Neuroendocrine Differentiation (neuroendocrine + differentiation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma with Neuroendocrine Differentiation or Merkel Cell Carcinoma?

JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
A. Andea
We present here a case of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with neuroendocrine features that has transformed into a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma with various morphologic features of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). A 54-year-old white female was treated for a BCC of the right thigh. Pathologic examination revealed an otherwise classical BCC that demonstrated granular positivity for chromogranin. Six years later the patient developed a right inguinal lymphadenopathy diagnosed as metastatic BCC with squamous changes. The metastatic BCC showed partial peripheral palisading and a trabecular pattern. Two years later the patient underwent a right nephrectomy due to obstruction of the right ureter by metastatic BCC. After another four years the patient came back with extensive involvement of the appendiceal wall and right ovary by a diffusely infiltrating metastatic basaloid and trabecular carcinoma. This time the tumor had many histologic features of MCC and showed strong positivity for chromogranin and also for CK20 and NSE. Electron microscopy revealed neurosecretory granules. This case is an example of a chromogranin positive basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which transformed during multiple recurrences into a high grade neuroendocrine carcinoma with features of Merkel cell tumor, demonstrating the potential for cross differentiation among skin tumors. [source]


Original Article: Clinical Investigation: Neuroendocrine differentiation in stage D2 prostate cancers

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 5 2008
Naoto Kamiya
Objectives: Chromogranin A (CgA) and neuro-specific enolase (NSE) are gaining acceptance as markers of several types of neuroendocrine tumors and the concentration of CgA and NSE have been reported to be elevated in relation to neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between the immunohistochemical (IHC) findings and serum value for CgA and NSE in untreated stage D2 prostate cancer patients. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was carried out using antibodies against CgA and NSE in 58 patients and, pretreatment serum CgA and NSE levels were measured by monoclonal immunoradiometric assay in 18 patients with stage D2 prostate cancer treated by androgen ablation. We examined the relationship of the pretreatment serum level to IHC findings for CgA and NSE in prostate cancer patients to clinicopathological parameters, and prognosis. Also, we evaluated the correlation of IHC findings to serum levels for CgA and NSE. Results: There was a statistically significant correlation between CgA positivity and serum CgA level (P = 0.0421). However, there was no statistically significant correlation between NSE positivity and serum NSE level (P > 0.05). We divided stage D2 patients into three groups according to IHC positivity of CgA and NSE. The cause-specific survival was significantly poorer in patients with strongly positive (++) patients for independent CgA and combined CgA with NSE (P = 0.0379). Multivariate analysis of cause-specific survivals in patients with stage D2 prostate cancer demonstrated that strong IHC stain was considered as independent variable associated with greater risk of death (P = 0.0142). Conclusion: Neuroendocrine differentiation in stage D2 prostate cancer has attracted considerable attention as a potentially findings prognosis. Thus, CgA had a stronger relationship between serum levels and IHC positivity in contrast to NSE, suggesting clinical usefulness as a tumor marker in predicting the extent of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer. [source]


Neuroendocrine differentiation in human prostate tissue: is it detectable and treatable?

BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 5 2003
A. Sciarra
First page of article [source]


Fine-needle aspiration of metastatic prostatic neuroendocrine carcinomas: Cytomorphologic and immunophenotypic features

DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 8 2008
Guoping Cai M.D.
Abstract Metastatic prostatic carcinoma may, in rare occasions, present as a neuroendocrine tumor. Its recognition is crucial to avert a wrongful exclusion of prostate as a primary site. We report five cases of metastatic prostatic neuroendocrine carcinoma diagnosed by image-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The aspirate smears showed loosely cohesive or dyscohesive clusters of tumor cells with scanty (three cases) to moderate amount (two cases) of cytoplasm, speckled or coarse chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli. Nuclear molding and necrosis were focally present in two cases. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for synaptophysin or/and chromogranin, but negative for prostatic specific antigen and prostatic specific acid phosphatase. Review of prior prostate biopsies/resections revealed adenocarcinoma with focal neuroendocrine differentiation in all cases, with two cases being newly recognized on retrospective review. Confirming neuroendocrine differentiation in the prior biopsy/resection may help to establish a link between metastasis and prostate primary. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2008; 36: 545,549. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Secondary prostatic adenocarcinoma: A cytopathological study of 50 cases

DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
F.R.C.P.C., Kien T. Mai M.D.
Abstract Positive diagnosis of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma (PAC) can be made by microscopic examination of the cytologic specimens and immunostaining for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate acid phosphatase (PAP). Immunohistochemical markers have been known to display negative, weak, or focal staining in poorly differentiated PAC and in patients with prior hormonal and/or radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to characterize the cytopathology of metastatic PAC as it has not been documented in large series. Fifty cases of metastatic PAC with cytological specimens consisting of 41 fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB), 6 pleural fluid aspirates, and 3 catheterized urine samples were reviewed and correlated with the surgical specimens and the clinical charts. Immunostaining for PSA, PAP, cytokeratin AE1/3, cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 20 (CK20), vimentin, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was done. Mean patient age was 77 8 yr; serum PSA, 4.1 2.3; and primary PAC Gleason score, 8.1 1.5. Cytologically, the specimens consisted of cell clusters or cell sheets with overlapping uniform hyperchromatic nuclei with or without nucleoli. Twelve cases were not reactive to PSA and PAP and 44 cases displayed negative immunoreactivity to both CK7 and CK20. Carcinoid-like lesions and small cell carcinomas were seen in 4 cases and were misdiagnosed as nonprostatic origin based on the following features: negative immunoreactivity to PSA and PAP with or without positive reactivity to CEA, and different histopathological features when compared with the primary PAC. In addition to the frequency of high-grade PAC, awareness of the negative immunoreactivity to PSA and PAP, the discrepancy in the histopathological patterns between the primary and secondary tumors, especially the frequent neuroendocrine differentiation, are helpful features for the diagnosis of metastases of prostatic origin. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2007;35:91,95. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Salivary duct carcinoma with neuroendocrine features: Report of a case with cytological and immunohistochemical study

DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
Juan B. Laforga M.D.
Abstract We report a salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) of parotid gland in a 75-year-old male. Initially, it was studied by fine-needle aspiration, which disclosed features of malignancy consistent with a high-grade carcinoma. Histologically, the tumor showed typical features of SDC, predominantly with a solid and apocrine pattern. The aggressive behavior of this tumor was documented by facial palsy and the presence of 12 regional lymph node metastases. Immunohistochemical study showed positivity for cytokeratins (AE1/AE3), cytokeratin 7, GCDFP-15, C-erbB-2, Mib-1, topoisomerase II ,, p53, and androgen receptors. Diffuse positivity with chromogranin-A, synaptophysin, and Grimelius stains was also observed, suggesting endocrine features. Phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, antimitochondrial antigen, progesterone and estrogen receptors, cytokeratin 20, and S-100 stains were negative. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of SDC exhibiting neuroendocrine differentiation. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2004;31:189,192. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Original Article: Clinical Investigation: Neuroendocrine differentiation in stage D2 prostate cancers

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 5 2008
Naoto Kamiya
Objectives: Chromogranin A (CgA) and neuro-specific enolase (NSE) are gaining acceptance as markers of several types of neuroendocrine tumors and the concentration of CgA and NSE have been reported to be elevated in relation to neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between the immunohistochemical (IHC) findings and serum value for CgA and NSE in untreated stage D2 prostate cancer patients. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was carried out using antibodies against CgA and NSE in 58 patients and, pretreatment serum CgA and NSE levels were measured by monoclonal immunoradiometric assay in 18 patients with stage D2 prostate cancer treated by androgen ablation. We examined the relationship of the pretreatment serum level to IHC findings for CgA and NSE in prostate cancer patients to clinicopathological parameters, and prognosis. Also, we evaluated the correlation of IHC findings to serum levels for CgA and NSE. Results: There was a statistically significant correlation between CgA positivity and serum CgA level (P = 0.0421). However, there was no statistically significant correlation between NSE positivity and serum NSE level (P > 0.05). We divided stage D2 patients into three groups according to IHC positivity of CgA and NSE. The cause-specific survival was significantly poorer in patients with strongly positive (++) patients for independent CgA and combined CgA with NSE (P = 0.0379). Multivariate analysis of cause-specific survivals in patients with stage D2 prostate cancer demonstrated that strong IHC stain was considered as independent variable associated with greater risk of death (P = 0.0142). Conclusion: Neuroendocrine differentiation in stage D2 prostate cancer has attracted considerable attention as a potentially findings prognosis. Thus, CgA had a stronger relationship between serum levels and IHC positivity in contrast to NSE, suggesting clinical usefulness as a tumor marker in predicting the extent of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer. [source]


