Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Neuroendocrine

  • neuroendocrine carcinoma
  • neuroendocrine cell
  • neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia
  • neuroendocrine control
  • neuroendocrine differentiation
  • neuroendocrine feature
  • neuroendocrine function
  • neuroendocrine liver metastase
  • neuroendocrine marker
  • neuroendocrine mechanism
  • neuroendocrine pathway
  • neuroendocrine regulation
  • neuroendocrine response
  • neuroendocrine system
  • neuroendocrine tumor
  • neuroendocrine tumour

  • Selected Abstracts

    Gene profiling and pathway analysis of neuroendocrine transdifferentiated prostate cancer cells

    THE PROSTATE, Issue 1 2009
    Ryutaro Mori
    Abstract BACKGROUND Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are present in both normal prostate and prostate cancer. In addition, NE differentiation can be induced by various factors, such as IL-6, in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of this differentiation and the role of NE cells in prostate cancer are not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the gene expression and analyzed the pathways in prostate cancer cells exposed to various NE differentiation inducing factors in vitro. METHODS Gene expression signatures between control LNCaP cells and each treatment induced NE cell line were compared using Affymetrix GeneChip with network and pathway analysis. RESULTS All treatments were able to transdifferentiate LNCaP cells into NE phenotype as shown by morphology changes and NE marker measurements. Of the 54,675 oligonucleotide-based probe sets in microarray, 44,975 were mapped into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis database and were filtered according to the t -test P value. At P,<,0.002, the number of genes that were differentially expressed included 302 of the IL-6 treated cells, 201 of genistein, 233 of epinephrine, and 191 of the charcoal stripped serum ones. A pooled data approach also showed 346 differentially expressed genes at the same P value. Gene ontology analysis showed that cancer-related function had the highest significance. CONCLUSIONS Despite some overlap, each NE transdifferentiation inducing treatment was associated with a changed expression of a unique set of genes, and such gene profiling may help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in NE transdifferentiation of prostate cancer cells. Prostate 69: 12,23, 2009. © 2008 Wiley,Liss, Inc. [source]

    Secretagogin is a new neuroendocrine marker in the human prostate

    THE PROSTATE, Issue 5 2007
    Katja Adolf
    Abstract Background Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer (PCa), promoted by NE cell secreted products, appears to be associated with tumor progression, poor prognosis, and hormone-refractory disease. We recently reported secretagogin, a hexa-EF-hand Ca2+ binding protein, as a novel NE marker in carcinoid tumors of the lung and the gastrointestinal tract. The present study analyzes the expression of secretagogin in normal and malign prostate tissue. Methods We analyzed immunoreactivity for secretagogin, chromogranin A (CgA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and synaptophysin (SYN) in consecutive sections from 87 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) benign hyperplastic (n,=,10) and prostate adenocarcinoma (n,=,77) specimens. The intracellular distribution of secretagogin, CgA, and NSE was examined by confocal fluorescent microscopy, and we characterized secretagogin in eight samples by Western blotting. Results Secretagogin is cytoplasmic and nuclear expressed in NE and NE differentiated cells, and to a lesser extent in epithelial cells, in the benign prostate and prostate adenocarcinoma cells. Secretagogin stained 82% (46/56) of benign and 71% (48/68) of prostate adenocarcinomas and co-localized with the NE markers CgA and NSE. The expression of secretagogin is significantly correlated to CgA (P,<,0.001) and NSE (P,<,0.048) in prostate adenocarcinoma and to CgA in normal epithelium (P,<,0.028). Conclusions Secretagogin is a novel NE marker in the prostate with more extended immunoreactivity compared to the NE markers CgA, SYN, and NSE. Secretagogin is widely expressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma as opposed to adenocarcinomas in other organs. Prostate 67: 472,484, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Genistein-induced neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells

    THE PROSTATE, Issue 11 2006
    Jacek Pinski MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are present in normal prostate and their number appears to be increased in advanced prostate cancer (PCA). In this study, we studied the effect of the phytoestrogen, genistein, on NE differentiation of LNCaP cells in vitro. METHODS Neuroendocrine marker expression of LNCaP cells exposed to genistein was measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time PCR methods. Western blot analysis was used to study cell cycle and signaling pathways induced by genistein treatment. RESULTS Six days after continuous genistein treatment, the majority of genistein-surviving cancer cells underwent transdifferentiation into a NE-like phenotype overexpressing the NE markers chromogranin A, synaptophysin, serotonin, and beta-III tubulin. This NE differentiation process was associated with upregulation of the cell cycle modulators p21, p27, and p53, and activation of the MAPK and STAT3 pathways. CONCLUSION Our data indicate that genistein evokes not only apoptosis but also NE transdifferentiation of PCA cells. Prostate © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Neuroendocrine cell differentiation in the CWR22 human prostate cancer xenograft: Association with tumor cell proliferation prior to recurrence

