Neuroendocrine Regulation (neuroendocrine + regulation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Neuroendocrine regulation of puberty in fish: Insights from the grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) model

MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2008
Josephine N. Nocillado
Abstract We investigated the molecular regulation of pubertal development in the grey mullet, Mugil cephalus, a relatively late-maturing teleost fish. We have isolated and characterized the cDNAs of key reproductive genes along the brain,pituitary,gonadal (BPG) axis as well as the promoters of genes that modulate the axis at multiple levels. Together with relevant findings from other model species, we propose a conceptual model of the neuroendocrine regulation of puberty in the female grey mullet. Research areas that warrant further investigation are identified in the model. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 75: 355,361, 2008. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Neuroendocrine regulation of prolactin secretion in adult female rhesus monkeys during different phases of the menstrual cycle: role of neuroexcitatory amino acid (NMA)

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
S. Jahan
Abstract The present study attempts to examine the role of N-methyl-D, L-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the central regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion, which may be involved in ovarian function and its alteration by glutamate in various phases of the menstrual cycle of female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). The results suggest that the glutaminergic component of the control system, which governs PRL secretion by utilizing NMDA receptors, may have an important role in regulating changes in PRL secretion. The response of PRL during the luteal phase of the cycle was different from that observed in follicular and menstrual phases. Steroids may influence the NMDA-dependent drive to release PRL. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMA) involvement in the regulation of PRL secretion may occur through activation of the PRL-stimulating system depending on the physiological state or steroidal milieu. It is possible, therefore, that the NMA-induced release of PRL-releasing factors (PRF) and PRL are enhanced in the presence of ovarian feedback. Am. J. Primatol. 69:1,12, 2007. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP): a still unresolved riddle

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2006
Vladimir M. Kovalzon
Abstract Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) was isolated from rabbit cerebral venous blood by Schoenenberger-Monnier group from Basel in 1977 and initially regarded as a candidate sleep-promoting factor. However, the link between DSIP and sleep has never been further characterized, in part because of the lack of isolation of the DSIP gene, protein and possible related receptor. Thus the hypothesis regarding DSIP as a sleep factor is extremely poorly documented and still weak. Although DSIP itself presented a focus of study for a number of researchers, its natural occurrence and biological activity still remains obscure. DSIP structure is different from any other known representative of the various peptide families. In this mini-review we hypothesize the existence of a DSIP-like peptide(s) that is responsible (at least partly) for DSIP-like immunoreactivity and DSIP biological activity. This assumption is based on: (i) a highly specific distribution of DSIP-like immunoreactivity in the neurosecretory hypothalamic nuclei of various vertebrate species that are not particularly relevant for sleep regulation, as revealed by the histochemical studies of the Geneva group (Charnay et al.); (ii) a large spectrum of DSIP biological activity revealed by biochemical and physiological studies in vitro; (iii) significant slow-wave sleep (SWS) promoting activity of certain artificial DSIP structural analogues (but not DSIP itself!) in rabbits and rats revealed by our early studies; and (iv) significant SWS-promoting activity of a naturally occurring dermorphin-decapeptide that is structurally similar to DSIP (in five of the nine positions) and the sleep-suppressing effect of its optical isomer, as revealed in rabbits. Potential future studies are outlined, including natural synthesis and release of this DSIP-like peptide and its role in neuroendocrine regulation. [source]


Effect of Environmental Enrichment on Stress Related Systems in Rats

JOURNAL OF NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
F. Moncek
Abstract The aim of this study was to test whether environmental enrichment alters the status and responsiveness of pituitary-adrenocortical and sympathetic-adrenomedullary hormones in rats. Previous studies have shown that rats kept in an enriched environment differ from those kept in standard cages in dendritic branching, synaptogenesis, memory function, emotionality and behaviour. In male Wistar rats kept in an enriched environment for 40 days, we studied basal concentrations of hormones, endocrine responses to 5-HT1A challenge and responsiveness and adaptation to repeated handling. Environmental enrichment consisted of large plexiglass cages with 10 rats per cage, which contained variety of objects exchanged three times a week. Rats kept in this enriched environment had higher resting plasma concentrations of corticosterone, larger adrenals and increased corticosterone release to buspirone challenge compared to controls. Lower adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and adrenaline responses to handling were noticed in rats kept in an enriched environment. Exposure to repeated handling led to a more rapid extinction of corticosterone responses in rats kept in an enriched environment. Thus, environmental enrichment leads to pronounced changes in neuroendocrine regulation, including larger adrenals and increased adrenocortical function, which are so far considered to be indication of chronic stress. [source]


The odour of pyrazine increases the egg mass of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus L.)

JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
Anat Barnea
Abstract Forty leghorn chickens at the commencement of egg laying, were divided into two groups, each with 10 females and 10 males. One group was exposed to the odour of synthetic pyrazine (2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine) for 16 weeks while the other acted as a control. During the first 4 weeks the hens exposed to pyrazine odour laid significantly fewer eggs (unfertilized) than the controls, but thereafter both groups laid a similar number. Mean egg mass of the pyrazine exposed hens was significantly (P= 0.012) greater (5.5%) than that of the control group. No significant difference was found in body mass or eggshell thickness. Similarly, there were no consistent significant differences between groups in oestrogen and testosterone concentrations in the blood of females and males, respectively. No pyrazine could be detected in cloacal extracts. The experiment shows that an external odour can affect the internal reproductive system of the chicken. It is suggested that the pyrazine-engendered increase in egg mass involves neuroendocrine regulation within the hypothalamus rather than hormonal interactions ,downstream' of the brain. [source]


Neuroendocrine regulation of puberty in fish: Insights from the grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) model

MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2008
Josephine N. Nocillado
Abstract We investigated the molecular regulation of pubertal development in the grey mullet, Mugil cephalus, a relatively late-maturing teleost fish. We have isolated and characterized the cDNAs of key reproductive genes along the brain,pituitary,gonadal (BPG) axis as well as the promoters of genes that modulate the axis at multiple levels. Together with relevant findings from other model species, we propose a conceptual model of the neuroendocrine regulation of puberty in the female grey mullet. Research areas that warrant further investigation are identified in the model. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 75: 355,361, 2008. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Neural activity and diurnal variation of cortisol: Evidence from brain electrical tomography analysis and relevance to anhedonia

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
Katherine M. Putnam
Abstract The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, and amygdala are implicated in the regulation of affect and physiological processes, including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Anhedonia is likely associated with dysregulation of these processes. Dense-array resting electroencephalographic and cortisol were obtained from healthy and anhedonic groups. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography was used to compute intracerebral current density. For the control group, voxelwise analyses found a relationship between current density in beta and gamma bands and steeper cortisol slope (indicative of more adaptive HPA axis functioning) in regions of the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and mPFC. For the anhedonic group, the mPFC finding was absent. Anhedonia may be characterized by disruptions of mPFC-mediated neuroendocrine regulation, which could constitute a vulnerability to the development of stress-related disorders. [source]


REVIEW ARTICLE: Interleukin-10: A Multi-Faceted Agent of Pregnancy

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 6 2010
Jessica E. Thaxton
Citation Thaxton JE, Sharma S. Interleukin-10: a multi-faceted agent of pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010 It is widely accepted that pregnancy constitutes a unique developmental event. Unprecedented intrauterine actions of angiogenesis, immunity, and neuroendocrine regulation are juxtaposed to mechanisms of senescence that enable fetal growth and protection. The suppressive and regulatory factors that facilitate healthy pregnancy are under investigation. In non-pregnant systems of infection and inflammation, the cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been widely investigated because of its potential as a key immunosuppressant in response to a multitude of inflammatory events. In the context of pregnancy, IL-10 levels increase markedly in women during early pregnancy and remain elevated well into the third trimester immediately prior to onset of labor. The role of IL-10 during pregnancy as a suppressor of active maternal immunity to allow acceptance of the fetal allograft has been a point of study. Moreover, secretion of IL-10 by a diverse set of maternal and fetal cells has proven to aid in the orchestration of normal processes of pregnancy. Interestingly, some of the more profound findings regarding the actions of IL-10 during pregnancy have manifested from research that focuses on aberrant pregnancy outcomes as a result of inflammation, hormonal imbalances, or gene,environment interactions. This review focuses on the role of IL-10 as a facilitator of successful pregnancy both as an immune suppressive agent and a mediator of cross talk between the placenta and the decidua. Importantly, we discuss investigations on adverse pregnancy conditions to further elucidate the multifarious role of IL-10 at the maternal,fetal interface. [source]


Changes in gut hormones after bariatric surgery

CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
R. P. Vincent
Summary Bariatric surgery is one of the most effective treatments for achieving long-term weight loss in morbidly obese patients. Bariatric surgery causes weight loss through substantial decline of hunger and increased satiety. Recently our understanding of neuroendocrine regulation of food intake and weight gain, especially regarding the role of gut hormones, has significantly increased. The changes in these hormones following bariatric surgery can partly explain the mechanism behind weight loss achieved through these procedures. In this paper, we review the effect bariatric procedures have on different gut hormone levels and how they in turn can alter the complex neuroendocrine regulation of energy homeostasis. [source]