Neuroendocrine Markers (neuroendocrine + marker)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

PNET-like features of synovial sarcoma of the lung: A pitfall in the cytologic diagnosis of soft-tissue tumors

Pascale Hummel M.D.
Abstract Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of soft-tissue tumors is evolving. As more experience is gained, we are becoming aware of potential pitfalls. We describe 2 cases of synovial sarcoma of the lung, primary and metastatic, in patients who had FNA biopsy performed on a lung mass. The cytologic smears showed extremely cellular groups of malignant small round cells, intersected by small blood vessels, with numerous loose single cells, in a background of macrophages and mature lymphocytes. The tumors displayed monomorphic cells forming rosettes and displaying occasional mitoses. A diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor/primitive neuroepithelial tumor (PNET) was suspected. Furthermore, this suspicion was supported by immunohistochemical stains, which showed positivity for a neuroendocrine marker, Leu 7 (case 1), and for a neural marker, CD 99 (O 13 or HBA 71) (both cases); and negativity for cytokeratins (case 1). The resection specimen of case 1 had mostly tightly packed small round cells, with occasional rosettes, similar to the FNA biopsy, and focal areas composed of spindle cells, organized in a focal fibrosarcoma-like and hemangiopericytoma-like pattern. A balanced translocation between chromosomes X and 18, demonstrated by both karyotyping and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), enabled us to make a diagnosis of synovial sarcoma, which was histologically classified as poorly differentiated. Case 2 was a metastatic biphasic synovial sarcoma of the arm, with a prominent epithelial component. Synovial sarcoma, when composed mainly of small round cells on cytologic smears, is a great mimicker of neuroendocrine/PNET tumors, with light microscopic and immunohistochemical overlap. Awareness of this potential pitfall may aid in preventing a misdiagnosis. Its recognition is of major concern, especially for the poorly differentiated variant, because it is associated with a worse prognosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 24:283,288, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Secretagogin is a new neuroendocrine marker in the human prostate

THE PROSTATE, Issue 5 2007
Katja Adolf
Abstract Background Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer (PCa), promoted by NE cell secreted products, appears to be associated with tumor progression, poor prognosis, and hormone-refractory disease. We recently reported secretagogin, a hexa-EF-hand Ca2+ binding protein, as a novel NE marker in carcinoid tumors of the lung and the gastrointestinal tract. The present study analyzes the expression of secretagogin in normal and malign prostate tissue. Methods We analyzed immunoreactivity for secretagogin, chromogranin A (CgA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and synaptophysin (SYN) in consecutive sections from 87 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) benign hyperplastic (n,=,10) and prostate adenocarcinoma (n,=,77) specimens. The intracellular distribution of secretagogin, CgA, and NSE was examined by confocal fluorescent microscopy, and we characterized secretagogin in eight samples by Western blotting. Results Secretagogin is cytoplasmic and nuclear expressed in NE and NE differentiated cells, and to a lesser extent in epithelial cells, in the benign prostate and prostate adenocarcinoma cells. Secretagogin stained 82% (46/56) of benign and 71% (48/68) of prostate adenocarcinomas and co-localized with the NE markers CgA and NSE. The expression of secretagogin is significantly correlated to CgA (P,<,0.001) and NSE (P,<,0.048) in prostate adenocarcinoma and to CgA in normal epithelium (P,<,0.028). Conclusions Secretagogin is a novel NE marker in the prostate with more extended immunoreactivity compared to the NE markers CgA, SYN, and NSE. Secretagogin is widely expressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma as opposed to adenocarcinomas in other organs. Prostate 67: 472,484, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Prognostic significance of synaptophysin in stage I of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung

CANCER, Issue 8 2007
Federico González-Aragoneses MD
Abstract BACKGROUND. The prognostic significance of the presence of a neuroendocrine marker (synaptophysin, SY) was analyzed in stage I of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung. METHODS. A multicentric retrospective study was conducted with immunohistochemical staining in a single center of 318 patients resected for squamous carcinoma or adenocarcinoma in pathologic stage I. RESULTS. In all, 162 cases of squamous carcinoma and 156 cases of adenocarcinoma were identified, which included 105 patients in stage IA (50 patients with squamous carcinoma and 55 patients with adenocarcinoma) and 213 in stage IB (112 with squamous carcinoma and 101 with adenocarcinoma). Eighty-six tumors showed a presence of SY+ (27%). Univariate analysis showed lower survival rates at 5 years for those patients older than 70 years of age compared with those patients younger than 70 years of age (60.35% vs 70.57%; P = .007) and for those patients with SY+ compared with those with SY, (52.48% vs 72.68%; P = .0017). Patients with SY+ tumors showed a higher rate of recurrence than patients with SY, tumors (50% vs 33.6%; P = .008). Multivariate analysis showed that those patients greater that 70 years of age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14,2.65) and the presence of SY (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.40,3.30) were significant independent prognostic factors associated with a poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS. Stage I of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung with SY+ has a poor prognosis, with a higher frequency of recurrence and lower survival rates. Cancer 2007. © 2007 American Cancer Society. [source]

Cytopathological diagnosis of adult retinoblastoma in a vitrectomy specimen,

Maria E. Orellana M.D.
Abstract Retinoblastoma (RB) is extremely rare in adults. We describe a case of RB diagnosed by cytology in a vitrectomy specimen of a 23-year-old patient who presented with diminished visual acuity and retinal detachment in the absence of a clinically-visible mass. Cytological examination of the vitreous fluid showed clusters of loosely cohesive atypical cells with high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio and "salt and pepper" chromatin pattern in a background of normal neuronal retinal cells. Nuclear molding was present as well as numerous apoptotic bodies. The cells were focally positive for epithelial markers and showed strong and diffuse positivity for neuroendocrine markers. Ki-67 stained 90% of the "atypical cells" nuclei, in contrast to nonneoplastic retinal neuronal cells, which were negative for the marker. A diagnosis of RB was rendered, and subsequently was confirmed in the enucleation specimen. The cytological differential diagnosis is discussed as well as the role that cytology and immunohistochemistry can play in differentiating neoplastic cells from normal retinal cellular elements in vitreous fluid specimens. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Synchronous metastases to the liver and pancreas from a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration

Maria McIntire M.D.
Abstract Extrapulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma is uncommon. Cases of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast have been reported, though rare. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman who underwent a mastectomy for breast carcinoma and presented three years later with synchronous masses in the head of the pancreas and liver. Fine-needle aspiration of both organs revealed a neuroendocrine carcinoma. The original breast tumor was reviewed and found to express neuroendocrine markers. A diagnosis of a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast was rendered. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2008;36:54,57. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Small cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct: Case report and immunohistochemical analysis

Kazuya Kuraoka
A small cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct in a 75-year-old Japanese man is reported. The patient suffered from obstructive jaundice, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography-drainage (PTCD) revealed a massive lesion in the lower common bile duct. Because it was diagnosed as a malignant tumor, pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. A nodular infiltrating tumor measuring 4.5 × 3.0 × 2.0 cm was located in the intrapancreatic portion of the extrahepatic bile duct. Histologically, the tumor was composed of a dense proliferation of small atypical cells with a little region of high-grade dysplasia in the adjacent epithelium of the common bile duct. Tumor cells were immunoreactive to neuroendocrine markers such as chromogranin A, synaptophysin, CD56, and Leu7. Although carcinoma cells invaded into pancreas and duodenum, there were no histological findings that indicated the carcinoma arose from the mucosa of either the pancreatic duct or duodenum. These results indicated that the tumor was a small cell carcinoma derived from the epithelium of the extrahepatic bile duct; a rare neoplasm with only a few cases reported. A few neuroendocrine cells were recognized in the adjacent epithelium of the extrahepatic bile duct, suggesting that the tumor cells might be derived from them. Using immunohistochemical examination, no p53 abnormality was found. Tumor cells showed positive nuclear staining for p16, while negative for cyclin D1, suggesting that functional retinoblastoma protein (pRB) might be lost in the p16/pRB pathway, as in small cell lung cancer. [source]

Small cell carcinoma of the prostate expressing prostate-specific antigen and showing syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone: An autopsy case report