Differential kinetic features by tumour topography in cutaneous small-cell neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinomas

JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY & VENEREOLOGY, Issue 9 2007
L Pozo
Abstract Background/Objectives Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) reveal epithelial and neuroendocrine differentiation, but its topographic cell kinetics remains unknown. This study analyses proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA ploidy by topography, features that can help planning therapeutic protocols. This study topographically analyses proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA ploidy. Methods We selected 27 small-cell MCCs (expressing one epithelial and two neural markers, with consistent ultrastructural findings) to evaluate mitotic figure counting, Ki-67 index, apoptosis index based on the in situ end labelling of fragmented DNA (using Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, Klenow fragment), DNA ploidy, and BCL2 and TP53 immuno-expression. At least 50 high-power fields were screened per topographic compartment (superficial or papillary dermis, and deep or reticular dermis), recording average and standard deviation for each variable. Variables were statistically compared in each tumour compartment using analysis of variance and Student's t -test (significant if P < 0.05). Results MCCs revealed superficial aneuploid DNA content, and no topographic differences for proliferation markers. Apoptosis showed significantly lower values in the deep compartment (average, P = 0.0050, and standard deviation, P = 0.0074), correlating with increased BCL2 and TP53 immuno-expressions. Conclusions High homogeneously distributed proliferation and superficial aneuploid DNA content defines MCCs. Apoptosis follows proliferation in superficial compartments, being less variable and proliferation independent in deep compartments, where it is inversely correlated with BCL2/TP53 expression. [source]


Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: Updated clinicopathological and molecular genetic characteristics

PATHOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 8 2005
Masanori Hisaoka
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma characterized by distinctive morphological and cytogenetical features. As its name implies, EMC was believed to represent a variant of soft-tissue chondrosarcoma owing to its histological resemblance to chondroblastic tissue in the early stages of cartilage development or chondroid tumors such as skeletal chondrosarcoma. However, the chondroid nature has been a subject of controversy, and its line of differentiation remains to be determined. Consequently, the tumor is provisionally classified into a group of tumors of uncertain differentiation in the revised World Health Organization classification of tumors of soft tissue and bone. Moreover, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of neural or neuroendocrine differentiation have been recently reported in a subset of EMC, providing a new insight into their histogenetic nature. Chromosomal rearrangements involving 9q22, such as t(9;22)(q22;q12), and resultant NR4A3 fusion genes are tumor-type specific or pathognomotic for this entity and are assumed to play an important role in the development of EMC. Although the biological mechanisms and functions are largely unknown, the NR4A3-related pathway is considered a potential molecular target for future therapeutic intervention. Because of its protracted but resilient nature, a tenacious and long-term follow up is necessary for any patient. [source]


Anal canal neuroendocrine carcinoma with Pagetoid extension

PATHOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 8 2004
Limei Guo
A case of anal canal neuroendocrine carcinoma with Pagetoid intraepithelial extension is presented. An 80-year-old man was admitted to hospital with a complaint of pain in the anorectal region. Clinical examination revealed a hard and fixed mass in the anal canal, and subsequent biopsy of the lesion showed it to be a carcinoma. The surgically resected specimen showed a solid tumor measuring 3.4 3.2 cm within the area from the surgical anal canal to the anatomical anal canal. Tumor cells proliferated predominantly with compact nests. Many tumor cells had a high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, dispersed chromatin, and conspicuous nucleoli. Additionally, neoplastic cells focally formed a glandular structure. Some polygonal neoplastic cells were small with round nuclei. A rosette-like arrangement was also focally observed. In addition, tumor cells exhibited Pagetoid extension into the overlying epithelium of the histological anal canal. Both the underlying original neoplastic cells and the Pagetoid spreading tumor cells showed cytoplasmic granules positive for Grimelius staining and immunopositivity for carcinoembryonic antigen, synaptophysin and cytokeratins 7 and 20. These findings are highly suggestive of neuroendocrine differentiation of adenocarcinoma cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of anal canal neuroendocrine carcinoma with Pagetoid extension into the overlying epithelium of the histological anal canal. [source]


