Nerve Cells (nerve + cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Terms modified by Nerve Cells

  • nerve cell body

  • Selected Abstracts


    Histopathological studies on viral nervous necrosis of sevenband grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus Thunberg, at the grow-out stage

    JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 7 2004
    S Tanaka
    Abstract Viral nervous necrosis caused by sevenband grouper nervous necrosis virus (SGNNV) has occurred in grow-out stages (0,3 years old) of sevenband grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus, since the 1980s. In the present study, based on histopathological features of the central nervous system (CNS) in naturally diseased fish, pernasal infection experiments using grow-out fish were performed and pernasal infection was established as a putative invasion route of SGNNV. The definite SGNNV-targeted cells were determined by histopathological studies including indirect fluorescent antibody test and electron microscopy. Nerve cells in the olfactory lobe were most extensively necrotized with vacuolation followed by infiltration of microglia and macrophages. Purkinje cells and Golgi cells were extensively infected in the cerebellum. Megalocells and small nerve cell nuclei were also infected in the preoptic area, thalamus, medulla oblongata and spinal cord. Only a few small nerve cells were infected in the olfactory bulb and optic tectum. The retina of some diseased fish displayed vacuolated bipolar cells of the inner nuclear layer and in the ganglion cell layer. These SGNNV-infected nerve cells displayed viroplasmic inclusions containing virions, vacuoles and myelin-like structures. Based on observed histopathological changes, the lesion of the CNS was characterized by encephalitis but not encephalopathy. [source]


    Steps towards a centralized nervous system in basal bilaterians: Insights from neurogenesis of the acoel Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 8 2010
    Henrike Semmler
    Due to its proposed basal position in the bilaterian Tree of Life, Acoela may hold the key to our understanding of the evolution of a number of bodyplan features including the central nervous system. In order to contribute novel data to this discussion we investigated the distribution of ,-tubulin and the neurotransmitters serotonin and RFamide in juveniles and adults of the sagittiferid Symsagittifera roscoffensis. In addition, we present the expression pattern of the neuropatterning gene SoxB1. Adults and juveniles exhibit six serotonergic longitudinal neurite bundles and an anterior concentration of serotonergic sensory cells. While juveniles show an "orthogon-like" arrangement of longitudinal neurite bundles along the anterior-posterior axis, it appears more diffuse in the posterior region of adults. Commissures between the six neurite bundles are present only in the anterior body region of adults, while irregularly distributed individual neurites, often interconnected by serotonergic nerve cells, are found in the posterior region. Anti-RFamide staining shows numerous individual neurites around the statocyst. The orthogon-like nervous system of S. roscoffensis is confirmed by ,-tubulin immunoreactivity. In the region of highest neurotransmitter density (i.e., anterior), the HMG-box gene SrSoxB1, a transcription factor known to be involved in neurogenesis in other bilaterians, is expressed in juvenile specimens. Accordingly, SoxB1 expression in S. roscoffensis follows the typical pattern of higher bilaterians that have a brain. Thus, our data support the notion that Urbilateria already had the genetic toolkit required to form brain-like neural structures, but that its morphological degree of neural concentration was still low. [source]


    Accelerating botulism therapeutic product development in the Department of Defense,

    DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, Issue 4 2009
    Andrea M. Stahl
    Abstract Coordinated small-molecule drug discovery research efforts for the treatment of botulism by the public sector, especially the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), began in the 1990s and represent a significant resource investment. Organization of an effective botulism therapeutic drug program, however, presents formidable technical and logistical challenges. Seven distinct BoNT serotypes are known, each representing a different target. Moreover, BoNT exerts its action inside peripheral cholinergic neurons, and some serotypes may persist functionally within nerve cells for weeks or months. Clinical botulism occurs infrequently, and the effectiveness of prolonged mechanical ventilation to treat poisoning further limits experimental drug testing. The efficacy of experimental compounds must be extrapolated from disparate cell- or tissue-based or rodent models. Numerous compounds with moderate efficacy in experimental laboratory assays have been reported, but may not possess the necessary safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic profile to support therapeutic development. To mitigate these challenges, we propose product development tools to assist in management of the BoNT portfolio and to clearly define the desired therapeutic product. Establishing a target product profile (TPP) is proposed to guide public sector managers toward critical aspects of the desired therapeutic product. Additional product development tools to assist in shaping research portfolios and to inform decisions regarding lead candidates to pursue are also discussed. Product development tools that facilitate the characterization of the ideal therapeutic product, and assist in the maintenance of a robust portfolio, will ameliorate the inherent financial risk in drug development for treating BoNT intoxication. Drug Dev Res 70:303,326, 2009. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Rapid cortical reorganisation and improved sensitivity of the hand following cutaneous anaesthesia of the forearm

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 4 2009
    Anders Björkman
    Abstract The cortical representation of various body parts constantly changes based on the pattern of afferent nerve impulses. As peripheral nerve injury results in a cortical and subcortical reorganisation this has been suggested as one explanation for the poor clinical outcome seen after peripheral nerve repair in humans. Cutaneous anaesthesia of the forearm in healthy subjects and in patients with nerve injuries results in rapid improvement of hand sensitivity. The mechanism behind the improvement is probably based on a rapid cortical and subcortical reorganisation. The aim of this work was to study cortical changes following temporary cutaneous forearm anaesthesia. Ten healthy volunteers participated in the study. Twenty grams of a local anaesthetic cream (EMLA®) was applied to the volar aspect of the right forearm. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during sensory stimulation of all fingers of the right hand before and during cutaneous forearm anaesthesia. Sensitivity was also clinically assessed before and during forearm anaesthesia. A group analysis of functional magnetic resonance image data showed that, during anaesthesia, the hand area in the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex expanded cranially over the anaesthetised forearm area. Clinically right hand sensitivity in the volunteers improved during forearm anaesthesia. No significant changes were seen in the left hand. The clinically improved hand sensitivity following forearm anaesthesia is probably based on a rapid expansion of the hand area in the primary somatosensory cortex which presumably results in more nerve cells being made available for the hand in the primary somatosensory cortex. [source]


    Distribution and signaling of TREM2/DAP12, the receptor system mutated in human polycystic lipomembraneous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy dementia

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 10 2004
    Giuseppina Sessa
    Abstract Together with its adaptor protein, the adaptor protein of 12 kDa also known as KARAP and TYROBP (DAP12), triggering r (TREM2) is a stimulatory membrane receptor of the immunoglobulin/lectin-like superfamily, well known in myeloid cells. In humans, however, loss-of-function mutations of TREM2/DAP12 leave myeloid cells unaffected but induce an autosomal recessive disease characterized, together with bone cysts, by a spectrum of pathological lesions in the cortex, thalamus and basal ganglia with clinical symptoms of progressive dementia (polycystic lipomembraneous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy). Nothing was known about the role of TREM2/DAP12 in brain cell biology and physiology. By confocal immunocytochemistry we demonstrate that, in both human and mouse cerebral cortex, TREM2/DAP12, strongly expressed by microglia, is also present in a fraction of neurons but not in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In contrast, in the hippocampal cortex TREM2-expressing neurons are rare. Both in neurons and microglia the receptor appears to be located mostly intracellularly in a discrete compartment(s) partially coinciding with (or adjacent to) the Golgi complex/trans-Golgi network. Four nerve cell lines were identified as expressing the intracellular receptor system. In living human microglia CHME-5 and glioblastoma T98G cells, activation of TREM2 by its specific antibody induced [Ca2+]i responses, documenting its surface expression and functioning. Surface expression of TREM2, low in resting CHME-5 and T98G cells, increases significantly and transiently (60 min) when cells are stimulated by ionomycin, as revealed by both surface biotinylation and surface immunolabeling. Our results provide the first information about the expression, distribution (mostly intracellular) and functioning of TREM2/DAP12 system in nerve cells, a necessary step in the understanding of the cellular mechanisms affected in polycystic lipomembraneous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy. [source]


