Neuroendocrine Tumors (neuroendocrine + tumor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms: A review of clinicopathologic and cytologic features

DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 8 2010
F.I.A.C., Momin T. Siddiqui M.D.
Abstract Neuroendocrine tumors form a distinct group of lung neoplasms sharing characteristic cytohistologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular features. The objective of this review article is to discuss the diagnostic classifications and the morphologic cytologic,histologic features for the different categories of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. An accurate characterization of the neuroendocrine tumors of the lung requires knowledge of specific criteria separating the major categories, which is highly essential for determining prognosis and treatment options for these patients. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2010;38:607,617. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Treatment response to transcatheter arterial embolization and chemoembolization in primary and metastatic tumors of the liver

HPB, Issue 6 2008
Avo Artinyan
Abstract Introduction. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) and chemoembolization (TACE) are increasingly used to treat unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the objective response to TAE and TACE in unresectable hepatic malignancies and to identify clinicopathologic predictors of response. Materials and methods. Seventy-nine consecutive patients who underwent 119 TAE/TACE procedures between 1998 and 2006 were reviewed. The change in maximal diameter of 121 evaluable lesions in 56 patients was calculated from pre and post-procedure imaging. Response rates were determined using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guidelines. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival in responders vs. non-responders and in primary vs. metastatic histologies. Results. TAE and TACE resulted in a mean decrease in lesion size of 10.3%±1.9% (p<0.001). TACE (vs. TAE) and carcinoid tumors were associated with a greater response (p<0.05). Lesion response was not predicted by pre-treatment size, vascularity, or histology. The RECIST partial response (PR) rate was 12.3% and all partial responders were in the TACE group. Neuroendocrine tumors, and specifically carcinoid lesions, had a significantly greater PR rate (p<0.05). Overall survival, however, was not associated with histology or radiologic response. Discussion. TAE and TACE produce a significant objective treatment response by RECIST criteria. Response is greatest in neuroendocrine tumors and is independent of vascularity and lesion size. TACE appears to be superior to TAE. Although an association of response with improved survival was not demonstrated, large cohort studies are necessary to further define this relationship. [source]


Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as a pancreatic mass by computed tomography scan and mimicking a primary neuroendocrine tumor: A potential pitfall in aspiration cytology

DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 12 2009
Valerie A. Fitzhugh M.D.
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant neoplasm, often presenting at late stage and portending a poor prognosis for the patient. The peripancreatic fat is a rare site of extrahepatic metastasis, and metastatic HCC can mimic primary pancreatic neoplasms, even in this location. It is crucial to be aware of this pitfall in the evaluation of aspiration cytology of pancreatic neoplasms and to develop a strategy to reach the correct diagnosis. We present an endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of metastatic HCC presenting as a pancreatic mass radiologically that had neuroendocrine features on various cytological and histological preparations. The metastatic lesions were located surgically in the peripancreatic adipose tissue with involvement of one peripancreatic lymph node. This case illustrates the utility of FNA for diagnosing uncommon presentations of HCC and the importance of clinical history, cell block, and an immunocytochemical panel in determining the origin of the tumor. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Fine-needle aspiration of metastatic prostatic neuroendocrine carcinomas: Cytomorphologic and immunophenotypic features

DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 8 2008
Guoping Cai M.D.
Abstract Metastatic prostatic carcinoma may, in rare occasions, present as a neuroendocrine tumor. Its recognition is crucial to avert a wrongful exclusion of prostate as a primary site. We report five cases of metastatic prostatic neuroendocrine carcinoma diagnosed by image-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The aspirate smears showed loosely cohesive or dyscohesive clusters of tumor cells with scanty (three cases) to moderate amount (two cases) of cytoplasm, speckled or coarse chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli. Nuclear molding and necrosis were focally present in two cases. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for synaptophysin or/and chromogranin, but negative for prostatic specific antigen and prostatic specific acid phosphatase. Review of prior prostate biopsies/resections revealed adenocarcinoma with focal neuroendocrine differentiation in all cases, with two cases being newly recognized on retrospective review. Confirming neuroendocrine differentiation in the prior biopsy/resection may help to establish a link between metastasis and prostate primary. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2008; 36: 545,549. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Cytology of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma

DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
Edward B. Stelow M.D.
Abstract Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) of the pancreas is extremely uncommon and its cytologic features have rarely been described. We describe the cytologic features of cases we have seen, review the literature regarding its cytologic features and discuss the pitfalls that may be encountered and the use of immunohistochemistry for its diagnosis. We searched our databases for all cases of histologically confirmed pancreatic ACC which had undergone prior fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the primary pancreatic lesion. The clinical histories, radiographic and sonographic findings, cytologic features, original cytologic diagnoses, and final histologic diagnoses were reviewed. Four cases of pancreatic ACC were found that had undergone FNA prior to histologic confirmation of the diagnoses. They were from 2 men and 2 women aged 50,75 yr. All masses were in the head of the pancreas, 2 had apparent peri-pancreatic adenopathy and 1 had an apparent liver metastasis. On review, all 4 had had diagnostic material on cytology samples. Original cytologic diagnoses included "acinar cell carcinoma," "pancreatic endocrine tumor," "favor neuroendocrine tumor, low-grade" and "non-diagnostic specimen." The cytologic features included small to moderate-sized loose groups with numerous single cells, prominent acinar formation, little anisonucleosis and prominent nucleoli. The cytologic features showed significant overlap with those of pancreatic endocrine tumors. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2006; 34:367,372. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Neural cell adhesion molecule expression: No correlation with perineural invasion in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 6 2009
C. Arturo Solares MD
Abstract Background. Perineural invasion (PNI) in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (CSCCHN) is associated with decreased survival, particularly in patients with clinical signs of cranial nerve involvement. There is evidence to indicate that neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) confers capability of PNI. We analyzed our own patient population to determine if N-CAM predicted clinical PNI in CSCCHN. Methods. Tissue from patients with CSCCHN and clinical PNI, who underwent surgery between 1998 and 2005, was immunostained for N-CAM. In addition, non-PNI CSCCHN and normal nerve sections were also stained. A section of neuroendocrine tumor was included in each slide as a positive control. In addition, most of the sections also had an "inbuilt control" in the CD56 positive natural killer T cells that formed part of the inflammatory reaction to the tumors. Results. Tissue was available from 14 patients with CSCCHN and clinical PNI. The analysis was carried out in 14 patients without PNI and 4 normal nerves. N-CAM was not expressed in any of our PNI CSCCHN specimens or non-PNI controls. It was strongly expressed in the neuroendocrine tumors and positive in-built controls, as well as in normal nerve tissue. Conclusion. N-CAM expression did not predict neurotropism in our patient population. Additional studies are required to identify the cell surface markers expressed by CSCCHN which confer neurotropism capabilities. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009 [source]


Endoscopic CO2 laser surgery for an atypical carcinoid tumor of the epiglottis masquerading as a supraglottic cyst,

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 11 2005
Kai-Ping Chang MD
Abstract Background. Atypical carcinoid tumor is a neuroendocrine tumor; its occurrence in the larynx is uncommon, and clinical manifestations are rare. We report an unusual case of atypical carcinoid tumor of the epiglottis mimicking a supraglottic retention cyst. Methods. A 44-year-old woman complained of an intermittent globus sensation of the throat of 2 years' duration. A 1.0- × 0.8-cm cystic lesion was found over the tip of the epiglottis. A supraglottic retention cyst was initially diagnosed, and the patient was treated medically. Her symptoms persisted, so we performed a laryngoscopic biopsy, which suggested an atypical carcinoid tumor. Results. Transoral endoscopic CO2 laser surgery and bilateral elective neck dissection were subsequently performed. The 2-year follow-up did not reveal any locoregional recurrence or distant metastasis. Conclusions. This aggressive neoplasm may cause only a few, unremarkable symptoms and masquerade as a supraglottic cyst. Endoscopic CO2 laser surgery can be used to resect this uncommon tumor, with oncologically sound results and without surgical morbidity. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck27: XXX,XXX, 2005 [source]


Diagnosis and treatment of supraglottic laryngeal paraganglioma: report of a case

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 1 2004
John M. Del Gaudio MD
Abstract Background. Paragangliomas of the larynx are unusual tumors that are seen as a vascular submucosal mass. These usually are seen in the supraglottic larynx but have also been found in the subglottis. This is the only laryngeal neuroendocrine tumor with a female predilection. It is important that paragangliomas be differentiated from other neuroendocrine tumors of the larynx, including atypical carcinoid, because of differing treatment modalities. Methods. We present the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings of a supraglottic laryngeal paraganglioma seen in a 50-year-old woman with a 6-month history of slowly progressive hoarseness. Results. The tumor was successfully approached by means of a midline laryngofissure with mucosal preservation. The patient remains disease free 24 months after surgery. Conclusions. Preoperative CT and angiography are useful in making the diagnosis of paraganglioma before surgical intervention. Complete excision through an external mucosa-sparing approach is the treatment of choice. Distinguishing laryngeal paraganglioma from other neuroendocrine tumors can be difficult. Immunohistochemistry is an important tool for the correct pathologic diagnosis. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 94,98, 2004 [source]