    THE PROSTATE, Issue 2 2004
    Wendy J. Huss
    Abstract BACKGROUND Neuroendocrine (NE) cell differentiation is proposed to facilitate prostate cancer (CaP) recurrence following androgen deprivation through secretion by NE cells of growth factors and neuropeptides that support survival and proliferation of CaP cells and vasculature. METHODS The effect of androgen deprivation on NE differentiation and tumor cell proliferation in the CWR22 model of human CaP was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of the NE cell marker synaptophysin and the cell proliferation marker Ki67. RESULTS A significant increase in the number of NE cells was observed in CWR22 tumors between 28 and 66 days after castration compared to intact mice, that preceded the increase in tumor cell proliferation that began 70 days after androgen deprivation heralding recurrence. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of tumor-associated NE cells and proliferating CaP cells in tumors from mice after 28,34 days of androgen withdrawal. CONCLUSION In the CWR22 model, androgen deprivation induces an increase in tumor-associated NE cells prior to increased tumor cell proliferation, with NE cells possibly promoting tumor survival and recurrent disease. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Neuroendocrine differentiated small cell carcinoma presenting as recurrent prostate cancer after androgen deprivation therapy

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 9 2001
    Y. Miyoshi
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Orexin receptor subtype activation and locomotor behaviour in the rat

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    W. K. Samson
    Abstract Aim:, Orexin-producing neurones, located primarily in the perifornical region of the lateral hypothalamus, project to a wide spectrum of brain sites where they influence numerous behaviours as well as modulating the neuroendocrine and autonomic responses to stress. While some of the actions of orexin appear to be mediated via the type 1 receptor, some are not, including its action on the release of one stress hormone, prolactin. We describe here the ability of orexin to increase locomotor behaviours and identify the importance of both receptor subtypes in these actions. Methods:, Rats were tested for their behavioural responses to the central activation of both the type 1 (OX1R) and type 2 (OX2R) receptor (ICV orexin A), compared to OX2R activation using a relatively selective OX2R agonist in the absence or presence of an orexin receptor antagonist that possesses highest affinity for OX1R. Results:, Increases in locomotor activity were observed, effects which were expressed by not only orexin A, which binds to both the OX1R and the OX2R receptors, but also by the relatively selective OX2R agonist [(Ala11, Leu15)-orexin B]. Furthermore, the OX1R selective antagonist only partially blocked the action of orexin A on most locomotor behaviours and did not block the actions of [(Ala11, Leu15)-orexin B]. Conclusion:, We conclude that orexin A exerts its effects on locomotor behaviour via both the OX1R and OX2R and that agonism or antagonism of only one of these receptors for therapeutic purposes (i.e. sleep disorders) would not provide selectivity in terms of associated behavioural side effects. [source]

    Orexins and the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    M. Nurmio
    Abstract Orexins (OX), OX-A and OX-B, were initially identified as hypothalamic neuropeptides primarily involved in the control of food intake and states of arousal. Thereafter, orexins have been substantiated as putative pleiotropic regulators of a wide diversity of biological systems, including different neuroendocrine axes. Among the latter, compelling experimental evidence has recently been documented that orexins, mainly OX-A, may act at different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis to modulate reproductive function. These actions are likely to include regulatory effects on the hypothalamic centres governing the HPG axis, as well as direct actions at the gonadal level. We review herein the experimental evidence, gathered in recent years, supporting a reproductive ,facet' of orexins, with special emphasis on our current knowledge of their patterns of expression and potential functional roles in the testis. Overall, the available data strongly suggest that, by acting at different levels of the HPG axis, orexins may operate as putative neuroendocrine and autocrine/paracrine regulators of gonadal function. [source]

    Ontogeny of energy homeostatic pathways via neuroendocrine signaling in Atlantic salmon

    Anne-Grethe Gamst Moen
    Abstract Leptin and ghrelin are known to regulate energy homeostasis via hypothalamic neuropeptide signaling in mammals. Recent studies have discovered that these hormones exist in teleosts, however, very little is known concerning their role during teleost ontogeny. Here, we have examined the steady state levels of leptins, ghrelins, their target neuropetides and several growth factors during Atlantic salmon development. Initial experiments revealed differential expression of leptin genes and ghrelin isoforms during embryogenesis. In larvae, equal upregulation of ghrl1 and ghrl2 was observed just prior to exogenous feeding while a surge of lepa1 occurred one week after first-feeding. Subsequent dissection of the embryos and larvae showed that lepa1, cart, pomca1, and agrp are supplied as maternal transcripts. The earliest zygotic expression was observed for lepa1 and cart at 320 day degrees. By 400 day degrees, this expression was localized to the head and coincided with upregulation of ghrl2 and npy. Over the hatching period growth factor signaling predominated. The ghrelin surge prior to first-feeding was exclusively localized in the internal organs and coincided with upregulation of npy and agrp in the head and agrp in the trunk. One week after exogenous feeding was established major peaks were detected in the head for lepa1 and pomca1 with increasing levels of cart, while lepa1 was also significantly expressed in the trunk. By integrating theses data into an ontogenetic model, we suggest that the mediation of Atlantic salmon energy homeostatic pathways via endocrine and neuropeptide signaling retains putative features of the mammalian system. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 70: 649,658, 2010 [source]