    The Langerhans' cell-like cell lines XS52 and XS106 express mRNA for ciliary neurotrophic factor and neurotrophic factor 4/5

    EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOLOGY, Issue 9 2004
    K. Seiffert
    Neurotrophins are responsible for the survival and outgrowth of nerves within the peripheral and central nervous systems. These factors include brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), CNTF, NT 3, and NT4/5. We have previously shown that LCs lie in close proximity to nerves and that several neuropeptides regulate LC function, implying that nerves send regulatory signals to LCs. To evaluate the possibility that LC signal nerves by release of neurotrophins, we examined LC expression of neurotrophins by RT-PCR. To eliminate the possibility of contaminating keratinocytes in highly enriched LC preparations, we utilized the LC-like cell lines XS52 (BALB/c derived) and XS106 (A/J derived) for initial experiments. The RNA obtained was digested with DNase to ensure complete absence of genomic DNA. Several independent RT-PCRs revealed expression of bands of the expected size for CTNF and NT4/5, but not for BDNF and NT3 in XS106 and XS52 cells. In contrast, the transformed keratinocyte cell line PAM212 expressed BDNF, as well as CTNF and NT4/5. Preliminary experiments with purified LC confirm the expression of CTNF and NT4/5 and also show the expression of BDNF. However, we cannot be sure that BDNF expression is not due to keratinocyte contamination. We conclude that LCs may regulate nerve cells by the release of neurotrophic factors. [source]


    Megaoesophagus in Rassf1a -null mice

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Louise Van Der Weyden
    Summary Megaoesophagus, or oesophageal achalasia, is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by an absence of peristalsis and flaccid dilatation of the oesophagus, resulting in the retention of ingesta in the dilated segment. The aetiology and pathogenesis of idiopathic (or primary) megaoesophagus are still poorly understood and very little is known about the genetic causes of megaoesophagus in humans. Attempts to develop animal models of this condition have been largely unsuccessful and although the ICRC/HiCri strain of mice spontaneously develop megaoesophagus, the underlying genetic cause remains unknown. In this report, we show that aged Rassf1a -null mice have an enhanced susceptibility to megaoesophagus compared with wild-type littermates (,20%vs. ,2% incidence respectively; P = 0.01). Histological examination of the dilated oesophaguses shows a reduction in the numbers of nerve cells (both ganglia and nerve fibres) in the myenteric plexus of the dilated mid and lower oesophagus that was confirmed by S100 immunohistochemistry. There was also a chronic inflammatory infiltrate and subsequent fibrosis of the myenteric plexus and the muscle layers. These appearances closely mimic the gross and histopathological findings in human cases of megaoesophagus/achalasia, thus demonstrating that this is a representative mouse model of the disease. Thus, we have identified a genetic cause of the development of megaoesophagus/achalasia that could be screened for in patients, and may eventually facilitate the development of therapies that could prevent further progression of the disease once it is diagnosed at an early stage. [source]


    Glutamate and the glutamate receptor system: a target for drug action

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue S1 2003
    Stefan Bleich
    Abstract Glutamate is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In the process, glutamate fulfills numerous physiological functions, but also plays an important role in the pathophysiology of different neurological and psychiatric diseases, especially when an imbalance in glutamatergic neurotransmission occurs. Under certain conditions, glutamate has a toxic action resulting from an activation of specific glutamate receptors, which leads to acute or chronic death of nerve cells. Such mechanisms are currently under discussion in acute neuronal death within the context of hypoxia, ischaemia and traumas, as well as in chronic neurodegenerative or neurometabolic diseases, idiopathic parkinsonian syndrome, Alzheimer's dementia and Huntington's disease. It is hoped that glutamate antagonists will lead to novel therapies for these diseases, whereby the further development of glutamate antagonists for blocking disease-specific subtypes of glutamate receptors may be of major importance in the future. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Modeling hippocampal theta oscillation: Applications in neuropharmacology and robot navigation

