Nerve Cord (nerve + cord)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Nerve Cord

  • ventral nerve cord


  • Selected Abstracts


    Immunohistochemical analysis of nervous system regeneration in chimeric individuals of Dorvillea bermudensis (Polychaeta, Dorvilleidae)

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 2 2004
    Monika C. M. Müller
    In regeneration experiments, 0.5% of the two- or five-segmented fragments of the polychaete Dorvillea bermudensis were found unexpectedly transplanted: two fragments of each that were lying close together during the initial period, fused and regenerated a chimeric individual. Of the three theoretical possibilities (i.e. fusion of (i) two posterior ends; (ii) one anterior and one posterior end; (iii) or two anterior ends) only the last two were realized. The similarly oriented fragments regenerated a normal animal while anterior,anterior fused ones produced two heads or a double head. Whether the ventral cords of the fragments are located vis-à-vis or adjacent, influences the course of regeneration as well. Immunohistochemical methods (anti-acetylated ,-tubulin) in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to investigate the wiring pattern of the nervous systems of the grafts. In all cases, at least two supraesophageal ganglia were formed and palps, antennae and nuchal organs were innervated by the correct nerves but, in special cases, were innervated vice versa from the other brain. From these results it can be concluded that fusion of a regenerating connective with another connective results in formation of a new brain, irrespective of whether it belongs to the same nerve cord or not. [source]


    Vestigial expression in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 9 2008
    Kirsten A. Guss
    Abstract The Drosophila central nervous system is an excellent model system in which to resolve the genetic and molecular control of neuronal differentiation. Here we show that the wing selector vestigial is expressed in discrete sets of neurons. We track the axonal trajectories of VESTIGIAL-expressing cells in the ventral nerve cord and show that these cells descend from neuroblasts 1-2, 5-1, and 5-6. In addition, along the midline, VESTIGIAL is expressed in ventral unpaired median motorneurons and cells that may descend from the median neuroblast. These studies form the requisite descriptive foundation for functional studies addressing the role of vestigial during interneuron differentiation. Developmental Dynamics 237:2483,2489, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Retinoids and nonvertebrate chordate development

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 7 2006
    Shigeki Fujiwara
    Abstract Retinoic acid (RA) is required for the differentiation and morphogenesis of chordate-specific features, such as the antero-posterior regionalization of the dorsal hollow nerve cord and neural crest cells. RA receptors (RARs) have been reported exclusively in chordates, suggesting that the acquisition of the RAR gene was important for chordate evolution. A scenario is presented here for the establishment of an RAR-mediated developmental regulatory system during the course of chordate evolution. In the common chordate ancestor, RAR came to control the spatial expression pattern of Hox genes in the ectoderm and endoderm along the antero-posterior axis. In these germ layers, RA was required for the differentiation of epidermal sensory neurons and the morphogenesis of pharyngeal gill slits, respectively. As the diffuse epidermal nerve net in the chordate ancestor became centralized to form the dorsal nerve cord, the epidermal Hox expression pattern was carried into the central nervous system. Because the Hox code here came to specify neuronal identity along the antero-posterior axis, RA became inextricably linked to the antero-posterior patterning of the chordate central nervous system. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 66: 645,652, 2006 [source]


    Blockade of the central generator of locomotor rhythm by noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists in Drosophila larvae

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    Daniel Cattaert
    Abstract The noncompetitive antagonists of the vertebrate N -methyl- D -aspartate (NMDA) receptor dizocilpine (MK 801) and phencyclidine (PCP), delivered in food, were found to induce a marked and reversible inhibition of locomotor activity in Drosophilamelanogaster larvae. To determine the site of action of these antagonists, we used an in vitro preparation of the Drosophila third-instar larva, preserving the central nervous system and segmental nerves with their connections to muscle fibers of the body wall. Intracellular recordings were made from ventral muscle fibers 6 and 7 in the abdominal segments. In most larvae, long-lasting (>1 h) spontaneous rhythmic motor activities were recorded in the absence of pharmacological activation. After sectioning of the connections between the brain and abdominal ganglia, the rhythm disappeared, but it could be partially restored by perfusing the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, indicating that the activity was generated in the ventral nerve cord. MK 801 and PCP rapidly and efficiently inhibited the locomotor rhythm in a dose-dependent manner, the rhythm being totally blocked in 2 min with doses over 0.1 mg/mL. In contrast, more hydrophilic competitive NMDA antagonists had no effect on the motor rhythm in this preparation. MK 801 did not affect neuromuscular glutamatergic transmission at similar doses, as demonstrated by monitoring the responses elicited by electrical stimulation of the motor nerve or pressure applied glutamate. The presence of oxotremorine did not prevent the blocking effect of MK 801. These results show that MK 801 and PCP specifically inhibit centrally generated rhythmic activity in Drosophila, and suggest a possible role for NMDA-like receptors in locomotor rhythm control in the insect CNS. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Neurobiol 48: 58,73, 2001 [source]