Diagnostic evaluation of cystic pancreatic lesions

HPB, Issue 1 2008
B. C. VISSER
Abstract Background. Cystic pancreatic neoplasms (CPNs) present a unique challenge in preoperative diagnosis. We investigated the accuracy of diagnostic methods for CPN. Material and methods. This retrospective cases series includes 70 patients who underwent surgery at a university hospital for presumed CPNs between 1997 and 2003, and for whom a definitive diagnosis was established. Variables examined included symptoms, preoperative work-up (including endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in 22 cases and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in 12), and operative and pathological findings. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (n=50 patients; CT=48; MRI=13) were independently reviewed by two blinded GI radiologists. Results. The final histopathologic diagnoses were mucinous cystic neoplasm (n=13), mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (10), serous cystadenoma (11), IPMN (14), simple cyst (3), cystic neuroendocrine tumor (5), pseudocyst (4), and other (10). Overall, 25 of 70 were malignant (37%), 21 premalignant (30%), and 24 benign (34%). The attending surgeon's preoperative diagnosis was correct in 31% of cases, incorrect in 29%, non-specific "cystic tumor" in 27%, and "pseuodcyst vs. neoplasm" in 11%. Eight had been previously managed as pseudocysts, and 3 pseudocysts were excised as presumed CPN. In review of the CT and MRI, a multivariate analysis of the morphologic features did not identify predictors of specific pathologic diagnoses. Both radiologists were accurate with their preferred (no. 1) diagnosis in <50% of cases. MRI demonstrated no additional utility beyond CT. Conclusions. The diagnosis of CPN remains challenging. Cross-sectional imaging methods do not reliably give an accurate preoperative diagnosis. Surgeons should continue to err on the side of resection. [source]


Merkel cell carcinoma with squamous and sarcomatous differentiation

JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY, Issue 10 2008
June H. K. Hwang
Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive neuroendocrine tumor historically thought to arise from neural crest-derived cutaneous neuroendocrine cells. Recent evidence supports an epidermal origin. We present a case of Merkel cell carcinoma arising on the upper arm of a 94-year-old woman that had multiple morphologic patterns: small cells typical of Merkel cell carcinoma, malignant cells with squamous differentiation and malignant poorly differentiated spindle cells. Subsequent metastatic disease in regional lymph nodes showed only the small cells and the malignant spindle cells. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Merkel cell carcinoma showing these three patterns of differentiation at first presentation. This morphology raises the possibility that Merkel cell carcinomas may arise from epidermal stem cells that can differentiate along different lines. [source]


Is there an indication for initial conservative management of pancreatic cystic lesions?,

JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
Stephen R. Grobmyer MD
Abstract Background The management of small pancreatic cystic lesions presents a clinical challenge. Methods We reviewed our experience with 78 patients who presented with a cystic pancreatic lesion who underwent operative management between 1995 and 2005. Data on cyst characteristics were analyzed in the context of pathologic findings following resection. Results Among 78 patients, there were 55 (71%) females; median age 63 years. Patients presented with: an incidental finding (48%), pain (40%), acute pancreatitis (4%), other (8%). Operations were distal pancreatectomy (n,=,47), pancreaticoduodenectomy (n,=,16), and other (n,=,15). Most patients had a non-malignant lesion (n,=,65, 83%) (mucinous cystadenoma (n,=,29), serous cystadenoma (n,=,15), IPMN without invasion (n,=,8), pseudocyst (n,=,8), other benign (n,=,5)). Malignant lesions (adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor, and other) were found in 13 patients (17%). The risk of malignancy increased with size: <3 cm (n,=,25), 4%; 3,5 cm (n,=,23), 13%; and >5 cm (n,=,30), 30%. Pre-operative cyst fluid cytology was performed in 41 patients. The negative predictive value (NPV) of cytology for malignancy was 88% and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 80%. The NPV of CA 19-9 for malignancy was 90%; the PPV was 50%. Conclusions Initial conservative management of small cystic pancreatic lesions may be indicated in selected patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2009;100:372,374. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Liver transplantation and pancreatic resection: A single-center experience and a review of the literature

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 12 2009
John A. Stauffer
Liver transplantation may occasionally be indicated in patients with unique clinical scenarios. Little is known regarding the outcomes of patients who have had a pancreatic resection prior to, in combination with, or after liver transplantation. A retrospective review of all patients undergoing liver transplantation from March 1998 to March 2008 identified 17 patients who also underwent pancreatic resection. An additional literature review was performed. Five underwent pancreatic resection prior to liver transplantation (1.7, 3.6, 3.8, 6.8, and 8.1 years), another 9 underwent pancreatic resection together with liver transplantation, and 3 underwent pancreatic resection after liver transplantation (2.2, 2.6, and 3.8 years). Indications for pancreatic resection included cholangiocarcinoma (n = 6), neuroendocrine tumor (n = 5), pancreatic cancer (n = 2), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (n = 1), periampullary adenocarcinoma (n = 1), duodenal adenomas (n = 1), and benign pancreatic mass (n = 1). Indications for liver transplantation were metastatic neuroendocrine tumor disease (n = 5), primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 5), hepatitis C virus (n = 2), metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (n = 1), Klatskin tumor (n = 1), alcohol cirrhosis (n = 1), alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (n = 1), and chemotherapy-induced cirrhosis (n = 1). One patient died intraoperatively, 7 patients died of tumor recurrence, 2 patients died from transplant complications, and 7 patients are still alive. Pancreatic resection,related complications included 4 pancreatic fistulas. A literature review confirmed liver transplantation/pancreatic resection,related complications. In conclusion, liver transplantation and pancreatic resection remain uncommon, and a good outcome can be achieved. Recurrence of malignant disease is the main factor limiting survival, and specific morbidity may be related to pancreatic resection and liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 15:1728,1737, 2009. © 2009 AASLD. [source]


