Neurofilament Protein (neurofilament + protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cytologic feature by squash preparation of pineal parenchyma tumor of intermediate differentiation

Keiji Shimada M.D., Ph.D.
Abstract Pineal parenchyma tumor of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) is a very rare intracranial tumor, and pathological investigation limited to immunohistological and ultrastructural analyses have been published to date. Although intraoperative cytology is one of the important approaches for initial diagnosis in brain tumors, no or little studies on cellular morphology of PPTID have been demonstrated due to its rarity. We report here cytological features of PPTID obtained from stereotactic surgical specimens in a case of 27-year-old female manifested by dizziness and diplopia. Brain MRI revealed an unhomogeneously enhanced, large-sized tumor (56 52 60 mm) mainly located in the pineal region expanding from the midbrain to superior portion of the cerebellum and the fourth ventricle. Squash cytology showed increased nucleocytoplasmic ratio, hyperchromatic nuclei, and small rosette-like cell cluster but cellular pleomorphism was mild to moderate and necrotic background was not observed. Histology showed high cellularity, moderate nuclear atypia, and small rosette formation but neither bizarre tumor cells nor necrosis was present. Mitotic counts were very low (less than 1 per 10 high-power fields) and the MIB-1 labeling index was relatively high (10.1%). Tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for neural markers such as synaptophysin, neurospecific enolase but not for glial fibrillary acidic protein or S-100. In some parts, cells were strongly reactive for neurofilament protein. Taken together, we made a final diagnosis of PPTID. This is the first presentation of cytological analysis by squash preparation that gives an important clue to accurate diagnosis of pineal parenchymal tumor and to understand its malignant potential. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2008;36:749,753. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament protein levels decrease in parallel with white matter pathology after shunt surgery in normal pressure hydrocephalus

M. Tullberg
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is characterized by disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and white matter lesions (WML). Although the morphology of these lesions is described, little is known about the biochemistry. Our aim was to explore the relationship between ventricular CSF markers, periventricular WML and postoperative clinical outcome in patients with NPH. We analysed lumbar and ventricular concentrations of 10 CSF markers, 12 clinical symptoms and signs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) periventricular white matter hyperintensities (PVH) and ventricular size before and 3 months after shunt surgery in 35 patients with NPH. Higher ventricular CSF neurofilament protein (NFL), an axonal marker, correlated with more extensive PVH. A larger postoperative reduction in NFL correlated with larger reduction in PVH and a more pronounced overall improvement. Albumin ratio, HMPG, NPY, VIP and GD3 increased postoperatively whereas NFL, tau and HVA decreased. Variations in ventricular size were not associated with CSF concentrations of any marker. We conclude that NPH is characterized by an ongoing periventricular neuronal dysfunction seen on MRI as PVH. Clinical improvement after shunt surgery is associated with CSF changes indicating a restitution of axonal function. Other biochemical effects of shunting may include increased monoaminergic and peptidergic neurotransmission, breakdown of blood brain barrier function, and gliosis. [source]

Melatonin attenuates calpain upregulation, axonal damage and neuronal death in spinal cord injury in rats

Supriti Samantaray
Abstract:, Multiple investigations in vivo have shown that melatonin (MEL) has a neuroprotective effect in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigates the role of MEL as an intervening agent for ameliorating Ca2+ -mediated events, including activation of calpain, following its administration to rats sustaining experimental SCI. Calpain, a Ca2+ -dependent neutral protease, is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of SCI. Rats were injured using a standard weight-drop method that induced a moderately severe injury (40 force) at T10. Sham controls received laminectomy only. Injured animals were given either 45 mg/kg MEL or vehicle at 15 min post-injury by intraperitoneal injection. At 48 hr post-injury, spinal cord (SC) samples were collected. Immunofluorescent labelings were used to identify calpain expression in specific cell types, such as neurons, glia, or macrophages. Combination of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and double immunofluorescent labelings was used to identify apoptosis in specific cells in the SC. The effect of MEL on axonal damage was also investigated using antibody specific for dephosphorylated neurofilament protein (dNFP). Treatment of SCI animals with MEL attenuated calpain expression, inflammation, axonal damage (dNFP), and neuronal death, indicating that MEL provided neuroprotective effect in SCI. Further, expression and activity of calpain and caspse-3 were examined by Western blotting. The results indicated a significant decrease in expression and activity of calpain and caspse-3 in SCI animals after treatment with MEL. Taken together, this study strongly suggested that MEL could be an effective neuroprotective agent for treatment of SCI. [source]

