients had complete neurophysiological and urodynamic evaluation at baseline and follow-up and were asked to complete voiding and bowel diary for 7 days. Results During screening, average number of incontinent episodes per day decreased from 7,±,3.3 to 2.6,±,3.3 (P,<,0.02, paired t -test). Eight patients became continent, two improved by more than 88% (from 9 to 1 daily incontinence episode) and two patients reduced the number of incontinence episodes by 50%. The implantable pulse generator (IPG) was subsequently implanted in those 12 patients. Three patients without improvement did not continue to second stage. In implanted patients with 6 months follow-up, urodynamic evaluation showed an objective improvement in the maximum cystometric capacity which increased from 153.3,±,49.9 to 331.4,±,110.7 ml (P,<,0.01, paired t -test). The maximum pressure decreased from 66,±,24.3 to 36.8,±,35.9 cmH2O (P,=,0.059, paired t -test). Eight patients reported significant improvement in bowel function. Conclusion Chronic pundedal nerve stimulation is feasible. Neurophysiological guidance is mandatory to place the lead near the pudendal nerve either using perineal or posterior approach. Further studies must be carried out to identify the best stimulation parameters and to verify the long term results. Neurourol. Urodynam. 24:305,309, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Involuntary detrusor contractions: Correlation of urodynamic data to clinical categories

Lauri J. Romanzi
Abstract Data regarding the prevalence and urodynamic characteristics of involuntary detrusor contractions (IDC) in various clinical settings, as well as in neurologically intact vs. neurologically impaired patients, are scarce. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the urodynamic characteristics of IDC differ in various clinical categories. One hundred eleven consecutive neurologically intact patients and 21 consecutive neurologically impaired patients, referred for evaluation of persistent irritative voiding symptoms, were prospectively enrolled. All patients were presumed by history to have IDC, and underwent detailed clinical and urodynamic evaluation. Based on clinical evaluation, patients were placed into one of four categories according to the main presenting symptoms and the existence of neurological insult: 1) frequency/urgency; 2) urge incontinence; 3) mixed stress incontinence and irritative symptoms; and 4) neurogenic bladder. IDC was defined by detrusor pressure of ,,15,cm H2O whether or not the patient perceived the contraction; or <,15,cm H2O if perceived by the patient. Eight urodynamic characteristics of IDC were analyzed and compared between the four groups. IDC were observed in all of the neurologically impaired patients, compared with 76% of the neurologically intact patients (P,<,0.001). No correlation was found between amplitude of IDC and subjective report of urgency. All clinical categories demonstrated IDC at approximately 80% of cystometric capacity. Eighty-one percent of the neurologically impaired patients, compared with 97% of the neurologically intact patients, were aware of the IDC at the time of urodynamics (P,<,0.04). The ability to abort the IDC was significantly higher among continent patients with frequency/urgency (77%) compared with urge incontinent patients (46%) and neurologically impaired patients (38%). In conclusion, when evaluating detrusor overactivity, the characteristics of the IDC are not distinct enough to aid in differential diagnosis. However, the ability to abort IDC and stop incontinent flow may have prognostic implications, especially for the response to behavior modification, biofeedback, and pelvic floor exercise. Neurourol. Urodynam. 20:249,257, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A pilot study of the effect of the Queen's Square external bladder stimulator on urinary retention after knee replacement surgery

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 6 2003
A. Butwick
Summary Postoperative urinary retention remains an important problem after major orthopaedic surgery and can increase morbidity. External vibration applied to the suprapubic region has improved bladder emptying and urinary symptoms in patients with neurogenic bladders. Forty-three patients undergoing elective major knee surgery were randomly assigned to receive either a Queen's Square bladder stimulator or placebo device for 24 h postoperatively. No statistically significant differences in rates of urinary retention could be demonstrated in the bladder stimulator group compared to the placebo group (41% and 33%, respectively). There were no differences between the two groups when analysed for prostatic symptoms, type and effectiveness of analgesia and fluid balance. We conclude that, while the Queen's Square external bladder stimulator may be effective in treating chronic urinary retention associated with a neurogenic bladder, it does not appear to be effective in preventing postoperative urinary retention. [source]