    Some aspects of spiralian development

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    Claus Nielsen
    Abstract Nielsen, C. 2010. Some aspects of spiralian development. ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 20,28 Spiralian development is not only a characteristic early cleavage pattern, with shifting orientations of the cleavage planes, but also highly conserved cell lineages, where the origin of several organs can be traced back to identifiable cells in the lineage. These patterns are well documented in annelids, molluscs, nemertines, and platyhelminths and are considered ancestral of a bilaterian clade including these phyla. Spiral cleavage has not been documented in ecdysozoans, and no trace of the spiral development pattern is seen in phoronids and brachiopods. Origin of the spatial organization in spiralian embryos is puzzling, but much of the information appears to be encoded in the developing oocyte. Fertilization and "pseudofertilization" apparently provides the information defining the secondary, anterior-posterior body axis in many species. The central nervous system consists of three components: an apical organ, derived from the apical blastomeres 1a111 -1d111, which degenerates before or at metamorphosis; the cerebral ganglia derived from other blastomeres of the first micromere quartet and retained in the adult as a preoral part of the brain; and the originally circumblastoporal nerve cord, which has become differentiated into a perioral part of the brain, the paired or secondarily fused ventral nerve cords, and a small perianal nerve ring. [source]


    Evolution of invertebrate nervous systems: the Chaetognatha as a case study

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    Steffen Harzsch
    Abstract Harzsch, S. and Wanninger, A. 2010. Evolution of invertebrate nervous systems: the Chaetognatha as a case study. ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 35,43 Although recent molecular studies indicate that Chaetognatha may be one of the earliest Bilaterian offshoots, the phylogenetic position of this taxon still is a matter of ongoing debate. In this contribution, we review recent attempts to contribute phylogenetic information on the Chaetognatha by analysing structure and development of their nervous system (neurophylogeny). Analysing this group of organisms also has a major impact on our understanding of nervous system evolution in Bilateria. We review recent evidence from this field and suggest that Urbilateria already was equipped with the genetic toolkit required to build a complex, concentrated central nervous system (CNS), although this was not expressed phenotypically so that Urbilateria was equipped with a nerve plexus and not a CNS. This implies that in the deep metazoan nodes, concentration of the ancestral plexus occurred twice independently, namely once after the protostome,deuterostome split on the branch leading to the protostomes (resulting in a ventrally positioned nerve cord) and once along the chordate line (with a dorsal nerve cord). [source]


    Conservation of arthropod midline netrin accumulation revealed with a cross-reactive antibody provides evidence for midline cell homology

    EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2009
    Wendy Simanton
    SUMMARY Although many similarities in arthropod CNS development exist, differences in axonogenesis and the formation of midline cells, which regulate axon growth, have been observed. For example, axon growth patterns in the ventral nerve cord of Artemia franciscana differ from that of Drosophila melanogaster. Despite such differences, conserved molecular marker expression at the midline of several arthropod species indicates that midline cells may be homologous in distantly related arthropods. However, data from additional species are needed to test this hypothesis. In this investigation, nerve cord formation and the putative homology of midline cells were examined in distantly related arthropods, including: long- and short-germ insects (D. melanogaster, Aedes aeygypti, and Tribolium castaneum), branchiopod crustaceans (A. franciscana and Triops longicauditus), and malacostracan crustaceans (Porcellio laevis and Parhyale hawaiensis). These comparative analyses were aided by a cross-reactive antibody generated against the Netrin (Net) protein, a midline cell marker and regulator of axonogenesis. The mechanism of nerve cord formation observed in Artemia is found in Triops, another branchiopod, but is not found in the other arthropods examined. Despite divergent mechanisms of midline cell formation and nerve cord development, Net accumulation is detected in a well-conserved subset of midline cells in branchiopod crustaceans, malacostracan crustaceans, and insects. Notably, the Net accumulation pattern is also conserved at the midline of the amphipod P. hawaiensis, which undergoes split germ-band development. Conserved Net accumulation patterns indicate that arthropod midline cells are homologous, and that Nets function to regulate commissure formation during CNS development of Tetraconata. [source]