Expression of chromogranin/secretogranin mRNA in spontaneous mammary tumors in aging Fischer-344 rats

PATHOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 9 2001
Shinobu Umemura
There is a type of human breast cancer showing a neuroendocrine differentiation. Little is known, however, about the cell origin of this cancer or the process by which it expresses neuroendocrine features. Rat mammary tumors, either spontaneous or induced, have not been subjects for the investigation of aspects regarding the neuroendocrine differentiation of mammary epithelial cells. The aim of the present study was to show the potential of rat mammary tumors for expressing chromogranin (Cg)/secretogranin (Sg) mRNA. We examined CgA, SgI and SgII mRNA expression by reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction in rat mammary adenocarcinoma and fibroadenoma which had arisen spontaneously in aging Fischer-344 rats. CgA and SgII mRNA were expressed in both mammary tumors, but SgI mRNA was not detected in either. The results of the present study show that rat mammary tumors can express chromogranin genes. [source]


A Study of Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinomas of the Larynx and an Examination of Non-Neoplastic Larynx Tissue for Neuroendocrine Cells

THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 7 2004
Jin-Haeng Chung MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: To determine the most appropriate terminology for neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) of the larynx, successive clinicopathologic studies are encouraged. The typical location and immunophenotype of laryngeal NEC raise a question of whether any precursor cells exist. Study Design: Six patients with laryngeal NEC were analyzed. Another 20 laryngectomy specimens were examined for the presence of non-neoplastic neuroendocrine cells. Methods: Tumor morphology and patient outcome were determined, and tumor tissue underwent immunohistochemical examination to identify cytokeratin, neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, calcitonin), S-100 protein, and p53 protein. A neuroendocrine marker study was also performed on non-neoplastic regions of another 20 laryngectomy specimens to identify any neuroendocrine cells. Results: Laryngeal NEC, all submucosal, exhibited various morphology with or without histologic evidences of neuroendocrine differentiation. The tumors showed frequent (67%) calcitonin expression, calcitonin secretion in one case, and common (50%) p53 over-expression. Three patients died within 3 years. In the non-neoplastic larynx specimens, Kulchitsky cell-like bipolar neuroendocrine cells were identified in the basal and middle layer of the respiratory epithelium of the ventricle and subglottis but none in the submucosal layer of the supraglottic region. The neuroendocrine cells did not express calcitonin. Conclusions: Moderately differentiated or large-cell NEC is a more favored term than atypical carcinoid until more refined classifications for upper respiratory tract NEC are agreed on. Despite the confirmed presence of neuroendocrine cells in the respiratory epithelium of the larynx, the origin of laryngeal NEC remains unknown. p53 mutation might be one of the major molecular steps in the pathogenesis of laryngeal NEC. [source]


Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is involved in neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer

THE PROSTATE, Issue 11 2006
Chengyu Wu
Abstract BACKGROUND Prostate cancer (PC) contains a minor component of neuroendocrine (NE) cells that may stimulate androgen-independent growth of the tumor. The mechanism of neuroendocrine differentiation remains unknown. METHODS The expression of PTP1B, a protein tyrosine phosphatase, was studied in LNCaP cells induced to show neuroendocrine phenotype by androgen withdrawal. Wild-type PTP1B and its dominant-negative mutant were transfected into LNCaP cells to study their effects on neuroendocrine differentiation. In vivo expression of PTP1B in human prostate cancer was studied by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Androgen withdrawal of LNCaP cells led to increased expression of PTP1B with a corresponding increase in its tyrosine phosphatase activity. Overexpression of PTP1B in LNCaP cells led to neuroendocrine differentiation while expression of its dominant-negative mutant inhibited neuroendocrine differentiation. Immunohistochemical study showed that PTP1B was exclusively expressed in neuroendocrine cells of human prostate cancer tissue. Conclusion Our findings suggest that PTP1B plays an important role in neuroendocrine differentiation, and therefore, may possibly be involved in the progression of prostate cancer. Prostate 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Genistein-induced neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells

THE PROSTATE, Issue 11 2006
Jacek Pinski MD
Abstract BACKGROUND Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are present in normal prostate and their number appears to be increased in advanced prostate cancer (PCA). In this study, we studied the effect of the phytoestrogen, genistein, on NE differentiation of LNCaP cells in vitro. METHODS Neuroendocrine marker expression of LNCaP cells exposed to genistein was measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time PCR methods. Western blot analysis was used to study cell cycle and signaling pathways induced by genistein treatment. RESULTS Six days after continuous genistein treatment, the majority of genistein-surviving cancer cells underwent transdifferentiation into a NE-like phenotype overexpressing the NE markers chromogranin A, synaptophysin, serotonin, and beta-III tubulin. This NE differentiation process was associated with upregulation of the cell cycle modulators p21, p27, and p53, and activation of the MAPK and STAT3 pathways. CONCLUSION Our data indicate that genistein evokes not only apoptosis but also NE transdifferentiation of PCA cells. Prostate 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Clinical evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation in a patient with prostate cancer and bone marrow micrometastases

BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2001
A. Sciarra
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Reg IV is an independent prognostic factor for relapse in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 8 2008
Shinya Ohara
Regenerating islet-derived family, member 4 (REG4, which encodes Reg IV) is a candidate marker for cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated the potential prognostic role of Reg IV immunostaining in clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy. Immunohistochemical staining of Reg IV was performed in 98 clinically localized PCa tumors obtained during curative radical prostatectomy. Intestinal and neuroendocrine differentiation was investigated by MUC2 and chromogranin A immunostaining, respectively. The prognostic significance of immunohistochemical staining for these factors on prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-associated recurrence was assessed by Kaplan,Meier analysis and a Cox regression model. Phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by Reg IV was analyzed by Western blot. In total, 14 (14%) of the 98 PCa cases were positive for Reg IV staining. Reg IV positivity was observed frequently in association with MUC2 (P = 0.0182) and chromogranin A positivity (P = 0.0012). Univariate analysis revealed that Reg IV staining (P = 0.0004), chromogranin A staining (P = 0.0494), Gleason score (P < 0.0001) and preoperative PSA concentration (P = 0.0167) were significant prognostic factors for relapse-free survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that Reg IV staining (P = 0.0312), Gleason score (P = 0.0014) and preoperative PSA concentration (P = 0.0357) were independent predictors of relapse-free survival. In the LNCaP cell line, EGFR phosphorylation was induced by the addition of Reg IV-conditioned medium. These results suggest that Reg IV expression is an independent prognostic indicator of relapse after radical prostatectomy. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 1570,1577) [source]


Epidemiology of non-gastroenteropancreatic (neuro)endocrine tumours

CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
P. Ferolla
Summary The widespread availability and reliability of immunohistochemical techniques in the last three decades have allowed researchers to identify cells with common neuroendocrine markers in virtually every organ. As a whole, these neuroendocrine cells form the so-called diffuse neuroendocrine system. Tumours arising from the cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system are defined as (neuro)endocrine tumours (NETs). NETs have been increasingly described in recent years. However, despite the increase in the number of published papers focused on NET, we still lack adequate epidemiological data, particularly for non-gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NETs. Furthermore, the real incidence of neuroendocrine differentiation for most sites is not completely known and is probably underestimated. As a consequence, data on the clinical features of many NET subgroups are not well known or confusing. For all of these reasons, we have attempted to evaluate the epidemiology of non-GEP NETs, reviewing the limited data available in the literature. [source]