    Social withdrawal behaviors in nonhuman primates and changes in neuroendocrine and monoamine concentrations during a separation paradigm,

    Kristine Erickson
    Abstract This study investigated relationships between withdrawal behaviors in rhesus macaques and changes in monoamine metabolite and endocrine concentrations during repeated psychosocial stress. Rhesus monkeys (N,=,71) experienced maternal separation in which four separations took place during four consecutive weeks. Behavioral observations were made, as well as plasma concentrations of cortisol and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of the serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine metabolites were obtained. Animals were assigned to high, moderate, and low withdrawal groups, defined using baseline durations of withdrawal behaviors. Highly withdrawn animals showed less reduction than nonwithdrawn animals in serotonin metabolite concentrations over repeated separations. Highly withdrawn macaques also failed to significantly reduce cortisol concentrations across separation weeks. More adaptation in central serotonin functioning and cortisol concentrations was seen in nonwithdrawn primates than in highly withdrawn primates; these findings have implications for increased risk of developing anxiety disorders in highly inhibited children. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 46:331,339, 2005. [source]

    Evidence for a vicious cycle of exercise and hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    A. C. Ertl
    Abstract Exercise is a cornerstone of diabetes management as it aids in glycemic control, weight management, reducing blood pressure, and improving the quality of life of patients. Unfortunately, owing to the complexity and difficulties of regulating exogenous insulin in a physiologic manner during exercise, physical activity often results in hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM). When glucose levels fall below threshold glycemic levels, neuroendocrine, autonomic nervous system (ANS), and metabolic glucose counterregulatory mechanisms are activated. These hypoglycemic counterregulatory mechanisms in type 1 DM can be blunted irreversibly by disease duration or by acute episodes of prior stress. These reduced (or absent) counterregulatory responses result in a threefold increase in severe hypoglycemia when intensive glycemic control is implemented in type 1 DM 1. Much recent work has been focused on determining the in vivo mechanisms responsible for causing the increased incidence of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 DM. Studies from several laboratories have demonstrated the role played by episodes of antecedent hypoglycemia in producing blunted glucose counterregulatory responses during subsequent exposures of hypoglycemia. Until recently, the mechanisms responsible for exercise related hypoglycemia in type 1 DM have been attributed to relative or absolute increases of insulin levels or incomplete glycogen repletion after physical activity. Owing to the qualitative similarity of neuroendocrine, ANS, and metabolic responses to hypoglycemia and exercise, we have hypothesized that neuroendocrine and ANS counterregulatory dysfunction may also play an important role in the pathogenesis of exercise-related hypoglycemia in type 1 DM. Vicious cycles can be created in type 1 DM, where an episode of hypoglycemia or exercise can feed forward to downregulate neuroendocrine and ANS responses to a subsequent episode of either stress, thereby creating further hypoglycemia (Figure 1). This article will review the recent work that has studied the contribution of counterregulatory dysfunction to exercise-induced hypoglycemia in type 1 DM. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1. Reciprocal vicious cycles may be created in type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM), whereby an episode of hypoglycemia or exercise can feed forward to downregulate neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system responses to a subsequent episode of either stress, thereby creating further hypoglycemia [source]

    Anabolic,androgenic steroid dependence: an emerging disorder

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2009
    Gen Kanayama
    ABSTRACT Aims Anabolic,androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely used illicitly to gain muscle and lose body fat. Here we review the accumulating human and animal evidence showing that AAS may cause a distinct dependence syndrome, often associated with adverse psychiatric and medical effects. Method We present an illustrative case of AAS dependence, followed by a summary of the human and animal literature on this topic, based on publications known to us or obtained by searching the PubMed database. Results About 30% of AAS users appear to develop a dependence syndrome, characterized by chronic AAS use despite adverse effects on physical, psychosocial or occupational functioning. AAS dependence shares many features with classical drug dependence. For example, hamsters will self-administer AAS, even to the point of death, and both humans and animals exhibit a well-documented AAS withdrawal syndrome, mediated by neuroendocrine and cortical neurotransmitter systems. AAS dependence may particularly involve opioidergic mechanisms. However, AAS differ from classical drugs in that they produce little immediate reward of acute intoxication, but instead a delayed effect of muscle gains. Thus standard diagnostic criteria for substance dependence, usually crafted for acutely intoxicating drugs, must be adapted slightly for cumulatively acting drugs such as AAS. Conclusions AAS dependence is a valid diagnostic entity, and probably a growing public health problem. AAS dependence may share brain mechanisms with other forms of substance dependence, especially opioid dependence. Future studies are needed to characterize AAS dependence more clearly, identify risk factors for this syndrome and develop treatment strategies. [source]

    Neurotoxicity of methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDMA; ecstasy) in humans: how strong is the evidence for persistent brain damage?