    Spatial distribution and differential expression of the PBAN receptor in tissues of adult Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    INSECT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    A. Rafaeli
    Abstract Pheromone-biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) regulates sex pheromone production in many female moths. PBAN-like peptides, with common FXPRLamide C-terminals are found in other insect groups where they have other functions. The ubiquity and multifunctional nature of the pyrokinin/PBAN family of peptides suggests that the PBAN receptor proteins could also be present in a variety of insect tissues with alternative functions from that of sex pheromone biosynthesis. Previously we showed the presence of the PBAN-R in Helicoverpa armigera at the protein level. In the present study we confirm the similarities between the two Helicoverpa species: armigera and zea by (1) demonstrating the presence of the receptor protein in Sf9 cells, cloned to express the HezPBAN receptor, as compared with the endogenous receptor protein, previously shown in H. armigera pheromone glands, and (2) by identifying the nucleotide sequence of the PBAN-R from mRNA of H. armigera pheromone glands. Sequences of the two Helicoverpa spp. are 98% identical with most changes taking place in the 3,-end. We demonstrate the spatial distribution of the PBAN receptor protein in membranes of H. armigera brain (Br), thoracic ganglion (TG) and ventral nerve cord (VNC). We also demonstrate the presence and differential expression of the PBAN receptor gene (using reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription,quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively) in the neural tissues (Br, TG and VNC) of adult H. armigera female moths as compared with its presence in pheromone glands. Surprisingly, the gene for the PBAN receptor is also detected in the male tissue homologous to the female pheromone gland, the aedeagus, although the protein is undetectable and PBAN does not induce physiological (pheromone production) or cellular (cyclic-adenosine monophosphate production) responses in this tissue. Our findings indicate that PBAN or PBAN-like receptors are present in the neural tissues and may represent a neurotransmitter-like function for PBAN-like peptides. In addition, the surprising discovery of the presence of the gene encoding the PBAN receptor in the male homologous tissue, but its absence at the protein level, launches opportunities for studying molecular regulation pathways and the evolution of these G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). [source]


    Exceptionally preserved tadpoles from the Miocene of Libros, Spain: ecomorphological reconstruction and the impact of ontogeny upon taphonomy

    LETHAIA, Issue 3 2010
    MARIA E. MCNAMARA
    McNamara, M.E., Orr, P.J., Kearns, S.L., Alcalá, L., Anadón, P. & Peñalver-Mollá, E. 2010: Exceptionally preserved tadpoles from the Miocene of Libros, Spain: ecomorphological reconstruction and the impact of ontogeny upon taphonomy. Lethaia, Vol. 43, pp. 290,306. The Libros exceptional biota from the Upper Miocene of NE Spain includes abundant frog tadpoles (Rana pueyoi) preserved in finely laminated lacustrine mudstones. The tadpoles exhibit a depressed body, short tail, low tail fins, dorso-laterally directed eyes and jaw sheaths; these features identify the Libros tadpoles as members of the benthic lentic ecomorphological guild. This, the first ecomorphological reconstruction of a fossil tadpole, supports phylogenetic evidence that this ecology is a conserved ranid feature. The soft-tissue features of the Libros tadpoles are characterized by several modes of preservation. The space occupied previously by the brain is defined by calcium carbonate, the nerve cord is defined by calcium phosphate, and jaw sheaths and bone marrow are preserved as organic remains. Gut contents (and coprolites adjacent to specimens) comprise ingested fine-grained sedimentary detritus and epiphyton. The body outline and the eyespots, nares, abdominal cavity, notochord, caudal myotomes and fins are defined by a carbonaceous bacterial biofilm. A similar biofilm in adult specimens of R. pueyoi from Libros defines only the body outline, not any internal anatomical features. In the adult frogs, but not in the tadpoles, calcium phosphate and calcium sulphate precipitated in association with integumentary tissues. These differences in the mode of preservation between the adult frogs and tadpoles reflect ontogenetic factors. ,Anuran, ecology, soft-tissue, tadpoles, taphonomy. [source]


    The pars intercerebralis of the locust brain: A developmental and comparative study

    MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE, Issue 3 2002
    Peter Ludwig
    Abstract The anterior midline of the brain, also known as the pars intercerebralis, contains the largest collection of neurosecretory cells in the central nervous system of the grasshopper. In this study, we use immunocytochemical, intracellular staining, and histological methods to establish the ontogenies of the various cell types in the brain midline, and show how these cells contribute to the pars intercerebralis of the adult brain. We show that the adult pars intercerebralis develops from three distinct embryonic cell groups: (1) the median neurosecretory cells, which derive from a subset of neuroblasts in the protocerebral hemispheres, and which project axons to the corpora cardiaca; (2) the paired primary commissure pioneers, which derive directly from the mesectoderm of the dorsal median domain and whose axons project to the ventral nerve cord via the midline tract; and (3) the six progeny of the median precursor in the dorsal median domain, which share a common axonal projection with the primary commissure pioneers. Since the adult pars intercerebralis is a fusion product of these independent cellular components, it can only be understood in terms of its origins in the embryonic brain. When the expression pattern of the TERM-1 antigen is compared in subsets of median neurosecretory cells in a wide range of insect orders, the results suggests a common organizational Bauplan for the pars intercerebralis. This hypothesis is supported by the identification of putative homologs of the grasshopper primary commissure pioneers in all these insects. Microsc. Res. Tech. 56:174,188, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Synaptic structure, distribution, and circuitry in the central nervous system of the locust and related insects

    MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE, Issue 3 2002
    Alan Hugh David Watson
    Abstract The Orthopteran central nervous system has proved a fertile substrate for combined morphological and physiological studies of identified neurons. Electron microscopy reveals two major types of synaptic contacts between nerve fibres: chemical synapses (which predominate) and electrotonic (gap) junctions. The chemical synapses are characterized by a structural asymmetry between the pre- and postsynaptic electron dense paramembranous structures. The postsynaptic paramembranous density defines the extent of a synaptic contact that varies according to synaptic type and location in single identified neurons. Synaptic bars are the most prominent presynaptic element at both monadic and dyadic (divergent) synapses. These are associated with small electron lucent synaptic vesicles in neurons that are cholinergic or glutamatergic (round vesicles) or GABAergic (pleomorphic vesicles). Dense core vesicles of different sizes are indicative of the presence of peptide or amine transmitters. Synapses are mostly found on small-diameter neuropilar branches and the number of synaptic contacts constituting a single physiological synapse ranges from a few tens to several thousand depending on the neurones involved. Some principles of synaptic circuitry can be deduced from the analysis of highly ordered brain neuropiles. With the light microscope, synaptic location can be inferred from the distribution of the presynaptic protein synapsin I. In the ventral nerve cord, identified neurons that are components of circuits subserving known behaviours, have been studied using electrophysiology in combination with light and electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry of neuroactive compounds. This has allowed the synaptic distribution of the major classes of neurone in the ventral nerve cord to be analysed within a functional context. Microsc. Res. Tech. 56:210,226, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Identification of a high-affinity binding site for dinotefuran in the nerve cord of the American cockroach

    PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE (FORMERLY: PESTICIDE SCIENCE), Issue 4 2006
    Satoshi Miyagi
    Abstract The binding of the neonicotinoid insecticide dinotefuran to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) was examined by a centrifugation method using the nerve cord membranes of American cockroaches and [3H]dinotefuran (78 Ci mmol,1). The Kd and Bmax values of [3H]dinotefuran binding were estimated to be 13.7 nM and 14.8 fmol 40 µg,1 protein respectively by Scatchard analysis. Epibatidine, an nAChR agonist, showed a rather lower affinity to the dinotefuran binding site (IC50 = 991 nM) than dinotefuran (IC50 = 5.02 nM). Imidacloprid and nereistoxin displayed lower potencies than dinotefuran but higher potencies than epibatidine. The potencies of five dinotefuran analogues in inhibiting the specific binding of [3H]dinotefuran to nerve cord membranes were determined. A good correlation (r2 = 0.970) was observed between the ,log IC50 values of the tested compounds and their piperonyl butoxide-synergised insecticidal activities (,log LD50 values) against German cockroaches. The results indicate that a high-affinity binding site for dinotefuran is present in the nerve cord of the American cockroach and that the binding of ligands to the site leads to the manifestation of insecticidal activity. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Development of nitrergic neurons in the nervous system of the locust embryo

    THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY, Issue 8 2010
    Michael Stern
    We followed the development of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) system during locust embryogenesis in whole mount nervous systems and brain sections by using various cytochemical techniques. We visualized NO-sensitive neurons by cGMP immunofluorescence after incubation with an NO donor in the presence of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activator YC-1 and the phosphodiesterase-inhibitor isobutyl-methyl-xanthine (IBMX). Central nervous system (CNS) cells respond to NO as early as 38% embryogenesis. By using the NADPH-diaphorase technique, we identified somata and neurites of possible NO-synthesizing cells in the CNS. The first NADPH-diaphorase-positive cell bodies appear around 40% embryogenesis in the brain and at 47% in the ventral nerve cord. The number of positive cells reaches the full complement of adult cells at 80%. In the brain, some structures, e.g., the mushroom bodies acquire NADPH-diaphorase staining only postembryonically. Immunolocalization of L-citrulline confirmed the presence of NOS in NADPH-diaphorase-stained neurons and, in addition, indicated enzymatic activity in vivo. In whole mount ventral nerve cords, citrulline immunolabeling was present in varying subsets of NADPH-diaphorase-positive cells, but staining was very variable and often weak. However, in a regeneration paradigm in which one of the two connectives between ganglia had been crushed, strong, reliable staining was observed as early as 60% embryogenesis. Thus, citrulline immunolabeling appears to reflect specific activity of NOS. However, in younger embryos, NOS may not always be constitutively active or may be so at a very low level, below the citrulline antibody detection threshold. For the CNS, histochemical markers for NOS do not provide conclusive evidence for a developmental role of this enzyme. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:1157,1175, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Development of nitrergic neurons in the nervous system of the locust embryo

    THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY, Issue 8 2010
    Michael Stern
    Abstract We followed the development of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) system during locust embryogenesis in whole mount nervous systems and brain sections by using various cytochemical techniques. We visualized NO-sensitive neurons by cGMP immunofluorescence after incubation with an NO donor in the presence of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activator YC-1 and the phosphodiesterase-inhibitor isobutyl-methyl-xanthine (IBMX). Central nervous system (CNS) cells respond to NO as early as 38% embryogenesis. By using the NADPH-diaphorase technique, we identified somata and neurites of possible NO-synthesizing cells in the CNS. The first NADPH-diaphorase-positive cell bodies appear around 40% embryogenesis in the brain and at 47% in the ventral nerve cord. The number of positive cells reaches the full complement of adult cells at 80%. In the brain, some structures, e.g., the mushroom bodies acquire NADPH-diaphorase staining only postembryonically. Immunolocalization of L-citrulline confirmed the presence of NOS in NADPH-diaphorase-stained neurons and, in addition, indicated enzymatic activity in vivo. In whole mount ventral nerve cords, citrulline immunolabeling was present in varying subsets of NADPH-diaphorase-positive cells, but staining was very variable and often weak. However, in a regeneration paradigm in which one of the two connectives between ganglia had been crushed, strong, reliable staining was observed as early as 60% embryogenesis. Thus, citrulline immunolabeling appears to reflect specific activity of NOS. However, in younger embryos, NOS may not always be constitutively active or may be so at a very low level, below the citrulline antibody detection threshold. For the CNS, histochemical markers for NOS do not provide conclusive evidence for a developmental role of this enzyme. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:1157,1175, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Immunocytochemical mapping and quantification of expression of a putative type 1 serotonin receptor in the crayfish nervous system

    THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    Nadja Spitzer
    Abstract Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that is involved in modulation of sensory, motor, and higher functions in many species. In the crayfish, which has been developed as a model for nervous system function for over a century, serotonin modulates several identified circuits. Although the cellular and circuit effects of serotonin have been extensively studied, little is known about the receptors that mediate these signals. Physiological data indicate that identified crustacean cells and circuits are modulated via several different serotonin receptors. We describe the detailed immunocytochemical localization of the crustacean type 1 serotonin receptor, 5-HT1crust, throughout the crayfish nerve cord and on abdominal superficial flexor muscles. 5-HT1crust is widely distributed in somata, including those of several identified neurons, and neuropil, suggesting both synaptic and neurohormonal roles. Individual animals show very different levels of 5-HT1crust immunoreactivity (5-HT1crustir) ranging from preparations with hundreds of labeled cells per ganglion to some containing only a handful of 5-HT1crustir cells in the entire nerve cord. The interanimal variability in 5-HT1crustir is great, but individual nerve cords show a consistent level of labeling between ganglia. Quantitative RT-PCR shows that 5-HT1crust mRNA levels between animals are also variable but do not directly correlate with 5-HT1crustir levels. Although there is no correlation of 5-HT1crust expression with gender, social status, molting or feeding, dominant animals show significantly greater variability than subordinates. Functional analysis of 5-HT1crust in combination with this immunocytochemical map will aid further understanding of this receptor's role in the actions of serotonin on identified circuits and cells. J. Comp. Neurol. 484:261,282, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Effects of transplants and extracts of thoracic nerve cord,ganglia on gonad maturation of penaeoid shrimp

