Neurofibrillary Pathology (neurofibrillary + pathology)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Quantitative analysis of neurofibrillary pathology in a general population to reappraise neuropathological criteria for senile dementia of the neurofibrillary tangle type (tangle-only dementia): The Hisayama study

Kazuhito Noda
Senile dementia of the neurofibrillary tangle type (SD-NFT) is characterized by numerous neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in the hippocampal region and the absence or minimal presence of senile plaques throughout the brain. We analyzed 207 demented subjects and 68 non-demented subjects autopsied in the Hisayama study to investigate the clinicopathological aspects of SD-NFT in the general Japanese population. The prevalence of SD-NFT in the consecutive autopsy cases was 8/207 (3.9%), comprising three men and five women. The average age at onset and death was 83.8 ± 6.8 (mean ± SD; standard deviation) and 88.1 ± 7.6 years, respectively. A mild memory disturbance preceded a decrease in the ability to undertake the activities of daily living and the diagnosis of dementia. Focal cerebral symptoms, such as aphasia and paralysis, did not appear during the disease course of any subject. Gross examination of the brains showed moderate to severe diffuse cerebral atrophy with brain weight loss (mean ± SD; standard deviation: 1118.1 ± 124.0 g). Histologically, there were abundant NFT and neuropil threads predominantly in or limited to the limbic cortex. The density of NFT in the CA1/subiculum in SD-NFT was much higher than the densities in the other hippocampal regions. The average density of NFT in CA1 in SD-NFT subjects was 115.4 per 100× field (range 23,247), that in Alzheimer disease (AD) subjects was 80.1 (range 1,227), and that in non-demented elderly subjects was 37.2 (range 0,203). Although many previous papers have reported that the densities of NFT in the limbic system in SD-NFT were significantly higher than those in AD, there was considerable overlap of NFT densities in CA1 among the non-demented elderly, AD subjects and SD-NFT subjects. [source]

Familial British dementia (FBD): a cerebral amyloidosis with systemic amyloid deposition

J. L. Holton
Introduction:, FBD is an autosomal dominant disease with neuropathological similarities to Alzheimer's disease (AD) as it is characterized by amyloid angiopathy, parenchymal amyloid plaque deposition and neurofibrillary degeneration. FBD is associated with a stop codon mutation in the BRI2 gene encoding a type II transmembrane protein, BriPP. Mutation results in an extended precursor protein, ABriPP, from which a C-terminal 34 amino acid peptide (ABri) is generated by furin-like proteolytic cleavage and deposited as amyloid and preamyloid in the central nervous system. Despite the morphological parallels with AD the sequences of the amyloidogenic peptides, ABri in FBD and A, in AD, are completely different. We examined systemic tissues in FBD for ABri deposition. Materials and methods:, Immunohistochemistry using an ABri-specific antibody, Ab338, counterstained with Thioflavin S and Ab338 immuno-electron microscopy identified ABri deposits and determined whether these were amyloid or preamyloid in nature. Results:, Amyloid bearing blood vessels stained positively for ABri in myocardium, uterus, bladder, spleen, pancreas, lung and skeletal muscle. ABri was also identified in either amyloid or preamyloid conformation in the parenchyma of myocardium, adrenal, pancreas and skeletal muscle. Conclusion:, This study demonstrates that FBD is the first described cerebral amyloidosis with neurofibrillary pathology and dementia to be accompanied by systemic amyloid deposition. [source]

Early frontotemporal dementia targets neurons unique to apes and humans

William W. Seeley MD
Objective Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease that erodes uniquely human aspects of social behavior and emotion. The illness features a characteristic pattern of early injury to anterior cingulate and frontoinsular cortex. These regions, though often considered ancient in phylogeny, are the exclusive homes to the von Economo neuron (VEN), a large bipolar projection neuron found only in great apes and humans. Despite progress toward understanding the genetic and molecular bases of FTD, no class of selectively vulnerable neurons has been identified. Methods Using unbiased stereology, we quantified anterior cingulate VENs and neighboring Layer 5 neurons in FTD (n = 7), Alzheimer's disease (n = 5), and age-matched nonneurological control subjects (n = 7). Neuronal morphology and immunohistochemical staining patterns provided further information about VEN susceptibility. Results FTD was associated with early, severe, and selective VEN losses, including a 74% reduction in VENs per section compared with control subjects. VEN dropout was not attributable to general neuronal loss and was seen across FTD pathological subtypes. Surviving VENs were often dysmorphic, with pathological tau protein accumulation in Pick's disease. In contrast, patients with Alzheimer's disease showed normal VEN counts and morphology despite extensive local neurofibrillary pathology. Interpretation VEN loss links FTD to its signature regional pattern. The findings suggest a new framework for understanding how evolution may have rendered the human brain vulnerable to specific forms of degenerative illness. Ann Neurol 2006;60:660,667 [source]

Dementia in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type is associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy but is independent of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

Remco Natté MD
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is frequently found in demented and nondemented elderly persons, but its contribution to the causation of dementia is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the relation between the amount of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and the presence of dementia in 19 patients with hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type. The advantage of studying hereditary cerebral hemorrhage in amyloidosis-Dutch type is that patients with this disease consistently have severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy with minimal neurofibrillary pathology. The amount of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, as quantified by computerized morphometry, was strongly associated with the presence of dementia independent of neurofibrillary pathology, plaque density, or age. The number of cortical amyloid ,-laden severely stenotic vessels, vessel-within-vessel configurations, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy-associated microvasculopathies was associated with the amount of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and dementia. A semiquantitative score, based on the number of amyloid ,-laden severely stenotic vessels, completely separated demented from nondemented patients. These results suggest that extensive (more than 15 amyloid ,-laden severely stenotic vessels in five frontal cortical sections) cerebral amyloid angiopathy alone is sufficient to cause dementia in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis,Dutch type. This may have implications for clinicopathological correlations in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. [source]