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2006
    E. Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
    ABSTRACT Background The popular dance drug ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: MDMA and some analogues) causes selective and persistent neurotoxic damage of central serotonergic neurones in laboratory animals. Serotonin plays a role in numerous functional systems in the central nervous system (CNS). Consequently, various abnormalities including psychiatric, vegetative, neuroendocrine and cognitive disorders could be expected in humans following MDMA-induced neurotoxic brain damage. Aims In recent years, the question of ecstasy-induced neurotoxicity and possible functional sequelae has been addressed in several studies with drug users. The aim of this paper was to review this literature and weigh the strength of the evidence for persistent brain damage in ecstasy users. Methods We used Medline to view all available publications on ,ecstasy' or ,MDMA'. All available studies dealing with ecstasy users entered this analysis. Findings and conclusions Despite large methodological problems the bulk of evidence suggests residual alterations of serotonergic transmission in MDMA users, although at least partial restitution may occur after long-term abstinence. However, functional sequelae may persist even after longer periods of abstinence. To date, the most consistent findings associate subtle cognitive, particularly memory, impairments with heavy ecstasy use. However, the evidence cannot be considered definite and the issues of possible pre-existing traits or the effects of polydrug use are not resolved. Recommendations Questions about the neurotoxic effects of ecstasy on the brain remain highly topical in light of its popularity among young people. More longitudinal and prospective studies are clearly needed in order to obtain a better understanding of the possible long-term sequelae of ecstasy use in humans. [source]

    Prokineticin 2 depolarizes paraventricular nucleus magnocellular and parvocellular neurons

    Erik A. Yuill
    Abstract Blind whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to examine the effects of prokineticin 2 (PK2) on the excitability of magnocellular (MNC), parvocellular preautonomic (PA), and parvocellular neuroendocrine (NE) neurons within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the rat. The majority of MNC neurons (76%) depolarized in response to 10 nm PK2, effects that were eliminated in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX). PK2 also caused an increase in excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) frequency, a finding that was confirmed by voltage clamp recordings demonstrating increases in excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) frequency. The depolarizing effects of PK2 on MNC neurons were also abolished by kynurenic acid (KA), supporting the conclusion that the effects of PK2 are mediated by the activation of glutamate interneurons within the hypothalamic slice. PA (68%) and NE (67%) parvocellular neurons also depolarized in response to 10 nm PK2. However, in contrast to MNC neurons, these effects were maintained in TTX, indicating that PK2 directly affects PA and NE neurons. PK2-induced depolarizations observed in PA and NE neurons were found to be concentration-related and receptor mediated, as experiments performed in the presence of A1MPK1 (a PK2 receptor antagonist) abolished the effects of PK2 on these subpopulations of neurons. The depolarizing effects of PK2 on PA and NE neurons were also shown to be abolished by PD 98059 (a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor) suggesting that PK2 depolarizes PVN parvocellular neurons through a MAPK signalling mechanism. In combination, these studies have identified separate cellular mechanisms through which PK2 influences the excitability of different subpopulations of PVN neurons. [source]

    New genomic avenues in behavioural neuroendocrinology ,

    S. L. Lightman
    Abstract Neuroendocrine systems play a key role not only in the maintenance of whole-body homeostasis but also as the link between behavioural, endocrine and autonomic responses to environmental stimuli. It is becoming increasingly clear that neuroendocrine regulatory mechanisms are under the control of a combination of factors including genetic background, environment and early-life programming. Patterns of gene expression are increasingly being used to provide information on the genotypes associated with particular behaviours, and modulation of specific parts of the genome allow investigation of the contribution of particular genes. The sequencing of the genome provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the genetic contribution to neuroendocrine and behavioural processes, and to investigate the interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Although drugs can be used to activate or inhibit neurotransmitters and receptors, they lack specificity. New technologies now permit the activation or inactivation of both neurotransmitters and receptors in specific areas of the brain for defined periods, including crucially important developmental windows when activation appears to have long-term consequences. The future challenges are to define the critical mechanisms through which the genetic constitution of an individual human or experimental animal interacts with environmental cues to result in altered physiological or even pathological behaviour and endocrine function. [source]

    Expression pattern of somatostatin receptor subtypes 1,5 in human skin: an immunohistochemical study of healthy subjects and patients with psoriasis or atopic dermatitis