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 2 2010
    Jorge Alfaro
    Abstract It has been established recently that interspecific and intraspecific thoracic ganglia transplants from Penaeidae are gradually absorbed by the host without activating an encapsulation mechanism. Therefore, this research was designed to evaluate the thoracic ganglia extracts and implants from maturing Trachypenaeus byrdi (Burkenroad), Xiphopenaeus riveti (Bouvier) and Penaeus (Litopenaeus) occidentalis (Streets) females as potential inducers of sexual maturation in Penaeus (Litopenaeus) stylirostris (Stimpson), Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Boone) and T. byrdi, from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. Our findings suggest that interspecific and intraspecific thoracic ganglia extracts or implants from maturing penaeoid females are not capable of inducing a clear response in sexual maturation in males or females. Tissues were tested at increasing doses from 137, 386, 525 and 1500 ,g g,1 body weight, without any positive response. It is proposed that a hypothetical hormone, vitellogenesis-stimulating hormone, from the thoracic ganglia, is under the strong negative control of eyestalks, by the gonad-inhibiting hormone in the subgenus Litopenaeus. Therefore, the use of thoracic ganglia extracts or implants would be ineffective when compared with injecting serotonin alone, as the present results seem to support. [source]


    Expression of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide and its receptor (PBANR) mRNA in adult female Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    ARCHIVES OF INSECT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2010
    Yunxia Cheng
    Abstract The full-length cDNA of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptor (PBANR) was cloned from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); it included an open reading frame of 1,053,bp encoding 350 amino acids. The PBANR of S. exigua (SePBANR) was structurally characteristic of G protein,coupled receptor and its amino acid sequence shared 98% identity with the PBANR of Spodoptera littoralis. Both pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and PBANR mRNA abundance were measured in the brain-subesophageal ganglion complex, pheromone gland, ventral nerve cord, and ovary of S. exigua female moths by real-time RT-PCR. The abundance of PBAN mRNA in brain-subesophageal ganglion complex and PBANR mRNA in pheromone gland was significantly greater compared to other tissues, suggesting that the ligand-receptor relationship of PBAN and PBANR exists quantitatively in S. exigua. Both PBAN and PBANR expression displayed a remarkable diurnal rhythm, for they were low and stable during the photophase (07:00,21:00) and increased markedly during the scotophase (with a maximum abundance at 23:30) in 3-day-old female moths. The abundance of PBAN and PBANR increased steadily from the 1st day to the 5th day of the adult female life. The pattern of both diurnal and daily expression of PBAN and PBANR mRNA were coincident with enhanced capacity of sex pheromone release and mating of S. exigua moths during the same period. We infer from these results that pheromone biosynthesis and release in S. exigua is regulated by PBAN via up-regulating synthesis. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Screening for synaptic defects revealed a locus involved in presynaptic and postsynaptic functions in Drosophila embryos

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    Etsuko Takasu-Ishikawa
    Abstract To identify genes involved in synaptic functions, we screened lethal enhancer trap lines by monitoring synaptic activities at the neuromuscular junction in Drosophila embryos. It was found that MY7919, thus isolated, has moderate defects in both pre- and postsynaptic functions. The mean amplitudes of spontaneous as well as evoked synaptic currents were smaller than those in wild-type. The failure rate was higher than normal at any given concentration of external Ca2+, indicating that presynaptic functions were impaired. In addition, the mean amplitude of miniature synaptic currents was smaller, and the unitary current amplitudes of junctional glutamate receptor channels were slightly but significantly smaller. Thus, postsynaptic functions were also altered. The gene was cloned and found to be identical to the previously reported apontic (=tracheae defective) locus, which is believed to be a transcription factor expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in the head, tracheae, and heart. Immunohistochemical analysis using an antiapontic antibody revealed that the protein is localized to nuclei. Null alleles of the apontic locus were obtained by imprecise excision of the enhancer trap vector. Synaptic activities in null mutants were not different from those of the original allele, even though null homozygotes had uncontracted ventral nerve cords and more severe behavioral phenotypes. The morphology of the neuromuscular junction of the null mutant was qualitatively similar to that of wild-type, with the presence of typical pre- and postsynaptic specializations, but with some suggestions of quantitative differences. This strategy for screening mutants with synaptic defects will reveal more genes directly or indirectly affecting synaptic transmission. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Neurobiol 48: 101,119, 2001 [source]