Shigeo Kawai
An autopsy case of primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the prostate in a 68-year-old man is reported. The patient was admitted to hospital because of a bloody stool and suspected rectal cancer. However, a diagnosis of prostate cancer was made on the basis of a digital rectal examination, the serum level of prostate-specific antigen, and a needle biopsy of the prostate. The patient also experienced a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. He died 29 days after admission. At autopsy, the tumor had invaded the rectum, bladder and pelvic peritoneum. Metastases to the heart, vertebrae and lymph nodes were observed. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of small round cells that showed a solid growth pattern. Rosette formations were observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for a prostatic epithelial marker and neuroendocrine markers. A high level of antidiuretic hormone was detected in the tumor tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of SCC of the prostate in which both a prostatic epithelial marker and neuroendocrine markers have been found in the same tumor. This finding supports the hypothesis that SCC of the prostate originates from a multipotential stem cell of the prostatic epithelium. [source]

Oestradiol Induced Inhibition of Neuroendocrine Marker Expression in Leydig Cells of Adult Rats

HH Ortega
Contents The objectives of this work were to determine the changes in the expression of neuroendocrine markers in Leydig cell by oestradiol treatment, and to determine whether testosterone is able to recover partially the effects of hormonal suppression induced by oestradiol. Adult male rats were injected daily with either 50 ,g of oestradiol or oestradiol plus testosterone propionate (25 mg every 3 days) for 15 days. The animals were sacrificed and testicles were dissected and processed by routine histological protocols. FSH and LH serum levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The visualization of antigens was achieved by the streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemical method. Antibodies against chromogranin A (CrA), S-100 protein (S-100), P substance (PS), synaptofisin (SYN), neurofilament protein (NF), gliofibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) were used. The mean LH and FSH serum concentrations were consistently suppressed with hormonal treatments. Intermediate filaments (NF and GFAP) showed no difference in their expression. The expression of S-100, NSE and SYN was significantly lower in both hormone-treated groups. In oestradiol-treated rats, the immunoreactivity of CrA and SP decreased significantly but was restored after testosterone supplementation. Although the nature and functions of many of these substances in Leydig cells remain unknown, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the expression of some neuroendocrine markers is hormonally controlled. [source]

A Study of Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinomas of the Larynx and an Examination of Non-Neoplastic Larynx Tissue for Neuroendocrine Cells

Jin-Haeng Chung MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: To determine the most appropriate terminology for neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) of the larynx, successive clinicopathologic studies are encouraged. The typical location and immunophenotype of laryngeal NEC raise a question of whether any precursor cells exist. Study Design: Six patients with laryngeal NEC were analyzed. Another 20 laryngectomy specimens were examined for the presence of non-neoplastic neuroendocrine cells. Methods: Tumor morphology and patient outcome were determined, and tumor tissue underwent immunohistochemical examination to identify cytokeratin, neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, calcitonin), S-100 protein, and p53 protein. A neuroendocrine marker study was also performed on non-neoplastic regions of another 20 laryngectomy specimens to identify any neuroendocrine cells. Results: Laryngeal NEC, all submucosal, exhibited various morphology with or without histologic evidences of neuroendocrine differentiation. The tumors showed frequent (67%) calcitonin expression, calcitonin secretion in one case, and common (50%) p53 over-expression. Three patients died within 3 years. In the non-neoplastic larynx specimens, Kulchitsky cell-like bipolar neuroendocrine cells were identified in the basal and middle layer of the respiratory epithelium of the ventricle and subglottis but none in the submucosal layer of the supraglottic region. The neuroendocrine cells did not express calcitonin. Conclusions: Moderately differentiated or large-cell NEC is a more favored term than atypical carcinoid until more refined classifications for upper respiratory tract NEC are agreed on. Despite the confirmed presence of neuroendocrine cells in the respiratory epithelium of the larynx, the origin of laryngeal NEC remains unknown. p53 mutation might be one of the major molecular steps in the pathogenesis of laryngeal NEC. [source]

Primary hepatic clear cell myomelanocytic tumor,

APMIS, Issue 12 2007
Case report, review of the literature
A case of hepatic clear cell myomelanocytic tumor in a 31-year-old woman presenting clinically with abdominal pain is reported. Histopathologic examination showed a lesion characterized by a population of large epithelioid cells with clear or eosinophilic granular cytoplasm, rich in glycogen. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for HMB-45, Melan-A and muscle-specific actin, but negative for epithelial markers, desmin, S-100 protein, and neuroendocrine markers. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells had abundant glycogen, well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, microtubules and aberrant melanosomes. Clinical and pathologic features with a brief review of the relevant literature for hepatic CCMMT as a variant of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) are discussed. [source]

