Neurogenic Areas (neurogenic + area)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Inactivation of the gene for the nuclear receptor tailless in the brain preserving its function in the eye

Thorsten Belz
Abstract During embryogenesis, tailless, an orphan member of the nuclear receptor family, is expressed in the germinal zones of the brain and the developing retina, and is involved in regulating the cell cycle of progenitor cells. Consequently, a deletion of the tailless gene leads to decreased cell number with associated anatomical defects in the limbic system, the cortex and the eye. These structural abnormalities are associated with blindness, increased aggressiveness, poor performance in learning paradigms and reduced anxiousness. In order to assess the contribution of blindness to the behavioural changes, we established tailless mutant mice with intact visual abilities. We generated a mouse line in which the second exon of the tailless gene is flanked by loxP sites and crossed these animals with a transgenic line expressing the Cre recombinase in the neurogenic area of the developing brain, but not in the eye. The resulting animals have anatomically indistinguishable brains compared with tailless germline mutants, but are not blind. They are less anxious and much more aggressive than controls, like tailless germline mutants. In contrast to germline mutants, the conditional mutants are not impaired in fear conditioning. Furthermore, they show good performance in the Morris water-maze despite severely reduced hippocampal structures. Thus, the pathological aggressiveness and reduced anxiety found in tailless germline mutants are due to malformations caused by inactivation of the tailless gene in the brain, but the poor performance of tailless null mice in learning and memory paradigms is dependent on the associated blindness. [source]

Expression of Sox11 in adult neurogenic niches suggests a stage-specific role in adult neurogenesis

Anja Haslinger
Abstract In the mammalian brain, neural stem and progenitor cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus generate new neurons throughout adulthood. The generation of new functional neurons is a complex process that is tightly controlled by extrinsic signals and that is characterized by stage-specific gene expression programs and cell biological processes. The transcription factors regulating such stage-specific developmental steps in adult neurogenesis are largely unknown. Here we report that Sox11, a member of the group C Sox transcription factor family, is prominently expressed in the neurogenic areas of the adult brain. Further analysis revealed that Sox11 expression is strictly confined to doublecortin-expressing neuronally committed precursors and immature neurons but that Sox11 is not expressed in non-committed Sox2-expressing precursor cells and mature neurons of the adult neurogenic lineage. Finally, overexpression of Sox11 promotes the generation of doublecortin-positive immature neurons from adult neural stem cells in vitro. These data indicate that Sox11 is involved in the transcriptional regulation of specific gene expression programs in adult neurogenesis at the stage of the immature neuron. [source]

A novel role for polyamines in adult neurogenesis in rodent brain

Jordane Malaterre
Abstract Although neurogenesis in the adult is known to be regulated by various internal cues such as hormones, growth factors and cell-adherence molecules, downstream elements underlying their action at the cellular level still remain unclear. We previously showed in an insect model that polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) play specific roles in adult brain neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate their involvement in the regulation of secondary neurogenesis in the rodent brain. Using neurosphere assays, we show that putrescine addition stimulates neural progenitor proliferation. Furthermore, in vivo depletion of putrescine by specific and irreversible inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase, the first key enzyme of the polyamine synthesis pathway, induces a consistent decrease in neural progenitor cell proliferation in the two neurogenic areas, the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone. The present study reveals common mechanisms underlying birth of new neurons in vertebrate and invertebrate species. [source]

Human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursors develop into neurons and integrate into the host brain

Daniel J. Guillaume
Abstract Whether and how in-vitro-produced human neural precursors mature and integrate into the brain are crucial to the utility of human embryonic stem (hES) cells in treating neurological disorders. After transplantation into the ventricles of neonatal immune-deficient mice, hES-cell-derived neural precursors stopped expressing the cell division marker Ki67, except in neurogenic areas, and differentiated into neurons and then glia in a temporal course intrinsic to that of human cells regardless of location. The human cells located in the gray matter became neurons in the olfactory bulb and striatum, whereas those in the white matter produced exclusively glia. Importantly, the grafted human cells formed synapses. Thus, the in-vitro-produced human neural precursors follow their intrinsic temporal program to produce neurons and glia and, in response to environmental signals, generate cells appropriate to their target regions and integrate into the brain. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]