    Some aspects of spiralian development

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    Claus Nielsen
    Abstract Nielsen, C. 2010. Some aspects of spiralian development. ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 20,28 Spiralian development is not only a characteristic early cleavage pattern, with shifting orientations of the cleavage planes, but also highly conserved cell lineages, where the origin of several organs can be traced back to identifiable cells in the lineage. These patterns are well documented in annelids, molluscs, nemertines, and platyhelminths and are considered ancestral of a bilaterian clade including these phyla. Spiral cleavage has not been documented in ecdysozoans, and no trace of the spiral development pattern is seen in phoronids and brachiopods. Origin of the spatial organization in spiralian embryos is puzzling, but much of the information appears to be encoded in the developing oocyte. Fertilization and "pseudofertilization" apparently provides the information defining the secondary, anterior-posterior body axis in many species. The central nervous system consists of three components: an apical organ, derived from the apical blastomeres 1a111 -1d111, which degenerates before or at metamorphosis; the cerebral ganglia derived from other blastomeres of the first micromere quartet and retained in the adult as a preoral part of the brain; and the originally circumblastoporal nerve cord, which has become differentiated into a perioral part of the brain, the paired or secondarily fused ventral nerve cords, and a small perianal nerve ring. [source]


    Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical observations of the nervous systems of three macrodasyidan gastrotrichs

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2003
    R. Hochberg
    Abstract The nervous systems of three macrodasyidan gastrotrichs, Dactylopodola baltica, Macrodasys caudatus and Dolichodasys elongatus, were investigated using immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Labelling of neural structures against serotonin revealed the presence of two pairs of cerebral cells, a dorsal cerebral connective, and paired ventral nerve cords in D. baltica. In M. caudatus and D. elongatus serotonin immunoreactivity was present in a single pair of dorsal cerebral cells and the ventral nerve cords; the dorsal connective of D. elongatus was also immunoreactive to serotonin and acetylated ,-tubulin. The presence of paired, serotonin-like immunoreactive cells in D. baltica and other species may represent the plesiomorphic condition in Macrodasyida. The fine structure of the photoreceptors in D. baltica was also investigated to explore the potential ground pattern for eyes in the Macrodasyida. The pigmented photoreceptors of D. baltica contain a unicellular pigment cup, sheath cell and sensory receptor. The pigment cup contains numerous osmiophilic granules that presumably function to shield the eyes from downwelling light in the red part of the spectrum. Projecting into the pigment cup and sheath cell are numerous microvilli from a bipolar sensory cell. A single sensory cell may represent the plesiomorphic condition in Macrodasyida, with multiplication of sensory cells representative of more derived taxa. [source]


    Larval and adult brains,

    EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2005
    Claus Nielsen
    Summary Apical organs are a well-known structure in almost all ciliated eumetazoan larvae, although their function is poorly known. A review of the literature indicates that this small ganglion is the "brain" of the early larva, and it seems probable that it represents the brain of the ancestral, holopelagic ancestor of all eumetazoans, the gastraea. This early brain is lost before or at metamorphosis in all groups. Protostomes (excluding phoronids and brachiopods) appear to have brains of dual origin. Their larvae develop a pair of cephalic ganglia at the episphere lateral to the apical organ, and these two ganglia become an important part of the adult brain. The episphere and the cerebral ganglia show Otx expression, whereas Hox gene expression has not been seen in this part of the brain. A ventral nervous system develops around the blastopore, which becomes divided into mouth and anus by fusion of the lateral blastopore lips. The circumblastoporal nerve ring becomes differentiated into a nerve ring around the mouth, becoming part of the adult brain, a pair of ventral nerve cords, in some cases differentiated into a chain of ganglia, and a ring around the anus. This part of the nervous system appears to be homologous with the oral nerve ring of cnidarians. This interpretation is supported by the expression of Hox genes around the cnidarian mouth and in the ventral nervous system of the protostomes. The development of phoronids, brachiopods, echinoderms, and enteropneusts does not lead to the formation of an episphere or to differentiation of cerebral ganglia. In general, a well-defined brain is lacking, and Hox genes are generally not expressed in the larval organs, although this has not been well studied. [source]