Radioembolization with selective internal radiation microspheres for neuroendocrine liver metastases,

CANCER, Issue 5 2008
Julie King MPH
Abstract BACKGROUND. There are limited effective treatment options available and a poor 5-year survival for patients with inoperable neuroendocrine liver metastases (NETLMs). In this study, the authors prospectively assessed the safety and efficacy of treatment with yttrium 90 (90Y) radioactive microspheres for patients with unresectable NETLMs. METHODS. Radioactive 90Y resin microspheres (selective internal radiation [SIR-Spheres]) were administered through a temporarily placed percutaneous hepatic artery catheter concomitantly with a 7-day systemic infusion of 5-fluorouracil to patients with progressive, unresectable NETLMs. Patients were monitored prospectively, and the response to treatment was measured by using cancer markers and tumor size on computed tomography imaging studies. RESULTS. Thirty-four patients (22 men) with a mean age 61 years (range, 32-79 years) who had unresectable NETLMs were treated between December 2003 and December 2005. The mean (±standard error) follow-up was 35.2 ± 3.2 months. The site of the primary neuroendocrine tumor was the bronchus in 1 patient, the medullary thyroid in 2 patients, gastrointestinal in 15 patients, the pancreas in 8 patients, and of unknown origin in 8 patients. The tumors were classified as vipoma (1 tumor), somatostatinoma (1 tumor), glucagonoma (2 tumors), large cell (3 tumors), carcinoid (25 tumors), and of unknown origin (2 tumors). Complications after 90Y radioembolization included abdominal pain, which was mild to severe; nausea and fever; and lethargy that lasted from 1 week to 1 month. Two patients developed biopsy-proven radiation gastritis, 1 patient developed a duodenal ulcer, and there was 1 early death from liver dysfunction and pneumonia. Subjective changes from recorded baseline hormone symptoms were reported every 3 months. Symptomatic responses were observed in 18 of 33 patients (55%) at 3 months and in 16 of 32 patients (50%) at 6 months. Radiologic liver responses were observed in 50% of patients and included 6 (18%) complete responses and 11 (32%) partial responses, and the mean overall survival was 29.4 ± 3.4 months). In patients who had evaluable chromogranin A (CgA) marker levels, there was a fall in CgA marker levels after 90Y radioembolization in 19 patients (26%) at 1 month, in 19 patients (41%) at 3 months, in 15 patients (43%) at 6 months, in 11 patients (42%) at 12 months, in 8 patients (38%) at 24 months, and in 3 patients (46%) at 30 months. CONCLUSIONS. In this open study of 34 patients, the results demonstrated that radioembolization with 90Y resin microspheres can achieve relatively long-term responses in some patients with nonresectable NETLMs. Cancer 2008. © 2008 American Cancer Society. [source]


Pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms: A review of clinicopathologic and cytologic features

DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 8 2010
F.I.A.C., Momin T. Siddiqui M.D.
Abstract Neuroendocrine tumors form a distinct group of lung neoplasms sharing characteristic cytohistologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular features. The objective of this review article is to discuss the diagnostic classifications and the morphologic cytologic,histologic features for the different categories of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. An accurate characterization of the neuroendocrine tumors of the lung requires knowledge of specific criteria separating the major categories, which is highly essential for determining prognosis and treatment options for these patients. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2010;38:607,617. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Cytologic spectrum of 227 fine-needle aspiration cases of chest-wall lesions

DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2001
Amit Goel M.D., D.N.B.
Abstract This study was carried out with the objective of studying the cytomorphology of the wide variety of chest-wall lesions. Two hundred twenty-seven chest-wall lesions were studied over a period of 4 yr. Routine May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) slides were studied along with special stains, whenever required. The malignant lesions comprised 36.13% of all cases (81/227). Of the 126 benign lesions, the majority were inflammatory in nature (68/126), the next commonest lesion being lipoma (38/126). Rare cases of tuberculosis involving the sternum, epithelioid leiomyosarcoma, and neuroendocrine tumors involving ribs, malignant nerve sheath tumors involving the chest wall, metastatic carcinoma of the stomach and prostate, and papillary carcinoma thyroid are reported in this series. Histopathology was available in 24 cases, and hematological correlation in one case. A 100% cytohistological and cytohematological correlation was found, with no false positives or false negatives. In conclusion, fine-needle aspiration cytology is a rapid, diagnostic tool, eliciting many interesting lesions in the chest wall. It is useful not only in detecting primary and metastatic lesions, but also in follow-up of tumor recurrence. Diagn. Cytopathol. 24:384,388, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Gross SDHB deletions in patients with paraganglioma detected by multiplex PCR: A possible hot spot?