    Lena Hagströmer
    Abstract:, In psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, the inflammatory events have neurogenic components and the neuropeptides modify the functions of immuno-active cells in the skin. Somatostatin is a neuropeptide with several neuroendocrine and immunomodulating properties and mediates its actions by five distinct subtypes of G-protein-coupled receptors (SSTR1-5). This study describes the distribution of SSTR1,5, analysed with immunohistochemistry, in psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and controls. Normal human skin and lesional skin from patients with psoriasis or atopic dermatitis showed many similarities, but also some differences, as regards SSTR expression. SSTR1,3 were strongly expressed in the epidermis of healthy skin, and in the skin of patients with psoriasis or atopic dermatitis. It is noteworthy that SSTR4 and 5 were strongly expressed in the epidermis of psoriasis patients, but weakly expressed in the epidermis of those with atopic dermatitis and normal skin. The intensity of the staining also varied considerably between the different layers of the epidermis, especially in psoriasis patients. In all cases, the dendritic cells, found mostly in the papillary and upper reticular dermis, showed a strong expression of SSTR1,4, but a weak expression of SSTR5. SSTR1,5 were strongly expressed in the sweat glands in all skin biopsies. Hair follicles and sebaceous glands expressed all five subtypes. Striated muscle fibres showed an intense positive expression of SSTR1,4, but a weak or negative expression of SSTR5. The wide distribution and expression pattern of all five SSTRs in human skin suggest that somatostatin is involved in the interactions between the nervous system and the skin. [source]

    How best to fight that nasty itch , from new insights into the neuroimmunological, neuroendocrine, and neurophysiological bases of pruritus to novel therapeutic approaches

    T. Biró
    While the enormous clinical and psychosocial importance of pruritus in many areas of medicine and the detrimental effects of chronic ,itch' on the quality of life of an affected individual are widely appreciated, the complexity of this sensation is still often grossly underestimated. The current Controversies feature highlights this complexity by portraying pruritus as a truly interdisciplinary problem at the crossroads of neurophysiology, neuroimmunology, neuropharmacology, protease research, internal medicine, and dermatology, which is combated most successfully if one keeps the multilayered nature of ,itch' in mind and adopts a holistic treatment approach , beyond the customary, frequently frustrane monotherapy with histamine receptor antagonists. In view of the often unsatisfactory, unidimensional, and altogether rather crude standard instruments for pruritus management that we still tend to use in clinical practice today, an interdisciplinary team of pruritus experts here critically examines recent progress in pruritus research that future itch management must take into consideration. Focusing on new insights into the neuroimmunological, neuroendocrine, and neurophysiological bases of pruritus, and discussing available neuropharmacological tools, specific research avenues are highlighted, whose pursuit promises to lead to novel, and hopefully more effective, forms of pruritus management. [source]

    Impact of mind/body medicine on quality of life and on neuroendocrine and cellular immune functions in patients with ulcerative colitis

    J Langhorst

    Drug-eluting bead therapy in primary and metastatic disease of the liver

    HPB, Issue 7 2009
    Stewart Carter
    Abstract Background:, Drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) is a novel therapy for the treatment of hypervascuarized tumours. Through the intra-arterial delivery of microspheres, DEB-TACE allows for embolization as well as local release of chemotherapy in the treatment of hepatic malignancy, providing an alternative therapeutic option in unresectable tumours. Its role as an adjunct to surgical resection or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is less clear. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent studies investigating DEB-TACE in order to better define safety, efficacy and outcomes associated with its use. Methods:, A systematic review of all published articles and trials identified nine clinical trials and 23 abstracts. These were reviewed for tumour histology, stage of treatment, delivery technique, outcome at follow-up, complications and mortality rates. Results:, Publications involved treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastatic colorectal carcinoma (MCRC), metastatic neuroendocrine (MNE) disease and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) or European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria, studies treating HCC reported complete response (CR) rates of 5% (5/101) at 1 month, 9% (8/91) at 4 months, 14% (19/138) at 6 months and 25% (2/8) at 10 months. Partial response (PR) was reported as 58% (76/131) at 1 month, 50% (67/119) at 4 months, 57% (62/108) at 6,7 months and 63% (5/8) at 10 months. Studies involving MCRC, CCA and MNE disease were less valuable in terms of response rate because there is a lack of comparative data. The most common procedure-associated complications included fever (46,72%), nausea and vomiting (42,47%), abdominal pain (44,80%) and liver abscess (2,3%). Rather than reporting individual symptoms, two studies reported rates of post-embolic syndrome (PES), consisting of fever, abdominal pain, and nausea and vomiting, at 82% (75/91). Six of eight studies reported length of hospital stay, which averaged 2.3 days per procedure. Mortality was reported as occurring in 10 of 456 (2%) procedures, or 10 of 214 (5%) patients. Conclusions:, Drug-eluting bead TACE is becoming more widely utilized in primary and liver-dominant metastatic disease of the liver. Outcomes of success must be expanded beyond response rates because these are not a reliable surrogate for progression-free survival or overall survival. Ongoing clinical trials will further clarify the optimal timing and strategy of this technology. [source]