Study of Botulinum Toxin A in Neurogenic Bladder Due to Spina Bifida in Children

Aniruddh V. Deshpande
Abstract Background:, We report results of a pilot study investigating the safety and efficacy of Botulinum A toxin on urinary incontinence and bladder function in children with neurogenic bladder. Methods:, This was a prospective, non-randomized clinical trial. Seven children with median age of 16 years with spina bifida who had high storage pressures, poor bladder compliance and had failed treatment with anticholinergic medications were offered a single intra-detrusor injection of Botulinum A toxin. All subjects were on clean intermittent catheterization before and during the study. Follow-up videourodynamic studies were performed at 1 month, between 3 and 6 months, and at 9 months. Data were collected on safety and on subjective outcomes through validated questionnaires filled out by patients at each visit. Results:, In majority of the patients (5/7), the injection produced an increase in bladder compliance (P < 0.05) and an improvement in incontinence (P < 0.05) at 1-month follow-up. However, in two patients whose baseline bladder capacity was markedly reduced (<200 mL), the improvement was very minimal. The beneficial effects in bladder compliance and incontinence dissipated by 9 months. The changes in subjective outcomes (incontinence and satisfaction scores) did not parallel the changes in urodynamics through the study period. No side effects of Botulinum toxin were seen. Conclusion:, Botulinum A toxin injection produces beneficial urodynamics and clinical effects. These beneficial effects last for approximately 9 months. There is a poor correlation between improvement in the urodynamics and the subjective outcomes. Botulinum A toxin injection is a safe alternative treatment for patients with spina bifida and a neurogenic bladder. [source]

Regulation of bladder muscarinic receptor subtypes by experimental pathologies

M. R. Ruggieri Sr
Summary 1 The M3 muscarinic receptor subtype is widely accepted as the receptor on smooth muscle cells that mediates cholinergic contraction of the normal urinary bladder and other smooth muscle tissues, however, we have found that the M2 receptor participates in contraction under certain abnormal conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of various experimental pathologies on the muscarinic receptor subtype mediating urinary bladder contraction. 2 Experimental pathologies resulting in bladder hypertrophy (denervation and outlet obstruction) result in an up-regulation of bladder M2 receptors and a change in the receptor subtype mediating contraction from M3 towards M2. Preventing the denervation-induced bladder hypertrophy by urinary diversion prevents this shift in contractile phenotype indicating that hypertrophy is responsible as opposed to denervation per se. 3 The hypertrophy-induced increase in M2 receptor density and contractile response is accompanied by an increase in the tissue concentrations of mRNA coding for the M2 receptor subtype, however, M3 receptor protein density does not correlate with changes in M3 receptor tissue mRNA concentrations across different experimental pathologies. 4 This shift in contractile phenotype from M3 towards M2 subtype is also observed in aged male Sprague,Dawley rats but not females or either sex of the Fisher344 strain of rats. 5 Four repeated, sequential agonist concentration response curves also cause this shift in contractile phenotype in normal rat bladder strips in vitro, as evidenced by a decrease in the affinity of the M3 selective antagonist p -fluoro-hexahydro-sila-diphenidol (p -F-HHSiD). 6 A similar decrease in the contractile affinity of M3 selective antagonists (darifenacin and p -F-HHSiD) is also observed in bladder specimens from patients with neurogenic bladder as well as certain organ transplant donors. 7 It is concluded that although the M3 receptor subtype predominately mediates contraction under normal circumstances, the M2 receptor subtype can take over a contractile role when the M3 subtype becomes inactivated by, for example, repeated agonist exposures or bladder hypertrophy. This finding has substantial implications for the clinical treatment of abnormal bladder contractions. [source]

The Boari bladder flap: an effective continent stoma for the high-compliance neurogenic bladder

Egbert Baumgart
Study Type , Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 OBJECTIVE To determine if a continent urinary stoma can be created effectively using a Boari bladder flap (BBF) technique. PATIENTS AND METHODS Selected patients (15, eight women and seven men) with a neurogenic bladder and a bladder compliance of >20 mL/cmH2O had a procedure to create a BBF continent urinary stoma. The technique consisted of tubularising a trapezoidal, full-thickness detrusor flap 10 cm long, 5,6 cm wide at the base and 2 cm at the tip, over a 12 F catheter, and plication of detrusor muscle around the stomal base. Outcomes after surgery were assessed by reviewing stomal continence, stomal patency, and stability of the upper urinary tract. RESULTS Ten BBF procedures were performed using native detrusor muscle, four with enterocystoplasty tissue and one in a defunctionalized bladder. Over a mean follow-up of 13 months, 11 patients had functioning stomas and 10 of these reported complete stomal continence. The mean change in serum creatinine level from the preoperative baseline for all patients was 0.1 mg/dL. The odds ratio for procedural failure, defined as a stoma unusable for self-catheterization, was 7.5 (P = 0.04) when the BBF was created from augmented or defunctionalized bladder tissue, compared to native high-compliance detrusor. CONCLUSION A BBF can be used to create a viable, functional stoma in the high-compliance neurogenic bladder, although the rate of stomal complications is high when the BBF is created from enterocystoplasty tissue. [source]