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS, Issue 9 2006
    Tamás Kiss
    This article introduces a biologically realistic mathematical, computational model of theta (,5 Hz) rhythm generation in the hippocampal CA1 region and some of its possible further applications in drug discovery and in robotic/computational models of navigation. The model shown here uses the conductance-based description of nerve cells: Populations of basket cells, alveus/lacunosum-moleculare interneurons, and pyramidal cells are used to model the hippocampal CA1 and a fast-spiking GABAergic interneuron population for modeling the septal influence. Results of the model show that the septo-hippocampal feedback loop is capable of robust theta rhythm generation due to proper timing of pyramidal cells and synchronization within the basket cell network via recurrent connections. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Int Syst 21: 903,917, 2006. [source]


    Autologous bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation into injured rat urethral sphincter

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Yoshiaki Kinebuchi
    Objectives: To evaluate the functional and histological recovery by autologous bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation into injured rat urethral sphincters. Methods: BMSC were harvested from female Sprague,Dawley retired breeder rats for later transplantation. The cells were cultured, and transfected with the green fluorescence protein gene. The urethral sphincters were injured by combined urethrolysis and cardiotoxin injection. One week after injury, the cultured BMSC were injected autologously into the periurethral tissues. Controls included sham-operated rats and injured rats injected with cell-free medium (CFM). Abdominal leak point pressures (LPP) were measured before and after surgery during the following 13 weeks. The urethras were then retrieved for histological evaluation. The presence of green-fluorescence-protein-labeled cells and the regeneration of skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, and peripheral nerves were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Results: LPP was significantly reduced in the injured rats. It increased gradually after transplantation, but there was no significant difference between the BMSC and CFM groups. In the BMSC group, transplanted cells survived and differentiated into striated muscle cells and peripheral nerve cells. The proportions of skeletal muscle cells and peripheral nerves in the urethra were significantly greater in the BMSC group compared to the CFM group. Conclusions: Despite a clear trend towards recovery of LPP in BMSC-transplanted urethras, no significant effect was detected. Further study is required for clinical applications for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. [source]


    Evolutionary emergence of synaptic nervous systems: what can we learn from the non-synaptic, nerveless Porifera?

    INVERTEBRATE BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Michael Nickel
    Abstract. The Porifera represent one of the only two recent nerveless and muscleless metazoan phyla. Nevertheless, sponges provide behavioral, physiological, pharmacological, morphological, and, more recently, an increasing amount of genetic evidence for a paracrine pre-nervous integration system. Although this system might be derived, it allows us to draw conclusions, on the basis of comparative data, about the origin of the nervous system sensu stricto as found in the eumetazoan phyla. The goal of the present review is to compile recent evidence on the sponge integration systems. Based on this framework, new light is also shed on the evolutionary origin of the eumetazoan synaptic nervous systems, which can be regarded to form an evolutionary biochemical continuum with the paracrine signaling system in sponges. Thus, we can assume that the evolutionary transition from a paracrine-dominated, pre-nervous system to an electrochemically dominated, primordial nervous system resulted in part from compartmentalization effects. As intermediate evolutionary stages, regionalized synapse precursor areas might have occurred within pre-nervous cells, which foreshadowed the highly organized synaptic scaffolds present in recent nerve cells of the Eumetazoa. [source]