    A Pain Severity,Hypothalamic,Pituitary,Adrenocortical Axis Interaction: The Effects on Pain Pathways,

    John P. Garofalo
    Recent efforts have identified psychosocial and biological factors influencing the pathogenesis of chronic pain. The present study attempted to identify whether these two variables interact and, in turn, represent an underlying mechanism in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Salivary cortisol samples were collected upon waking up and 20 minutes later daily for 2 weeks from acute pain patients. Analyses revealed a direct relationship between pain severity and hypothalamic,pituitary,adrenocortical activity for temporomandibular disorder, and a negative relationship between these variables for low back pain populations. These results highlight the possible interaction between neuroendocrine and psychological factors to increase the risk for chronic pain. [source]

    Epidermotropic lesions: a review

    Ossama Abbas
    Epidermotropism describes the spread of cells of lymphocytic, epithelial melanocytic, neuroendocrine, histiocytic or muscular origin into the epidermis from an underlying dermal or subcutaneous pathology, that may be primary cutaneous or metastatic. In this review, we aim to discuss the differential diagnosis of epidermotropic lesions and highlight the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics that can help in their differentiation. [source]

    Merkel cell (primary neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the skin with nodal metastasis showing rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation

    María-Teresa Fernández-Figueras
    Background:, We describe a unique case of Merkel cell (primary neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the skin with a lymph node metastasis showing rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. Skeletal muscle differentiation has occasionally been described in primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and considered a form of dual differentiation rather than a collision tumor. In the present case, capacity for divergent differentiation appeared late in the course of the tumor, which suggests a clonal origin for both components of the neoplasm. Conclusions:, The coexistence of neural and rhabdomyoblastic types of differentiation, best epitomized by the Triton tumor, has been construed as the product of dual differentiation of cells originated from neural crest-derived ectomesenchyme. Since Merkel cells seem to originate from a pluripotential primitive keratinocyte and not from the neural crest, rhabdomyoblastic differentiation in a metastasis of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin probably reflects the close proximity between the programs of neural and skeletal muscle differentiation, which would have been sequentially activated in the case we are reporting. [source]

    Review: Energy regulation and neuroendocrine,immune control in chronic inflammatory diseases

    R. H. Straub
    Abstract., Straub RH, Cutolo M, Buttgereit F, Pongratz G (University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; University of Genova, Genova, Italy; and Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany). Energy regulation and neuroendocrine,immune control in chronic inflammatory diseases (Review). J Intern Med 2010; 267:543,560. Energy regulation (EnR) is most important for homoeostatic regulation of physiological processes. Neuroendocrine pathways are involved in EnR. We can separate factors that provide energy-rich fuels to stores [parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, oestrogens, androgens and osteocalcin] and those that provide energy-rich substrates to consumers [sympathetic nervous system (SNS), hypothalamic,pituitary,adrenal axis, thyroid hormones, glucagon and growth hormone]. In chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs), balanced energy-rich fuel allocation to stores and consumers, normally aligned with circadian rhythms, is largely disturbed due to the vast fuel consumption of an activated immune system (up to 2000 kJ day,1). Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor or interleukins 1, and 6, circulating activated immune cells and sensory nerve fibres signal immune activation to the rest of the body. This signal is an appeal for energy-rich fuels as regulators are switched on to supply energy-rich fuels (,energy appeal reaction'). During evolution, adequate EnR evolved to cope with nonlife-threatening diseases, not with CIDs (huge negative selection pressure and reduced reproduction). Thus, EnR is inadequate in CIDs leading to many abnormalities, including sickness behaviour, anorexia, hypovitaminosis D, cachexia, cachectic obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, dyslipidaemia, fat deposits near inflamed tissue, hypoandrogenaemia, mild hypercortisolaemia, activation of the SNS (hypertension), CID-related anaemia and osteopenia. Many of these conditions can contribute to the metabolic syndrome. These signs and symptoms become comprehensible in the context of an exaggerated call for energy-rich fuels by the immune system. We propose that the presented pathophysiological framework may lead to new therapeutical approaches and to a better understanding of CID sequence. [source]

    Opioids and opiates: analgesia with cardiovascular, haemodynamic and immune implications in critical illness

