Neuroectodermal Stem Cells (neuroectodermal + stem_cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Membranous expression of glucose transporter-1 protein (GLUT-1) in embryonal neoplasms of the central nervous system

M. Loda
The human erythrocyte GLUT-1 is a transmembrane protein which facilitates transport of glucose in the cell in an energy-independent fashion. Neuroectodermal stem cells show strong membrane immunoreactivitry with this marker at early developmental stages in rodents. Membranous expression by undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells gradually decreases while GLUT-1 becomes confined to the endothelial cells, when these acquire blood,brain barrier function. We thus sought to determine whether GLUT-1 expression was limited to embryonal neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) which are presumably derived from developmentally arrested neuroectodermal stem cells. Archival material of 40 primary CNS neoplasms were examined for immunoreactivity with anti-GLUT-1. This included both non-embryonal neoplasms (18 astrocytic tumours, one ependymoma and three oligodendroglioma) and embryonal neoplasms (12 cerebellar medulloblastomas, four supratentorial PNETs and two atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RhT)). In addition, cell lines and nude mice xenografts derived from both undifferentiated and differentiated tumours were assessed for GLUT-1 immunoreactivity by both immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. All embryonal tumours, MBs and PNET xenografts consistently showed GLUT-1 membrane staining. Non-embryonal neoplasms were negative except for vascular staining. Membrane protein fraction of embryonal tumours cell lines immunoreacted by immunoblot with GLUT-1, whereas the glioblastoma cell line was negative. Expression of GLUT-1 supports the stem cell nature of the cells of origin of MBs, supratentorial PNET and AT/RhTs. As a result, GLUT-1 is a useful marker to define the embryonal nature of CNS neoplasms. [source]

Nestin expression as a new marker in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors

Satoko Shimada
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) can be difficult to diagnose because it lacks specific immunohistochemical markers. S-100, which is a useful marker of MPNST, has limited diagnostic utility. Recent studies suggest that nestin, which is an intermediate filament protein, is expressed in neuroectodermal stem cells. The diagnostic utility of immunostains for nestin and three other neural markers (S-100, CD56 and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5)) were evaluated in 35 cases of MPNST and in other spindle cell tumors. All MPNST cases were strongly positive for nestin and had cytoplasmic staining. Stains for S-100, CD56, and PGP 9.5 were positive in fewer cases (17/35, 11/35, and 29/35 cases, respectively), and had less extensive staining. Nestin was negative in 10/10 leiomyomas, and weak nestin expression was seen in 10/10 schwannomas, 3/10 neurofibromas, 2/8 synovial sarcomas, 2/10 liposarcomas, 4/7 carcinosarcomas and 3/7 malignant fibrous histiocytomas. In contrast, strong nestin positivity was seen in 10/10 rhabdomyosarcomas, 15/19 leiomyosarcomas, and 9/9 desmoplastic melanomas. Nestin is more sensitive for MPNST than other neural markers and immunostains for nestin in combination with other markers could be useful in the diagnosis of MPNST. [source]

Proteome analysis of chick embryonic cerebrospinal fluid

Carolina Parada
Abstract During early stages of embryo development, the brain cavity is filled with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF), a complex fluid containing different protein fractions that contributes to the regulation of the survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of the neuroectodermal stem cells. Using 2-DE, protein sequencing and database searches, we identified and analyzed the proteome of the E-CSF from chick embryos (Gallus gallus). We identified 26 different gene products, including proteins related to the extracellular matrix, proteins associated with the regulation of osmotic pressure and metal transport, proteins related to cell survival, MAP kinase activators, proteins involved in the transport of retinol and vitamin D, antioxidant and antimicrobial proteins, intracellular proteins and some unknown proteins. Most of these gene products are involved in the regulation of developmental processes during embryogenesis in systems other than E-CSF. Interestingly, 14 of them are also present in adult human CSF proteome, and it has been reported that they are altered in the CSF of patients suffering neurodegenerative diseases and/or neurological disorders. Understanding these molecules and the mechanisms they control during embryonic neurogenesis is a key contribution to the general understanding of CNS development, and may also contribute to greater knowledge of these human diseases. [source]