The management of neurogenic bladder and quality of life in spinal cord injury

Ja Hyeon Ku
First page of article [source]

Alfuzosin in the treatment of high leak-point pressure in children with neurogenic bladder

H. Schulte-Baukloh
Objective ,To decrease the detrusor leak-point pressure (LPP) of >,40 cmH2O in children with a neurogenic bladder, using the ,1 -adrenergic blocking agent alfuzosin. Patients and methods ,Videocystometry was used to measure the detrusor LPP and several other variables before and 3 weeks after the oral administration of alfuzosin (2.5,7.5 mg/day) in 17 children (mean age 6.3 years) with an upper motor neurone lesion. Results ,The mean (sd) detrusor LPP decreased from 68 (37) to 46 (31) cmH2O (P < 0.01), reflex volume (defined as the volume at the first uninhibited bladder contraction of >,15 cmH2O) increased from 78 (69) to 112 (118) mL (+ 44%), bladder compliance increased from 9.3 (6.1) to 19.6 (14.6) mL/cmH2O (+ 111%), maximal vesical pressure decreased from 84 (40) to 70 (47) cmH2O (, 17%), and the mean number of uninhibited bladder contractions decreased from 6.3 to 3.5 (, 44%). The therapy was well tolerated; side-effects were rare and not severe. Intermittent catheterization could be avoided in six children. Conclusion ,Alfuzosin decreases the detrusor LPP in children with a neurogenic bladder caused by an upper motor neurone lesion, significantly and therapeutically, and should be considered as an alternative or addition to intermittent catheterization and anticholinergic drugs in selected patients. [source]

The rectus myofascial wrap in the management of urethral sphincter incompetence

G.C. Mingin
Objective ,To review our experience with a modified rectus/pyramidalis myofascial sling, described more than a century ago for treating refractory urinary incontinence in children with neurogenic sphincteric incompetence. Patients and methods ,Thirty-seven patients (23 females and 14 males, aged 8,21 years) presented with urinary incontinence which failed to respond to medical treatment. In 36 patients the cause of the incontinence was a neurogenic bladder; one patient had sustained a traumatic injury to the bladder neck and urethra. Patient selection was based on videocysto-urethrographic detection of an incompetent bladder neck, and a low maximum closure pressure during urethral pressure profilometry. The bladder was augmented in 33 of the 37 patients. Results ,Of the 37 patients, 34 (92%) are dry between catheterizations; the follow-up was 0.5,10 years. Two of the male patients continued to have persistent incontinence requiring bladder neck closure and creation of a continent stoma. One of the female patients developed stress incontinence after 4 years of being dry, with a rectus sling. Conclusion ,The rectus myofascial sling provides long-term satisfactory dry intervals between catheterizations in patients with neurogenic sphincteric incompetence. The cinch-wrap modification appears to enhance the occlusive effect of the sling, particularly in males. [source]

The efficacy of laparoscopic mesh colposuspension: results of a prospective controlled study

T.A. El-Toukhy
Objective To investigate the efficacy of laparoscopic mesh colposuspension as an equivalent approach to the ,gold standard' open Burch colposuspension. Patients and methods A prospective controlled study of laparoscopic mesh colposuspension was conducted over 2 years; 87 patients with genuine stress incontinence (GSI) were recruited. The preoperative evaluation included a history, examination, midstream urine analysis, urinary voiding diary, a Urilos pad test, and twin-channel subtracted cystometry, including urethral profilometry and measurement of the postvoid residual volume. The study included patients who had undergone previous incontinence surgery, but those with detrusor instability or neurogenic bladder were excluded. The patients were assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after surgery and then yearly thereafter. The urodynamic assessment was repeated 3 months after surgery. Results Forty-nine patients underwent laparoscopic colposuspension using Prolene mesh and titanium tacks to elevate the bladder neck, while 38 patients had open Burch colposuspension. There was no difference between the groups in age, parity, body mass index, menopausal status, medical history, previous bladder neck surgery and prolapse. At 6 weeks the cure rate was similarly high in the two groups (91% laparoscopic and 94% open). After a mean follow-up of 32 months, both groups showed a decline in efficacy, which was more marked in the laparoscopic group. Cure rates were 62% for laparoscopy and 79% for open surgery, and the improvement rates were 77% and 89%, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion Laparoscopic colposuspension using a mesh and tacker technique reduces the technical difficulty and operating time of the endoscopic procedure, but the long-term cure rates are inferior to open Burch colposuspension. [source]