    Role of astrocytes in trimethyltin neurotoxicity

    JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR TOXICOLOGY, Issue 5 2001
    Palur G. Gunasekar
    Abstract Although the neurotoxicity of trimethyltin (TMT) is well known, mechanisms are still not clear. Glia have been proposed to mediate the toxic action of TMT on nerve cells. Accordingly, the effects of TMT were tested in primary neuronal cultures from rat cerebellum and compared to effects in astrocytes and mixed cultures. Neuronal damage observed following TMT exposure was less in the presence of astrocytes and astrocytes alone were resistant to TMT. Thus, astrocytes have a protective effect against TMT-induced neurotoxicity. TMT caused an oxidative stress in granule cell cultures involving a variety of oxidative species ((O2),,, H2O2, NO), but astrocytes were less sensitive to TMT-induced oxidative species generation. Antioxidants, glutathione and 7-nitroindazole attenuated neuronal cell death induced by TMT. It appears that oxidative stress mediates a large part of the destructive action of TMT in neuronal cultures. The presence of astrocytes appears to modulate TMT-induced oxidative stress so that TMT causes only a small increase in lipid peroxidation in mouse brain after systemic administration. Thus, TMT induces a pronounced oxidative stress in cultured neurons, but when astrocytes are present, oxidative species play a lesser role in the neurotoxic action of TMT. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 15:256,262, 2001 [source]


    Colocalization of Tenascin and Sympathetic Nerves in a Canine Model of Nerve Sprouting and Sudden Cardiac Death

    JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 12 2000
    ANGELA C. LAI B.A.
    Tenascin and Cardiac Nerve Sprouting. Introduction: Sympathetic nerve sprouting after myocardial infarction (MI) may contribute significantly to the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Tenascin-X (TnX), a matrix protein known to be associated with nerve growth in central and peripheral nerves, also may play a role in cardiac nerve sprouting after MI. Methods and Results: Immunocytochemical staining techniques were used to identify nerves in 5-,m serial sections from 6 normal dogs and 11 dogs with MI. Among the dogs with MI, 4 also received nerve growth factor infusion to the left stellate ganglion. The time between MI to tissue harvest averaged 35.7 ± 14.4 days. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) stain was used to identify sympathetic nerves, and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) was used to identify growing nerves. Polyclonal antibody was obtained for use in identifying TnX. Nerves were evident in both the infarcted and noninfarcted areas. Many nerves were found around blood vessels. A total of 181 nerves in 69 slides were examined: 89 were from noninfarcted myocardium, 4 from infarct, 13 from infarct horder zone, and 75 from perivascular regions. Except in normal dogs, all nerves stained positive for TH also stained positive for GAP-43, indicating sympathetic nerve sprouting after MI. In all dogs, the nerves that stained positive for TH also stained positive for TnX. Conclusion: There is a colocalization of TnX, GAP-43, and TH in sprouted cardiac nerves. These results suggest that TnX is important not only in the existing normal myocardial nerve cells but also in cardiac sympathetic nerve sprouting after MI. [source]


    Histopathological studies on viral nervous necrosis of sevenband grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus Thunberg, at the grow-out stage

    JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 7 2004
    S Tanaka
    Abstract Viral nervous necrosis caused by sevenband grouper nervous necrosis virus (SGNNV) has occurred in grow-out stages (0,3 years old) of sevenband grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus, since the 1980s. In the present study, based on histopathological features of the central nervous system (CNS) in naturally diseased fish, pernasal infection experiments using grow-out fish were performed and pernasal infection was established as a putative invasion route of SGNNV. The definite SGNNV-targeted cells were determined by histopathological studies including indirect fluorescent antibody test and electron microscopy. Nerve cells in the olfactory lobe were most extensively necrotized with vacuolation followed by infiltration of microglia and macrophages. Purkinje cells and Golgi cells were extensively infected in the cerebellum. Megalocells and small nerve cell nuclei were also infected in the preoptic area, thalamus, medulla oblongata and spinal cord. Only a few small nerve cells were infected in the olfactory bulb and optic tectum. The retina of some diseased fish displayed vacuolated bipolar cells of the inner nuclear layer and in the ganglion cell layer. These SGNNV-infected nerve cells displayed viroplasmic inclusions containing virions, vacuoles and myelin-like structures. Based on observed histopathological changes, the lesion of the CNS was characterized by encephalitis but not encephalopathy. [source]