Intraventricular pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features

Yong-Juan Fu
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare astrocytic tumor that usually occurs in the superficial cerebral hemispheres of children and young adults and has a relatively favorable prognosis. We report an unusual case of supratentorial, intraventricular tumor in a 52-year-old man. The tumor was composed of pleomorphic cells, including giant cells, most of which were multinucleated, and small cells. In addition, frequent xanthic changes in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells, and widespread reticulin deposits and lymphocytic infiltrates in the stroma were characteristic features. Large areas of necrosis were also evident. However, mitotic figures were rare (1,2 mitoses per 10 high-power fields). Many tumor cells were positive for GFAP, and a number were positive for neurofilament protein and synaptophysin, indicating their neuronal differentiation. In addition, occasional tumor cells were positive for CD34. p53 protein was entirely negative in the tumor cells. In diagnosing this tumor histopathologically, differentiation between PXA and giant cell glioblastoma (GCG), a rare variant of glioblastoma, was problematic. However, considering the overall histopathological picture, a final diagnosis of PXA with anaplastic features was made. The present case indicates that PXA can occur as an intraventricular tumor, and suggests that in some instances, it would be very difficult to differentiate PXA and GCG histopathologically. [source]

A growth hormone-secreting adenoma with incomplete nerve bundle formation

Hidetoshi Ikeda
We present a unique case of an adenoma secreting growth hormone (GH), showing incomplete nerve bundle formation without ganglion cells. A 47-year-old man presenting with acromegaly was revealed to have high serum GH and IGF-1 levels. The concentrations of the other adenohypophysial hormones were within the normal range. Histology revealed an unusual pituitary adenoma containing many nerve bundle-like structures. Adenoma cells with ovoid or round hyperchromatic nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasms lacked the typical features of ganglion cells. The nerve bundles consisted of slender elongated cells. These fibers were arranged into groups in a roughly parallel fashion. By immunohistochemistry, many adenoma cells were positive for GH, prolactin, thyrotropin beta, synaptophysin and chromogranin. Fibrous bodies revealed by keratin immunostaining were found only in adenoma cells. Scattered star-shaped adenoma cells showed the same immunoreactivity as folliculo-satellite cells. Adenoma cells, but not the bundle-like structures, were also positive for Pit-1. Immunostaining for neurofilament protein, GFAP, vimentin, and S-100 protein revealed variable amounts of fibrils within the bundle-like structures. Scattered immunoreactivity for myelin basic protein and synaptophysin was also found in the bundle area. Our case is the first GH-secreting pituitary adenoma showing incomplete nerve bundle differentiation and lacking mature ganglion cells. [source]

Intracerebral schwannoma in a child with infiltration along perivascular spaces resembling meningioangiomatosis

Misa Ishihara
Schwannoma arising within brain parenchyma is a rare lesion, usually found in children. Reported herein is a case of intracerebral schwannoma in a 5-year-old boy, with a review of the English-language literature on the subject, in which 47 cases were found. Few detailed histological reviews of intracerebral schwannoma exist. The tumor had a distinctive plexiform growth pattern, and small aggregates of Schwann cells spread extensively into the surrounding brain tissue along perivascular spaces adjacent to the tumor nodule. Histological differential diagnoses included perivascular schwannosis and meningioangiomatosis. A few intratumoral axons, seen on immunostaining for neurofilament protein, were trapped at the periphery of the main lesion, but there was no evidence of intralesional axons in the multiple nodules of Schwann cell proliferations that extended into the perivascular spaces, suggesting that the lesions are neoplastic. Because Schwann cells are not a natural component of the central nervous system, the origin of intracerebral schwannomas remains unknown. The histology suggests that Schwann cells of the perivascular nerve plexus are a likely site of origin. [source]

Oestradiol Induced Inhibition of Neuroendocrine Marker Expression in Leydig Cells of Adult Rats

HH Ortega
Contents The objectives of this work were to determine the changes in the expression of neuroendocrine markers in Leydig cell by oestradiol treatment, and to determine whether testosterone is able to recover partially the effects of hormonal suppression induced by oestradiol. Adult male rats were injected daily with either 50 ,g of oestradiol or oestradiol plus testosterone propionate (25 mg every 3 days) for 15 days. The animals were sacrificed and testicles were dissected and processed by routine histological protocols. FSH and LH serum levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The visualization of antigens was achieved by the streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemical method. Antibodies against chromogranin A (CrA), S-100 protein (S-100), P substance (PS), synaptofisin (SYN), neurofilament protein (NF), gliofibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) were used. The mean LH and FSH serum concentrations were consistently suppressed with hormonal treatments. Intermediate filaments (NF and GFAP) showed no difference in their expression. The expression of S-100, NSE and SYN was significantly lower in both hormone-treated groups. In oestradiol-treated rats, the immunoreactivity of CrA and SP decreased significantly but was restored after testosterone supplementation. Although the nature and functions of many of these substances in Leydig cells remain unknown, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the expression of some neuroendocrine markers is hormonally controlled. [source]