GENES, CHROMOSOMES AND CANCER, Issue 3 2006
Alberto Cascón
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare neuroendocrine tumors that arise in the adrenal medulla and the extra-adrenal paraganglia, respectively. Inheritance of these tumors is mainly a result of mutations affecting the VHL, RET, NF1, and SDH genes. Germ-line mutations of the SDH genes have been found to account for nearly 10% of apparently sporadic cases. Nevertheless, alterations other than point mutations have not yet been well characterized. In this study, we investigated the frequency of gross SDH deletions in 24 patients who tested negative for point mutations and had at least one of the recommended features for genetic testing. For this purpose, we used a technique that is easy to implement in the lab to specifically detect gross deletions affecting SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD. We identified 3 heterozygous SDHB deletions (3/24) in 3 independent cases with paraganglioma: 1 whole SDHB deletion and 2 deletions exclusively affecting exon 1. These latter mutations match the unique gross deletion previously reported, indicating this region could be a hot spot for gross SDHB deletions. It seems likely that these alterations can account for a considerable number of both familial and apparently sporadic paraganglioma cases. Although this is the first report describing the presence of gross deletions in patients with apparently sporadic paragangliomas, the extra-adrenal location of the tumor seems to constitute a determining factor for whether to include these patients in genetic testing for gross deletions in the SDHB gene. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Neural cell adhesion molecule expression: No correlation with perineural invasion in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 6 2009
C. Arturo Solares MD
Abstract Background. Perineural invasion (PNI) in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (CSCCHN) is associated with decreased survival, particularly in patients with clinical signs of cranial nerve involvement. There is evidence to indicate that neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) confers capability of PNI. We analyzed our own patient population to determine if N-CAM predicted clinical PNI in CSCCHN. Methods. Tissue from patients with CSCCHN and clinical PNI, who underwent surgery between 1998 and 2005, was immunostained for N-CAM. In addition, non-PNI CSCCHN and normal nerve sections were also stained. A section of neuroendocrine tumor was included in each slide as a positive control. In addition, most of the sections also had an "inbuilt control" in the CD56 positive natural killer T cells that formed part of the inflammatory reaction to the tumors. Results. Tissue was available from 14 patients with CSCCHN and clinical PNI. The analysis was carried out in 14 patients without PNI and 4 normal nerves. N-CAM was not expressed in any of our PNI CSCCHN specimens or non-PNI controls. It was strongly expressed in the neuroendocrine tumors and positive in-built controls, as well as in normal nerve tissue. Conclusion. N-CAM expression did not predict neurotropism in our patient population. Additional studies are required to identify the cell surface markers expressed by CSCCHN which confer neurotropism capabilities. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009 [source]


Diagnosis and treatment of supraglottic laryngeal paraganglioma: report of a case

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 1 2004
John M. Del Gaudio MD
Abstract Background. Paragangliomas of the larynx are unusual tumors that are seen as a vascular submucosal mass. These usually are seen in the supraglottic larynx but have also been found in the subglottis. This is the only laryngeal neuroendocrine tumor with a female predilection. It is important that paragangliomas be differentiated from other neuroendocrine tumors of the larynx, including atypical carcinoid, because of differing treatment modalities. Methods. We present the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings of a supraglottic laryngeal paraganglioma seen in a 50-year-old woman with a 6-month history of slowly progressive hoarseness. Results. The tumor was successfully approached by means of a midline laryngofissure with mucosal preservation. The patient remains disease free 24 months after surgery. Conclusions. Preoperative CT and angiography are useful in making the diagnosis of paraganglioma before surgical intervention. Complete excision through an external mucosa-sparing approach is the treatment of choice. Distinguishing laryngeal paraganglioma from other neuroendocrine tumors can be difficult. Immunohistochemistry is an important tool for the correct pathologic diagnosis. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 94,98, 2004 [source]


Treatment response to transcatheter arterial embolization and chemoembolization in primary and metastatic tumors of the liver