    P. E. MOLINA
    Abstract. Traumatic injury, surgical interventions and sepsis are amongst some of the clinical conditions that result in marked activation of neuroendocrine and opiate responses aimed at restoring haemodynamic and metabolic homeostasis. The central activation of the neuroendocrine and opiate systems, known collectively as the stress response, is elicited by diverse physical stressor conditions, including ischaemia, glucopenia and inflammation. The role of the hypothalamic,pituitary,adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system in counterregulation of haemodynamic and metabolic alterations has been studied extensively. However, that of the endogenous opiates/opioid system is still unclear. In addition to activation of the opiate receptor through the endogenous release of opioids, pharmacotherapy with opiate receptor agonists is frequently used for sedation and analgesia of injured, septic and critically ill patients. How this affects the haemodynamic, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune responses is poorly understood. The variety of opiate receptor types, their specificity and ubiquitous location both in the central nervous system and in the periphery adds additional complicating factors to the clear understanding of their contribution to the stress response to the various physical perturbations. This review aims at discussing scientific evidence gathered from preclinical studies on the role of endogenous opioids as well as those administered as pharmacological agents on the host cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, metabolic and immune response mechanisms critical for survival from injury in perspective with clinical observations that provide parallel assessment of relevant outcome measures. When possible, the clinical relevance and corresponding scenarios where this evidence can be integrated into our understanding of the clinical implications of opiate effects will be examined. Overall, the scientific basis to enhance clinical judgment and expectations when using opioid sedation and analgesia in the management of the injured, septic or postsurgical patient will be discussed. [source]

    Localization of synaptic proteins involved in neurosecretion in different membrane microdomains

    Elena Taverna
    Abstract A number of proteins and signalling molecules modulate voltage-gated calcium channel activity and neurosecretion. As recent findings have indicated the presence of Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) channels and soluble N -ethyl-maleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) in the cholesterol-enriched microdomains of neuroendocrine and neuronal cells, we investigated whether molecules known to modulate neurosecretion, such as the heterotrimeric G proteins and neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1), are also localized in these microdomains. After immuno-isolation, flotation gradients from Triton X-100-treated synaptosomal membranes revealed the presence of different detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) containing proteins of the exocytic machinery (Cav2.1 channels and SNAREs) or NCS-1; both DRM subtypes contained aliquots of heterotrimeric G protein subunits and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. In line with the biochemical data, confocal imaging of immunolabelled membrane sheets revealed the localization of SNARE proteins and NCS-1 in different dot-like structures. This distribution was largely impaired by treatment with methyl-,-cyclodextrin, thus suggesting the localization of all three proteins in cholesterol-dependent domains. Finally, bradykinin (which is known to activate the NCS-1 pathway) caused a significant increase in NCS-1 in the DRMs. These findings suggest that different membrane microdomains are involved in the spatial organization of the complex molecular network that converges on calcium channels and the secretory machinery. [source]

    Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors: Gatekeepers of Homeostasis

    J. B. Kuzmiski
    The capacity to appropriately respond to physiological challenges or perturbations in homeostasis is a requisite for survival. It is becoming increasingly clear that long-lasting alterations in synaptic efficacy are a fundamental mechanism for modifying neuroendocrine and autonomic output. We review recent advances in our understanding of plasticity at glutamate synapses onto magnocellular neurones (MNCs) in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, with a focus on the contributions of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) to long-lasting modifications in synaptic efficacy. Special attention is paid to the role of presynaptic mGluRs as gatekeepers for metaplasticity and regulation of body fluid homeostasis. The work highlighted here provides insight into the synaptic mechanisms that couple MNC activity to physiological states. [source]

    Theoretical Consequences of Fluctuating Versus Constant Liganding of Oestrogen Receptor-, in Neurones

    D. W. Pfaff
    A theory is put forward that emphasises differences in neuronal responses to fluctuations in steroid hormone levels compared to constant hormone levels. We propose that neuronal functions that regulate gonadotrophin release from the anterior pituitary tend to be more sensitive to rapid increases in the levels of oestrogens than they are to constant oestrogen levels. By contrast, neurones that control certain behavioral functions are affected just as well by constant oestrogen levels as by positively accelerating levels of oestrogen. In addition to providing examples of data from recent experiments that examine actions of the long-term effects of oestrogen on mouse behaviour, we illustrate the behavioural effects of microinjections of adeno-associated viral vectors of small interfering RNA directed against the mRNA for oestrogen receptor-, (ER,). This manipulation provides for a long-term loss of ER, function in a neuranatomically specific manner. The theoretical distinction between temporal features of oestrogen sensitivity of neuroendocrine versus behavioural function is not absolute, but is intended to stimulate new experimentation that examines temporal features of oestrogen administration. [source]