    A novel approach to enhancing cellular glutathione levels

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2008
    Pamela Maher
    Abstract GSH and GSH-associated metabolism provide the major line of defense for the protection of cells from oxidative and other forms of toxic stress. Of the three amino acids that comprise GSH, cysteine is limiting for GSH synthesis. As extracellularly cysteine is readily oxidized to form cystine, cystine transport mechanisms are essential to provide cells with cysteine. Cystine uptake is mediated by system xc,, a Na+ -independent cystine/glutamate antiporter. Inhibition of system xc, by millimolar concentrations of glutamate, a pathway termed oxidative glutamate toxicity, results in GSH depletion and nerve cell death. Recently, we described a series of compounds derived from the conjugation of epicatechin (EC) with cysteine and cysteine derivatives that protected nerve cells in culture from oxidative glutamate toxicity by maintaining GSH levels. In this study, we characterize an additional EC conjugate, cysteamine-EC, that is 5- to 10-fold more potent than the earlier conjugates. In addition, we show that these EC conjugates maintain GSH levels by enhancing the uptake of cystine into cells through induction of a disulfide exchange reaction, thereby uncoupling the uptake from system xc,. Thus, these novel EC conjugates have the potential to enhance GSH synthesis under a wide variety of forms of toxic stress. [source]


    A novel role of hippocalcin in bFGF-induced neurite outgrowth of H19-7 cells

    JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 7 2008
    Doo-Yi Oh
    Abstract Hippocalcin is a Ca2+ -binding protein that is expressed mainly in pyramidal nerve cells of the hippocampus. However, its functions and mechanism in the brain remain unclear. To elucidate the role of hippocalcin, we used a conditionally immortalized hippocampal cell line (H19-7) and showed that bFGF treatment increased the expression of hippocalcin during bFGF-induced neurite outgrowth of H19-7 cells. Overexpression of hippocalcin dramatically elongated neurites and increased the expression of basic helix,loop,helix transcription factor, that is, NeuroD without bFGF stimulation. Treatment of the cells with hippocalcin siRNA completely blocked bFGF-induced neurite outgrowth and NeuroD expression. bFGF stimulation resulted in activation of phospholipase C,, (PLC-,) and an increased level of intracellular Ca2+. Hippocalcin expression by bFGF stimulation was fully blocked by both the PLC-, inhibitor U73122 and BAPTA-AM, a chelator of intracellular Ca2+, suggesting that hippocalcin expression by bFGF is dependent on PLC-, and Ca2+. Moreover, both U73122 and BAPTA-AM completely blocked bFGF-induced neurite outgrowth and NeuroD expression. Taken together, these results suggest for the first time that bFGF induces hippocalcin expression in H19-7 cells through PLC-, activation, which leads to neurite outgrowth. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Analysis of neuronal gene expression with laser capture microdissection

    JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH, Issue 5 2002
    Valerie A.M. Vincent
    Abstract The brain is a heterogeneous tissue in which the numbers of neurons, glia, and other cell types vary among anatomic regions. Gene expression studies performed on brain homogenates yield results reflecting mRNA abundance in a mixture of cell types. Therefore, a method for quantifying gene expression in individual cell populations would be useful. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a new technique for obtaining pure populations of cells from heterogeneous tissues. Most studies thus far have used LCM to detect DNA sequences. We developed a method to quantify gene expression in hippocampal neurons from mouse brain using LCM and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This method was optimized to permit histochemical or immunocytochemical visualization of nerve cells during LCM while minimizing RNA degradation. As an example, gene expression was quantified in hippocampal neurons from the Tg2576 mouse model for Alzheimer's disease. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Medicinal chemistry approaches for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease

    MEDICINAL RESEARCH REVIEWS, Issue 1 2003
    S.O. Bachurin
    Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is characterised by progressive deterioration of memory and higher cortical functions that ultimately result in total degradation of intellectual and mental activities. Modern strategies in the search of new therapeutic approaches are based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics of AD, and focused on following directions: agents that compensate the hypofunction of cholinergic system, agents that interfere with the metabolism of beta-amyloid peptide, agents that protect nerve cells from toxic metabolites formed in neurodegenerative processes, agents that activate other neurotransmitter systems that indirectly compensate for the deficit of cholinergic functions, agents that affect the process of the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, anti-inflammatory agents that prevent the negative response of nerve cells to the pathological process. The goal of the present review is the validation and an analysis from the point of view of medicinal chemistry of the principles of the directed search of drugs for the treatment and prevention of AD and related neurodegenerative disorders. It is based on systematization of the data on biochemical and structural similarities in the interaction between physiologically active compounds and their biological targets related to the development of such pathologies. The main emphasis is on cholinomimetic, anti-amyloid and anti-metabolic agents, using the data that were published during the last 3 to 4 years, as well as the results of clinical trials presented on corresponding websites. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Med Res Rev, 23, No. 1, 48,88, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/med.10026 [source]


    Nervous system,derived chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans regulate growth cone morphology and inhibit neurite outgrowth: A light, epifluorescence, and electron microscopy study

    MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE, Issue 5 2001
    Diane M. Snow
    Abstract Proteoglycans influence aging and plasticity in the nervous system. Particularly prominent are the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which are generally inhibitory to neurite outgrowth. During development, CSPGs facilitate normal guidance, but following nervous system injury and in diseases of aging (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), they block successful regeneration, and are associated with axon devoid regions and degenerating nerve cells. Whereas previous studies used non-nervous system sources of CSPGs, this study analyzed the morphology and behavior of sensory (dorsal root ganglia) neurons, and a human nerve cell model (SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells) as they contacted nervous system,derived CSPGs, using a variety of microscopy techniques. The results of these qualitative analyses show that growth cones of both nerve cell types contact CSPGs via actin-based filopodia, sample the CSPGs repeatedly without collapse, and alter their trajectory to avoid nervous system,derived CSPGs. Turning and branching are correlated with increased filopodial sampling, and are common to both neurons and Schwann cells. We show that CSPG expression by rat CNS astrocytes in culture is correlated with sensory neuron avoidance. Further, we show for the first time the ultrastructure of sensory growth cones at a CSPG-laminin border and reveal details of growth cone and neurite organization at this choice point. This type of detailed analysis of the response of growth cones to nervous system,derived CSPGs may lead to an understanding of CSPG function following injury and in diseases of aging, where CSPGs are likely to contribute to aberrant neurite outgrowth, failed or reduced synaptic connectivity, and/or ineffective plasticity. Microsc. Res. Tech. 54:273,286, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Assessment of spinal cord pathology following trauma using early changes in the spinal cord evoked potentials: A pharmacological and morphological study in the rat

    MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue S11 2002
    Hari Shanker Sharma PhD
    Abstract The possibility that spinal cord pathology following trauma can be assessed with early changes in the spinal cord evoked potentials (SCEPs) was examined in a rat model. Spinal cord injury (SCI) was produced in Equithesin-anesthetized (3 ml/kg, i.p.) rats through a longitudinal incision into the right dorsal horn at the T10,11 segments. The SCEPs were recorded with epidural electrodes placed over the T9 (rostral) segment of the cord. The SCEPs consisted of a small positive amplitude and a broad and high negative amplitude (NA). SCI resulted in an instant depression of the rostral NA that lasted for 1 h. However, the latency of NA continued to increase over time. At 5 h, spinal cord blood flow declined by 30% in the T9 segment, whereas the spinal cord water content and the permeability of the blood,spinal cord barrier (BSCB) were markedly increased. Damage to the nerve cells, glial cells, and myelin was quite common in the spinal cord, as seen by light and electron microscopy. Pretreatment with p -chlorophenylalanine, indomethacin, ibuprofen, and nimodipine attenuated the SCEP changes immediately after trauma and resulted in a marked reduction in edema formation, BSCB permeability, and blood flow changes at 5 h. However, pretreatment with cyproheptadine, dexamethasone, phentolamine, and propranolol failed to attenuate the SCEP changes after SCI and did not reduce the cord pathology. These observations suggest that early changes in SCEP reflect secondary injury-induced alterations in the cord microenvironment. Obviously, these changes are crucial in determining the ultimate magnitude and severity of cord pathology. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Muscle Nerve Supplement 11: S83,S91, 2002 [source]