HPB, Issue 6 2008
Avo Artinyan
Abstract Introduction. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) and chemoembolization (TACE) are increasingly used to treat unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the objective response to TAE and TACE in unresectable hepatic malignancies and to identify clinicopathologic predictors of response. Materials and methods. Seventy-nine consecutive patients who underwent 119 TAE/TACE procedures between 1998 and 2006 were reviewed. The change in maximal diameter of 121 evaluable lesions in 56 patients was calculated from pre and post-procedure imaging. Response rates were determined using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guidelines. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival in responders vs. non-responders and in primary vs. metastatic histologies. Results. TAE and TACE resulted in a mean decrease in lesion size of 10.3%±1.9% (p<0.001). TACE (vs. TAE) and carcinoid tumors were associated with a greater response (p<0.05). Lesion response was not predicted by pre-treatment size, vascularity, or histology. The RECIST partial response (PR) rate was 12.3% and all partial responders were in the TACE group. Neuroendocrine tumors, and specifically carcinoid lesions, had a significantly greater PR rate (p<0.05). Overall survival, however, was not associated with histology or radiologic response. Discussion. TAE and TACE produce a significant objective treatment response by RECIST criteria. Response is greatest in neuroendocrine tumors and is independent of vascularity and lesion size. TACE appears to be superior to TAE. Although an association of response with improved survival was not demonstrated, large cohort studies are necessary to further define this relationship. [source]


Original Article: Clinical Investigation: Neuroendocrine differentiation in stage D2 prostate cancers

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 5 2008
Naoto Kamiya
Objectives: Chromogranin A (CgA) and neuro-specific enolase (NSE) are gaining acceptance as markers of several types of neuroendocrine tumors and the concentration of CgA and NSE have been reported to be elevated in relation to neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between the immunohistochemical (IHC) findings and serum value for CgA and NSE in untreated stage D2 prostate cancer patients. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was carried out using antibodies against CgA and NSE in 58 patients and, pretreatment serum CgA and NSE levels were measured by monoclonal immunoradiometric assay in 18 patients with stage D2 prostate cancer treated by androgen ablation. We examined the relationship of the pretreatment serum level to IHC findings for CgA and NSE in prostate cancer patients to clinicopathological parameters, and prognosis. Also, we evaluated the correlation of IHC findings to serum levels for CgA and NSE. Results: There was a statistically significant correlation between CgA positivity and serum CgA level (P = 0.0421). However, there was no statistically significant correlation between NSE positivity and serum NSE level (P > 0.05). We divided stage D2 patients into three groups according to IHC positivity of CgA and NSE. The cause-specific survival was significantly poorer in patients with strongly positive (++) patients for independent CgA and combined CgA with NSE (P = 0.0379). Multivariate analysis of cause-specific survivals in patients with stage D2 prostate cancer demonstrated that strong IHC stain was considered as independent variable associated with greater risk of death (P = 0.0142). Conclusion: Neuroendocrine differentiation in stage D2 prostate cancer has attracted considerable attention as a potentially findings prognosis. Thus, CgA had a stronger relationship between serum levels and IHC positivity in contrast to NSE, suggesting clinical usefulness as a tumor marker in predicting the extent of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer. [source]


A case of bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor: The role of octreotide scanning in localization of an ectopic source of ACTH

JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINE, Issue 5 2006
P. D. Bhatia BSc
Abstract BACKGROUND Bronchopulmonary carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumors. They can present with Cushing's syndrome secondary to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. Curative resection is possible only after adequate localization of the ectopic source. OBJECTIVE To describe a case that illustrates the role of octreotide scanning in the management of a bronchopulmonary carcinoid. RESULTS The use of preoperative and postoperative octreotide scanning aided in performing a limited resection, thereby preserving the lung parenchyma. CONCLUSIONS We propose that octreotide scanning can be a very important and informative test in the management of carcinoid tumors. In situations when conventional imaging is not conclusive, octreotide scanning may be of help in determining the source of ectopic ACTH syndrome. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2006;1:312,316. © 2006 Society of Hospital Medicine. [source]


Malignant neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas: the need for a holistic approach

JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
FRACS, Mark Sywak MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Regression of metastatic carcinoid tumors with octreotide therapy: Two case reports and a review of the literature

JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
Wey L. Leong MD
Abstract Background The antiproliferative effect of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide, on metastatic carcinoid tumors is poorly understood. Partial tumor regression seen radiogaphically has been reported with the use of octreotide therapy for neuroendocrine tumors. Complete regression of carcinoid tumors is rarely reported. Results Two patients with metastatic midgut carcinoid tumors were treated with subcutaneous octreotide 300 ,g/day for symptomatic control of their carcinoid syndrome before debulking palliative surgery. During the laporatomies, both patients were found to have complete macroscopic regression of the metastastatic lesions that had been identified radiologically before surgery, including liver metastases in one patient and periportal and retrocaval lymph nodes in the other. After surgery, the patients were evaluated every 3 months, and had no detectable disease at 30 and 43 months, respectively. Thirty cases of partial tumor regression with octreotide administered with or without other treatment modalities have been reported in the literature. Most of the patients involved received other treatment modalities. Only one other case reported in the literature showed complete regression with octreotide monotherapy. Conclusions We report two cases of metastatic midgut carcinoid tumors that demonstrated a significant anti-proliferative response to octreotide monotherapy. Review of the literature failed to identify any specific prognostic factors with which the response to octreotide can be predicted. Possible mechanisms for this antiproliferative effect of octreotide on carcinoid tumors are discussed. J. Surg. Oncol. 2002;79:180,187. © 2002 Wiley,Liss, Inc. [source]