Angiocentric Neuroepithelial Tumor (ANET): A New Epilepsy-Related Clinicopathological Entity with Distinctive MRI

Arielle Lellouch-Tubiana MD
Several types of glioneuronal tumors are known to induce intractable partial seizures in children and adults. The most frequent are dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs) and gangliogliomas. We report here a new clinicopathological entity within the spectrum of glioneuronal tumors observed in 10 children who underwent surgery for refractory epilepsy. These tumors demonstrate a unique, pathognomonic histological pattern and a specific appearance at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The most striking neuropathological feature is an angiocentric polarity of the tumor with gliofibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive fusiform and bipolar astrocytic cells arranged around blood vessels (perivascular cuffing with tumoral astrocytes). Characteristic MRI findings include involvement of cortical gray and white matter, intrinsically high signal on T1-weighted images, as well as a stalk like extension to the ventricle. Immunohistochemical neuronal markers (neurofilament protein, synaptophysin and chromogranin) confirm the presence of a neuronal cell component. Therefore, the term angiocentric neuroepithelial tumor (ANET) is proposed. [source]

Chronic nicotine treatment changes the axonal distribution of 68 kDa neurofilaments in the rat ventral tegmental area

Andrea Sbarbati
Abstract Region-specific decreases of neurofilament proteins (NF) were described in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats treated chronically with morphine, cocaine or alcohol. In a previous study, we demonstrated that NF levels were also changed in the VTA after chronic treatment with nicotine. The aim of this study was to clarify the submicroscopic basis of decreased immunoreactivity for NF-68, NF-160 and NF-200, as determined by using NR4, BF10 and RT97 antibodies, respectively. Microdensitometric analysis of brain sections showed that immunoreactivity for all NF was reduced in the VTA of animals exposed chronically to nicotine (0.4 mg/kg per day, 6 days of treatment), when compared to rats exposed to saline. Reduction in immunoreactivity was significant for NF-68 (P < 0.05), NF-160 (P < 0.01) and NF-200 (P < 0.05), showing a relative reduction of 34%, 42% and 38%, respectively, when compared to saline-treated rats. No difference was observed for any of the NF under study when immunoreactivity measurements in the substantia nigra were compared. Ultrastructural analysis was applied to evaluate changes in NF-68, NF-160 and NF-200 immunoreactivity in regions of the VTA that contain dopaminergic neurons following chronic nicotine treatment. At the electron microscopic level, no degenerative changes were found in neurons or glial cells of the VTA. With ultrastructural immunohistochemistry, evaluation of the homogeneity parameter of NF distribution showed a loss of homogeneity for NF-68 linked to the nicotine treatment. In areas in which NF organization appeared well preserved, analysis of the numerical density of NF revealed no significant difference for NF-68 (897/m2 vs. 990/m2), NF-160 (970/m2 vs. 820/m2) and NF-200 (1107/m2 vs. 905/m2) in nicotine-treated rats when compared to saline-treated rats. These results confirm that nicotine shares the same properties with cocaine and morphine in reducing NF in the VTA, a key brain structure of the rewards system, and that chronic nicotine treatment changes the axonal distribution of 68 kDa neurofilaments in the rat VTA. [source]

Defective axonal transport of neurofilament proteins in neurons overexpressing peripherin

Stphanie Millecamps
Abstract Peripherin is a type III neuronal intermediate filament detected in motor neuron inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We previously reported that overexpression of peripherin provokes late-onset motor neuron dysfunction in transgenic mice. Here, we show that peripherin overexpression slows down axonal transport of neurofilament (NF) proteins, and that the transport defect precedes by several months the appearance of axonal spheroids in adult mice. Defective NF transport by peripherin up-regulation was further confirmed with dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons cultured from peripherin transgenic embryos. Immunofluorescence microscopy and western blotting revealed that excess peripherin provokes reduction in levels of hyperphosphorylated NF-H species in DRG neurites. Similarly the transport of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NF-M, delivered by means of a lentiviral construct, was impaired in DRG neurites overexpressing peripherin. These results demonstrate that peripherin overexpression can cause defective transport of type IV NF proteins, a phenomenon that may account for the progressive formation of ALS-like spheroids in axons. [source]