Composite glandular-endocrine cell carcinomas of the stomach: clinicopathologic and methylation study,

APMIS, Issue 9 2005
Four cases of very rare composite glandular-endocrine cell carcinoma of the stomach are presented with methylation findings. All but one of the tumors arose in the antrum and two of them were at the early stage. Each composite carcinoma was accompanied by atrophic and metaplastic gastritis in the adjacent mucosa. Three cases showed lymph nodes metastasis, and one of them showed both glandular and neuroendocrine tumor components within the metastatic nodes. Mucin stains were positive in the adenocarcinoma areas while only the neuroendocrine markers were positive in neuroendocrine tumor components. Of all seven markers tested for, p16INK4A methylation was observed in both components of one composite carcinoma and hMLH1 was methylated in the neuroendocrine tumor component within the same tumor. An additional six gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas showed no methylation. Follow up of patients indicated short survival in patients with poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma components and advanced stages of tumors, while patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor components and early stages showed long disease-free survival. Our results suggest that hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is rare in gastric composite and neuroendocrine carcinomas, and prognosis of gastric composite carcinomas appears to be related to the histopathology of neuroendocrine components and tumor stage. [source]

Merkel cell carcinoma composed of small, intermediate and squamous cell foci showing mutually exclusive expression of neuroendocrine markers and cytokeratin 20

H. Hattori
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

The analysis of immunophenotype of gastrin-producing tumors of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract

CANCER, Issue 9 2003
Larissa Gurevich M.D., Ph.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND Gastrinomas are located more frequently in the pancreas, which normally has no cells that can produce gastrin. They have a more aggressive course than other pancreatic endocrine tumors and extrapancreatic gastrinomas associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 1 syndrome. The current study analyzed immunophenotypes of gastrinomas and compared them with other pancreatic endocrine tumors. METHODS Twenty-one formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens (15-tumors in the pancreas, 1 in the duodenum, 1 in the stomach, 1 in the liver, and 3 of unknown primary location) accompanied by Zollinger,Ellison syndrome and 17 other pancreatic endocrine tumor specimens were investigated. They were stained immunohistochemically for gastrin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, calcitonin, serotonin, chorionic gonadotropin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, and cytokeratin 19. RESULTS Gastrinomas coexpressed neuroendocrine and exocrine markers, including chromogranin A, synaptophysin, carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 19, and epithelial membrane antigen. Carcinoembryonic antigen was found in all 17 gastrinomas (100%), cytokeratin 19 was found in 15 of 17 (88.2%) gastrinomas, and epithelial membrane antigen was found in 16 of 18 (88.9 %) gastrinomas. Cytokeratin 19, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen were not found to be present in the pancreatic endocrine tumors, but chromogranin A and synaptophysin were. Chorionic gonadotropin was found in 16 gastrinomas (100%), but only in 2 of 17 other pancreatic endocrine tumors (11.8 %). CONCLUSIONS Pancreatic gastrinomas were characterized by the coexpression of neuroendocrine markers, exocrine markers, and chorionic gonadotropin. Therefore, pancreatic gastrinomas made a special intermediate group of tumors, which phenotypically combined features of neuroendocrine and exocrine neoplasms. These findings suggested that sporadic pancreatic gastrinomas and other pancreatic endocrine tumors are different phenotypically and are possibly of different origin. Cancer 2003. © 2003 American Cancer Society. [source]

Epidemiology of non-gastroenteropancreatic (neuro)endocrine tumours

P. Ferolla
Summary The widespread availability and reliability of immunohistochemical techniques in the last three decades have allowed researchers to identify cells with common neuroendocrine markers in virtually every organ. As a whole, these neuroendocrine cells form the so-called diffuse neuroendocrine system. Tumours arising from the cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system are defined as (neuro)endocrine tumours (NETs). NETs have been increasingly described in recent years. However, despite the increase in the number of published papers focused on NET, we still lack adequate epidemiological data, particularly for non-gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NETs. Furthermore, the real incidence of neuroendocrine differentiation for most sites is not completely known and is probably underestimated. As a consequence, data on the clinical features of many NET subgroups are not well known or confusing. For all of these reasons, we have attempted to evaluate the epidemiology of non-GEP NETs, reviewing the limited data available in the literature. [source]