Liver transplantation for non,hepatocellular carcinoma malignancy: Indications, limitations, and analysis of the current literature

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2010
Eric J. Grossman
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is currently incorporated into the treatment regimens for specific nonhepatocellular malignancies. For patients suffering from early-stage, unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), OLT preceded by neoadjuvant radiotherapy has the potential to readily achieve a tumor-free margin, accomplish a radical resection, and treat underlying primary sclerosing cholangitis when present. In highly selected stage I and II patients with CCA, the 5-year survival rate is 80%. As additional data are accrued, OLT with neoadjuvant chemoradiation may become a viable alternative to resection for patients with localized, node-negative hilar CCA. Hepatic involvement from neuroendocrine tumors can be treated with OLT when metastases are unresectable or for palliation of medically uncontrollable symptoms. Five-year survival rates as high as 90% have been reported, and the Ki67 labeling index can be used to predict outcomes after OLT. Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare tumor of vascular origin. The data from single-institution series are limited, but compiled reviews have reported 1- and 10-year survival rates of 96% and 72%, respectively. Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary hepatic malignancy in children. There exist subtle differences in the timing of chemotherapy between US and European centers; however, the long-term survival rate after transplantation ranges from 66% to 77%. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma is a distinct liver malignancy best treated by surgical resection. However, there is an increasing amount of data supporting OLT when resection is contraindicated. In the treatment of either primary or metastatic hepatic sarcomas, unacceptable survival and recurrence rates currently prohibit the use of OLT. Liver Transpl 16:930-942, 2010. © 2010 AASLD. [source]


LKB1 protein expression in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung

PATHOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2008
Randa Mahmoud Sobhi Amin
During a recent investigation of LKB1 gene abnormality in lung lesions, strong expression of LKB1 protein in normal neuroendocrine (NE) cells of the bronchial epithelium was found. Because LKB1 functions as a tumor suppressor gene, the question of whether alteration of LKB1 expression is related to the development of pulmonary NE tumors of various grades was investigated. LKB1 immunohistochemistry was examined in a total of 68 primary pulmonary NE tumors consisting of 30 specimens of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), 23 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC), two atypical carcinoids, and 13 typical carcinoids. Loss or low expression (<20% immunoreactive cells) of LKB1 protein expression was more frequently observed in high-grade NE tumors (SCLC and LCNEC; 45/53, 84.9%) than in typical and atypical carcinoids (3/15; 20%). The difference in LKB1 immunoreactivity between the high-grade NE tumors and the carcinoid group was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, marked reduction of LKB1 expression in high-grade NE tumors of the lung suggests a possible role of LKB1 inactivation in its tumorigenesis. Although a few previous studies indicated rare genetic alterations of LKB1 in SCLC, further studies including analysis of other NE tumors and focusing on epigenetic abnormalities of LKB1 gene are warranted. [source]


Peptide microarrays for the characterization of antigenic regions of human chromogranin,A

PROTEINS: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND BIOINFORMATICS, Issue 14 2005
Marcella Chiari
Abstract Microarraying peptides is a powerful proteomics technique for studying molecular recognition events. Since peptides have small molecular mass, they are not easily accessible when adsorbed onto solid supports. Moreover, peptides can lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure, and therefore a correct orientation is essential to promote the interaction with their target. In this work, we investigated the suitability as a peptide array substrate of a glass slide coated with a copolymer of N,N -dimethylacrylamide, N,N -acryloyloxysuccinimide, and [3-(methacryloyl-oxy)propyl]trimethoxysilyl. This polymeric surface was used as substrate for peptides in the characterization of linear antigenic sites of human chromogranin,A, a useful tissue and serum marker for neuroendocrine tumors and a precursor of many biologically active peptides. The microarray support provided sufficient accessibility of the ligand, with no need for a spacer, as the polymer chains prevent interaction of immobilized peptides with substrate. In addition, the polymeric surface constitutes an aqueous micro-environment in which linear epitopes are freely exposed despite peptide random orientation. The results reported in this article are in accordance with those obtained in conventional ELISA assays using biotinylated and non-biotinylated peptides. [source]


