Neurocognitive Test (neurocognitive + test)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Neurocognitive effects of switching from methylphenidate-IR to OROS-methylphenidate in children with ADHD

Yeni Kim
Abstract Objectives This study evaluated neurocognitive changes after switching from immediate release forms of methylphenidate (MPH-IR) to osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH). Methods 102 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in an open label, 28,day trial, performing neurocognitive test at baseline and at 28 days after the switch from MPH-IR to OROS-MPH. Results There were significant improvements in the commission error and the reaction time of both visual and auditory continuous performance tests (CPTs) at 28 days after switching from MPH-IR to OROS-MPH. A positive correlation was observed between the improvement in parent/caregiver-rated IOWA Conners total score (, IOWA) and the reduction in commission error (r,=,0.3, p,=,0.001) and reduction in reaction time variability (r,=,0.3, p,=,0.006) of visual CPT. In a linear regression model, the change in parent/caregiver-rated IOWA Conners scale total scores were significant predictors of change in commission error (,,=,0.3, p,=,0.005, CI,=,0.4,2.3, adjusted R2,=,0.12) and RT variability (,,=,0.3, p,=,0.004, CI,=,0.5,2.4, adjusted R2,=,0.09) of visual CPT. Conclusions These data suggest that MPH-IR may be successfully switched to OROS-MPH treatment with associated improvements in neurocognitive performance. Large-scale controlled trials are needed to replicate these findings. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Neurocognitive Functions after Beating Heart Mitral Valve Replacement without Cross-Clamping the Aorta

Ferit Cicekcioglu M.D.
The aim of this study was to compare preoperative and postoperative neurocognitive functions in patients who underwent beating heart mitral valve replacement on cardiopulmonary bypass without cross-clamping the aorta. Methods: The prospective study included 25 consecutive patients who underwent mitral valve replacement. The operations were carried out on a beating heart method using normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass without cross-clamping the aorta. All patients were evaluated preoperatively (E1) and postoperatively (at sixth day [E2] and second month [E3]) for neurocognitive functions. Results: Neurologic deficit was not observed in the postoperative period. Comparison of the neurocognitive test results, between the preoperative and postoperative assessment for both hemispheric cognitive functions, demonstrated that no deterioration occurred. In the three subsets of left hemispheric cognitive function test evaluation, total verbal learning, delayed recall, and recognition, significant improvements were detected at the postoperative second month (E3) compared to the preoperative results (p = 0.005, 0.01, and 0.047, respectively). Immediate recall and retention were significantly improved within the first postoperative week (E2) when compared to the preoperative results (p = 0.05 and 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: The technique of mitral valve replacement with normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass without cross-clamping of the aorta may be safely used for majority of patients requiring mitral valve replacement without causing deterioration in neurocognitive functions. [source]

Subjective assessments of the quality of life, well-being and self-efficacy in patients with schizophrenia

Bun Chino md
Aim:, The present study examined three kinds of subjective assessment scales in the same patient group with schizophrenia to analyze the correlations among scores obtained in relation to the background data. Method:, Thirty-six patients with schizophrenia were examined with the 26-item short form of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHO-QOL 26), Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic drug treatment: Short Japanese version (SWNS) and Self-Efficacy for Community Life scale (SECL) for subjective assessment scales, five kinds of neurocognitive tests, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for clinical symptom, Social Functioning Scale (SFS), and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale for social functioning. Result:, The scores for delusions (components of positive syndrome), anxiety and depression (components of general psychopathology) on the PANSS significantly correlated with QoL and subjective well-being scores. In contrast, the scores for components of negative syndrome were not correlated with the subjective assessment scores. Furthermore, none of the clinical symptom scores were correlated with the score in self-efficacy scale. The SFS and GAF scores were significantly correlated with the subjective assessment scores. There were significant correlations among the scores on the three subjective assessment scales. Conclusion:, Each scale has different features and should be utilized depending upon the expected effect of treatment or the purpose of assessment. The treatments provided to patients must be directed at improving both psychological and social impairments, in order to enhance the social functioning and QoL of patients. [source]

Effects of recurrence on the cognitive performance of patients with bipolar I disorder: implications for relapse prevention and treatment adherence

Carlos López-Jaramillo
López-Jaramillo C, Lopera-Vásquez J, Gallo A, Ospina-Duque J, Bell V, Torrent C, Martínez-Arán A, Vieta E. Effects of recurrence on the cognitive performance of patients with bipolar I disorder: implications for relapse prevention and treatment adherence. Bipolar Disord 2010: 12: 557,567. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objective:, To determine if the repeated occurrence of manic episodes in bipolar I disorder (BD-I) patients is associated with reduced cognitive performance, which could in turn imply a worsening in the disorder's evolution. Method:, Cognitive performance in euthymic patients was assessed using attention, memory, and executive function tests on 24 BD-I patients who had experienced only 1 manic episode, on 27 BD-I patients with 2 manic episodes, on 47 BD-I patients with 3 or more manic episodes, and on 66 healthy control subjects. Results:, In BD-I patients, number of manic episodes was positively associated with poorer performance on neurocognitive tests, an association that was not accounted for by depression, disease chronicity, onset, or medication. Significant differences in attention and executive function were found between patients and controls and in those patients who had had just 1 manic episode compared to those who had 3 or more. Conclusion:, The number of manic episodes predicted poor cognitive performance, suggesting that the recurrence of mania may have a long-term neuropsychological impact. Prospective follow-up studies need to be completed to explore this effect further as better treatment adherence may have a protective effect on neurocognitive function. [source]