    Development of nitrergic neurons in the nervous system of the locust embryo

    THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY, Issue 8 2010
    Michael Stern
    We followed the development of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) system during locust embryogenesis in whole mount nervous systems and brain sections by using various cytochemical techniques. We visualized NO-sensitive neurons by cGMP immunofluorescence after incubation with an NO donor in the presence of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activator YC-1 and the phosphodiesterase-inhibitor isobutyl-methyl-xanthine (IBMX). Central nervous system (CNS) cells respond to NO as early as 38% embryogenesis. By using the NADPH-diaphorase technique, we identified somata and neurites of possible NO-synthesizing cells in the CNS. The first NADPH-diaphorase-positive cell bodies appear around 40% embryogenesis in the brain and at 47% in the ventral nerve cord. The number of positive cells reaches the full complement of adult cells at 80%. In the brain, some structures, e.g., the mushroom bodies acquire NADPH-diaphorase staining only postembryonically. Immunolocalization of L-citrulline confirmed the presence of NOS in NADPH-diaphorase-stained neurons and, in addition, indicated enzymatic activity in vivo. In whole mount ventral nerve cords, citrulline immunolabeling was present in varying subsets of NADPH-diaphorase-positive cells, but staining was very variable and often weak. However, in a regeneration paradigm in which one of the two connectives between ganglia had been crushed, strong, reliable staining was observed as early as 60% embryogenesis. Thus, citrulline immunolabeling appears to reflect specific activity of NOS. However, in younger embryos, NOS may not always be constitutively active or may be so at a very low level, below the citrulline antibody detection threshold. For the CNS, histochemical markers for NOS do not provide conclusive evidence for a developmental role of this enzyme. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:1157,1175, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Development of nitrergic neurons in the nervous system of the locust embryo

    THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY, Issue 8 2010
    Michael Stern
    Abstract We followed the development of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) system during locust embryogenesis in whole mount nervous systems and brain sections by using various cytochemical techniques. We visualized NO-sensitive neurons by cGMP immunofluorescence after incubation with an NO donor in the presence of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activator YC-1 and the phosphodiesterase-inhibitor isobutyl-methyl-xanthine (IBMX). Central nervous system (CNS) cells respond to NO as early as 38% embryogenesis. By using the NADPH-diaphorase technique, we identified somata and neurites of possible NO-synthesizing cells in the CNS. The first NADPH-diaphorase-positive cell bodies appear around 40% embryogenesis in the brain and at 47% in the ventral nerve cord. The number of positive cells reaches the full complement of adult cells at 80%. In the brain, some structures, e.g., the mushroom bodies acquire NADPH-diaphorase staining only postembryonically. Immunolocalization of L-citrulline confirmed the presence of NOS in NADPH-diaphorase-stained neurons and, in addition, indicated enzymatic activity in vivo. In whole mount ventral nerve cords, citrulline immunolabeling was present in varying subsets of NADPH-diaphorase-positive cells, but staining was very variable and often weak. However, in a regeneration paradigm in which one of the two connectives between ganglia had been crushed, strong, reliable staining was observed as early as 60% embryogenesis. Thus, citrulline immunolabeling appears to reflect specific activity of NOS. However, in younger embryos, NOS may not always be constitutively active or may be so at a very low level, below the citrulline antibody detection threshold. For the CNS, histochemical markers for NOS do not provide conclusive evidence for a developmental role of this enzyme. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:1157,1175, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Immunocytochemical mapping and quantification of expression of a putative type 1 serotonin receptor in the crayfish nervous system

    THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    Nadja Spitzer
    Abstract Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that is involved in modulation of sensory, motor, and higher functions in many species. In the crayfish, which has been developed as a model for nervous system function for over a century, serotonin modulates several identified circuits. Although the cellular and circuit effects of serotonin have been extensively studied, little is known about the receptors that mediate these signals. Physiological data indicate that identified crustacean cells and circuits are modulated via several different serotonin receptors. We describe the detailed immunocytochemical localization of the crustacean type 1 serotonin receptor, 5-HT1crust, throughout the crayfish nerve cord and on abdominal superficial flexor muscles. 5-HT1crust is widely distributed in somata, including those of several identified neurons, and neuropil, suggesting both synaptic and neurohormonal roles. Individual animals show very different levels of 5-HT1crust immunoreactivity (5-HT1crustir) ranging from preparations with hundreds of labeled cells per ganglion to some containing only a handful of 5-HT1crustir cells in the entire nerve cord. The interanimal variability in 5-HT1crustir is great, but individual nerve cords show a consistent level of labeling between ganglia. Quantitative RT-PCR shows that 5-HT1crust mRNA levels between animals are also variable but do not directly correlate with 5-HT1crustir levels. Although there is no correlation of 5-HT1crust expression with gender, social status, molting or feeding, dominant animals show significantly greater variability than subordinates. Functional analysis of 5-HT1crust in combination with this immunocytochemical map will aid further understanding of this receptor's role in the actions of serotonin on identified circuits and cells. J. Comp. Neurol. 484:261,282, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]