111Indium Pentetreotide Imaging in the Evaluation of Head and Neck Tumors

THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 10 2005
David Myssiorek MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Peptide receptor imaging with 111Indium pentetreotide is useful in the diagnosis of diffuse neuroendocrine system tumors (DNEST) of the head and neck. Uses of 111Indium pentetreotide scintigraphy include tumor and metastases detection, familial tumor screening, and surveillance for recurrence. Using target to background ratios (TBR) could generate a comparative scale for these tumors. Study Design: A retrospective study evaluated the size, TBR, conventional imaging, and outcomes of patients imaged with 111Indium pentetreotide scintigraphy for suspected head and neck DNEST. Methods: Patients with head and neck tumors imaged by 111Indium pentetreotide scintigraphy during a nine-year period were reviewed. Data analyzed were age, sex, scintigraphy, pathology, and conventional radiology. Tumor data included dimension, multiplicity, metastases, and tumor and brain counts. Results: Fifty-three patients underwent 58 scans. The sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 92%. Several different DNEST were successfully evaluated, including familial paragangliomas and multiple paragangliomas. TBRs were variable depending on type of DNEST. Conclusions:111Indium pentetreotide scintigraphy is accurate in determining the presence of paragangliomas, carcinoid tumors, esthesioneuroblastomas, small cell neuroendocrine tumors, andmetastases. It is an excellent surveillance tool. Screening patients for familial paragangliomas can be accomplished. No reliable comparative scale to distinguish amongst the various DNEST could be developed using TBR. [source]


L1 cell adhesion molecule as a predictor for recurrence in pulmonary carcinoids and large-cell neuroendocrine tumors

APMIS, Issue 2 2009
HYO SONG KIM
Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are a distinct subset of neoplasms with indolent to aggressive behavior. This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic role of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. We retrospectively analyzed L1 expression in 55 cases of completely resected carcinoids and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, by the immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibody A10-A3 against human L1. L1 immunoreactivity was detected in 34 (61.8%) of 55 specimens. There was a significant correlation between L1 expression and the World Health Organization classification of this tumor (Spearman rank correlation, ,=0.60, p<0.001). With median follow-up of 52.0 months, the 5-year survival rate for patients with low expression of L1 (<20% of tumor cells stained) was significantly better compared with those with high expression of L1 (82.6% vs. 43.7%, p=0.005). L1 was also a significant independent predictor of disease-free survival, and patients with high L1 expression have a higher risk for recurrence compared with those with low L1 expression (hazard ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.2,8.3; p=0.034). L1 expression is significantly associated with aggressiveness and further studies with larger samples are needed to validate potential prognostic value for pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. [source]


Authors' reply: Treatment of liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors in relation to the extent of hepatic disease (Br J Surg 2009; 96: 175,184)

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 7 2009
A. Frilling
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Differential cytotoxicity of novel somatostatin and dopamine chimeric compounds on bronchopulmonary and small intestinal neuroendocrine tumor cell lines

CANCER, Issue 4 2008
Mark Kidd PhD
Abstract BACKGROUND. Survival rates for gastrointestinal (GI) and bronchopulmonary (BP) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have not significantly altered (overall 67%, 5-year survival) in 30 years (1973-2004), whereas the incidence has increased (, 1000%) in the same time frame. No effective or specific antineoplastic agent is available for treatment, although somatostatin analogs inhibit tumor secretion. Given the coexistence of somatostatin and dopamine regulatory receptors on NET cells, the antiproliferative efficacy as well as the signaling and transcriptional targets of their ligands were evaluated. METHODS. The cytotoxic effects of 12 somatostatin/dopamine compounds were evaluated in 3 NET cell lines, and real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay studies were performed to delineate antiproliferative signaling pathways. RESULTS. The atypical BP-NET, NCI-H720, was most sensitive to the sst5 analog BIM23206 (half-maximal concentration, 2.4 pM) and demonstrated similar sensitivity to lanreotide and the sst2 analog BIM23120. The typical BP-NET, NCI-H727, was most sensitive to BIM23120 (0.7 nM) and to the pan-somatostatin receptor analog (BIM23A779). The GI-NET, KRJ-I, was most sensitive to sst2,5 analogs lanreotide (1 nM) and BIM23244 (7.4 nM). Lanreotide activated extracellular signal regulated kinase-1/2 phosphorylation and p21WAF1/CIP1 transcription, but inhibited Ki-67 transcription. NCI-H720 was most sensitive to the sst2,5 - and D2 -selective compound BIM23A761 (4.2 nM), as was NCI-H727 (5.5 nM). KRJ-I did not respond to any chimeric analog. BIM23A761 activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling and caused inhibition of Ki-67 transcription. P21WAF1/CIP1 transcription was activated only in NCI-H727 cells. CONCLUSIONS. The different responses of each individual cell line suggested that NETs from different locations arising from different neuroendocrine cells may require cell-specific antiproliferative agents based on the unique receptor profile of individual lesions. Cancer 2008. © 2008 American Cancer Society. [source]