Ileovesicostomy for adults with neurogenic bladders: Complications and potential risk factors for adverse outcomes,,

Hung-Jui Tan
Abstract Aims Risk factors for complications following ileovesicostomy have not been well defined. This study's purpose was to examine outcomes following ileovesicostomy in adults and identify possible risk factors that may contribute to post-operative complications. Methods Retrospective database review identified ileovesicostomy procedures from August 1999 to September 2003. Demographic, pre-operative, and post-operative data were extracted. Statistical analysis determined whether risk factors influenced outcomes of urethral continence, re-operation, and post-operative complications. Factors included age, tobacco use, diabetes, neurogenic bladder etiology, body mass index, pre-operative indwelling catheterization, or simultaneous procedures including pubovaginal sling/urethral closure. Results 50 adults status-post ileovesicostomy were identified. At last follow-up, 36 patients (72%) were continent per urethra. The incidence of complications decreased significantly from 3.38 per patient to 1.16 post-operatively (P,<,0.0001). Twenty-seven averaged 1.52 inflammatory or infectious post-operative complications per patient, 19 averaged 1.47 stomal complications, and 11 averaged 2.09 ileovesicostomy mechanical obstructions. Overall, 27 required 2.85 re-operations or additional procedures following ileovesicostomy. Sub-group analysis identified BMI (P,=,0.0569) as a possible risk factor. Differences in outcomes based on age, tobacco use, diabetes, neurogenic bladder etiology, pre-operative indwelling catheterization, or urethral closure were not significant. Conclusions Ileovesicostomy is a valuable management option for adults with neurogenic bladder unable to perform intermittent catheterization. The incidence of urinary tract comorbid events significantly decreased following ileovesicostomy though the onset of other complications should be considered. The morbidity associated with ileovesicostomy requires careful patient selection, close long-term follow-up, and potential subsequent interventions to address post-operative complications. Neurourol. Urodynam. 27:238,243, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Autonomous contractile activity in the isolated rat bladder is modulated by a TRPV1 dependent mechanism,

Thomas Gevaert
Abstract Aims Resiniferatoxin (RTX), a vanilloid compound and agonist of the transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPV1), is known for its beneficial effects on neurogenic detrusor overactivity. The mainstream rationale for its use is the desensitization of TRPV1 on sensory bladder afferents. However, recent findings showed that TRPV1 is present in other cell types in the bladder. To eliminate the effects of RTX on spinal and central neural circuits, we investigated autonomous contractility in normal and neurogenic rat bladders after treatment with RTX. Methods Female Wistar rats were made paraplegic at vertebral level T8,T9. Animals were intravesically pre-treated with vehicle (ethanol 5%) or RTX (100 nM) and sacrificed after 72 hr. Each bladder was excised and placed in a heated organ bath, where intravesical pressures were measured. Effects on contractile parameters of intravesical volume load, the non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol (CA) and electrical stimulation (ES) of nerves were studied in both groups. Results In RTX-treated normal bladders we found shorter contractions with higher amplitude than in control bladders (P,<,0.05). In RTX-treated neurogenic bladders the amplitude and duration of autonomous contractions were increased compared with controls (P,<,0.05). Furthermore RTX induced an increased response to CA and to ES (P,<,0.05). Conclusions RTX significantly affected the properties of autonomous bladder contractile activity. This provides evidence for local effects of RTX on bladder contractile activity, which are not mediated by afferent neural pathways and which may contribute to the beneficial effects on detrusor overactivity. TRPV1 and TRPV1+ cells seem to play an important role in (autonomous) bladder contractility. Neurourol. Urodynam. 26:424,432, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A pilot study of the effect of the Queen's Square external bladder stimulator on urinary retention after knee replacement surgery

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 6 2003
A. Butwick
Summary Postoperative urinary retention remains an important problem after major orthopaedic surgery and can increase morbidity. External vibration applied to the suprapubic region has improved bladder emptying and urinary symptoms in patients with neurogenic bladders. Forty-three patients undergoing elective major knee surgery were randomly assigned to receive either a Queen's Square bladder stimulator or placebo device for 24 h postoperatively. No statistically significant differences in rates of urinary retention could be demonstrated in the bladder stimulator group compared to the placebo group (41% and 33%, respectively). There were no differences between the two groups when analysed for prostatic symptoms, type and effectiveness of analgesia and fluid balance. We conclude that, while the Queen's Square external bladder stimulator may be effective in treating chronic urinary retention associated with a neurogenic bladder, it does not appear to be effective in preventing postoperative urinary retention. [source]