    Kisspeptin: A Novel Regulator of Reproductive Function

    W. S. Dhillo
    Young Neuroendocrinologists Prize Reviews Michael Harbuz Young Investigator Prize Lecture The UK and international neuroendocrine community was deeply shocked and saddened the unbelievably premature death of Michael Harbuz in Bristol in 2006. Mick was a superb friend and colleague, and played a huge part in the development and activities of the British Neuroendocrine Group/British Society for Neuroendocrinology (BSN), serving as both Membership Secretary and Treasurer between 1999 and 2004. Mick was a leader in the field of neuroendocrine,immune interactions, and brought a great deal of charisma, humour and ability to meetings and conferences. He was also a passionate and committed supporter of the progress of young researchers and of their participation in neuroendocrine events. He recognised that today's postgraduate students and postdoctoral research fellows are tomorrow's neuroendocrine researchers, be it in academia, the health services or industry. To recognise Mick's great commitment to and enthusiasm for postgraduate education both in the University of Bristol and in the BSN, we decided to honour and remember him by instituting the ,Michael Harbuz Young Investigator Prize Lecture' to be delivered annually. Dr Waljit Dhillo from Imperial College London was the inaugural recipient of this award, and presented his lecture at the Annual Meeting of the BSN in Nottingham in September 2007, upon which this review is based. Recent evidence demonstrates that the neuropeptide kisspeptin and its receptor, GPR54, have a fundamental role in initiating the onset of puberty and are important in regulating reproductive function. This review discusses the evidence available from animals and humans demonstrating that kisspeptin potently stimulates the release of gonadotrophins by stimulating the release of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and that a lack of kisspeptin or GPR54 results in reproductive failure. [source]

    Nesfatin-1 Influences the Excitability of Paraventricular Nucleus Neurones

    C. J. Price
    Nesfatin-1 is a newly-discovered satiety peptide found in several nuclei of the hypothalamus, including the paraventricular nucleus. To begin to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying these satiety-inducing actions, we examined the effects of nesfatin-1 on the excitability of neurones in the paraventricular nucleus. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings from rat paraventricular nucleus neurones showed nesfatin-1 to have either hyperpolarising or depolarising effects on the majority of neurones tested. Both types of response were observed in neurones irrespective of classification based on electrophysiological fingerprint (magnocellular, neuroendocrine or pre-autonomic) or molecular phenotype (vasopressin, oxytocin, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone or vesicular glutamate transporter), determined using single cell reverse transcription-poylmerase chain reaction. Consequently, we provide the first evidence that this peptide, which is produced in the paraventricular nucleus, has effects on the membrane potential of a large proportion of different subpopulations of neurones located in this nucleus, and therefore identify nesfatin-1 as a potentially important regulator of paraventricular nucleus output. [source]

    Affective and Adrenocorticotrophic Responses to Photoperiod in Wistar Rats

    B. J. Prendergast
    The present study tested the hypothesis that seasonal intervals of exposure to modest changes in photoperiod, typical of those experienced by humans living in temperate latitudes (10,14 h light/day), engage changes in emotional behaviour of Wistar rats, a commonly-used animal model for investigations of affective physiology. Short day lengths (, 12 h light/day) induced behavioural despair in a forced-swim test, exploratory anxiety in an open field arena, and anhedonia in a two-bottle sucrose preference task, relative to longer day lengths. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone was lower in short-day relative to long-day rats, but testosterone and corticosterone concentrations were comparable across treatments. In common with animals that engage reproductive responses to day length, reproductively nonresponsive mammals such as Wistar rats exhibit changes in affective state following small changes in day length. Wistar rats may provide an animal model for the study of seasonal mood regulation because the neuroendocrine, depressive, anxious and anhedonic responses of Wistar rats to short days bear similarities to those observed in some human populations. Standard laboratory husbandry practices (exposure to a 12 : 12 h light/dark cycle) may inadvertently deliver a chronic background depressive and anxiogenic stimulus. [source]

    Regulation of Expression of Mammalian Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Genes

    J. P. Hapgood
    Abstract Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), acting via its cognate GnRH receptor (GnRHR), is the primary regulator of mammalian reproductive function, and hence GnRH analogues are extensively used in the treatment of hormone-dependent diseases, as well as for assisted reproductive techniques. In addition to its established endocrine role in gonadotrophin regulation in the pituitary, evidence is rapidly accumulating to support the expression and functional roles for two forms of GnRHR (GnRHR I and GnRHR II) in multiple and diverse extra-pituitary mammalian tissues and cells. These findings, together with findings indicating that mutations of the GnRHR are linked to the disease hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and that GnRHRs play a direct role in neuronal migration and reproductive cancers, have presented new therapeutic targets and intensified research into the structure, function and mechanisms of regulation of expression of GnRHR genes. The present review focuses on the current knowledge on tissue-specific and hormonal regulation of transcription of mammalian GnRH receptor genes. Emerging insights, such as the discovery of diverse regulatory mechanisms in pituitary and extra-pituitary cell types, nonclassical mechanisms of steroid regulation, the use of composite elements for cell-specific expression, the increasing profile of hormones involved in regulation, the complexity of kinase pathways that target the GnRHR I gene, as well as species-differences, are highlighted. Although further research is necessary to understand the mechanisms of regulation of expression of GnRHR I and GnRHR II genes, the GnRHR is emerging as a potential target gene for facilitating cross-talk between neuroendocrine, immune and stress-response systems in multiple tissues via autocrine, paracrine and endocrine signalling. [source]