    Autopsy case of aluminum encephalopathy

    NEUROPATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
    Teruo Shirabe
    We report the case of a 59-year-old female aluminum encephalopathy patient who had chronic renal failure and took 3.0 g hydroxy-aluminum gel per day for the control of serum phosphorus level during a 15-year period. Nine months before her death she developed disorientation, memory disturbance, emotional incontinence, general convulsions and consciousness disturbance. Neuropathologically, the brain showed nerve cell atrophy and mild loss with stromal spongiosis, proliferation of astrocytes and microglia in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus. Some nerve cells were stained immunohistochemically by phosphorylated neurofilament, but apparent neurofibrillary tangles were not observed. Aluminum was detected in the nerve cells of the cerebral cortex by X-ray microanalysis. Despite the long-term intake of aluminum, there were no neuropathological findings of Alzheimer's disease. The findings in our case suggested that aluminum alone might not develop Alzheimer's disease. [source]


    Autopsy case of thanatophoric dysplasia: Observations on the serial sections of the brain

    NEUROPATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    Katsuyuki Yamaguchi
    The neuropathological findings in an autopsy case of thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) with serial sections of the brain are described here. This patient was a female infant, born at 33 weeks gestation, who died on day 1. Skeletal anomalies, consisting of short limbs, a small thorax, short ribs, thick cortical vertebral body substance and sternum substance, and hypoplastic lungs, were compatible with typical phenotypic features of TD. The brain weighed 370 g, showing a cloverleaf megalencephaly. A computerized 3-D reconstruction technique visualized clearly abnormal deep sulci arranged perpendicular to the neuraxis on the inferior surface of the temporal lobe, and peculiar configurational changes of the lateral ventricle. In particular, the inferior horn showed an unusual complex form. Dysgenetic changes were largely located in the anterior temporal lobe as follows: cortical polymicrogyria; leptomeningeal heterotopia with discontinuity of the subpial basement membrane; serpentine arrangement of pyramidal cells of the cornu ammonis (CA)1 of the hippocampus; hypoplastic dentate gyrus; hyperplasia of the amygdaloid body; and heterotopic nodules of neuroblasts or glioblasts in the periventricular white matter. Apart from the temporal lobe, the cerebral pia mater showed unusual fusion of two facing sheets in a sulcus and ectopia of nerve cells, and the cerebellar vermis was small. The findings observed here indicate that overgrowth and lack of growth can coexist in the TD brain, suggesting that some interaction(s) between the mesenchyme and the nervous tissue may play a role in normal differentiation of these two cell lines. [source]


    Tryptamine induces cell death with ultrastructural features of autophagy in neurons and glia: Possible relevance for neurodegenerative disorders

    THE ANATOMICAL RECORD : ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 9 2006
    Federico Herrera
    Abstract Tryptamine derivatives are a family of biogenic amines that have been suggested to be modulators of brain function at physiological concentrations. However, pharmacological concentrations of these amines display amphetamine-like properties, and they seem to play a role in brain disorders. Amphetamines induce autophagy in nerve cells, and this type of cell death has also been involved in neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work, we clearly demonstrate for the very first time that high concentrations of tryptamine (0.1,1 mM) induce autophagy in HT22 and SK-N-SH nerve cell lines and in primary cultures of astrocytes, glial cells being less sensitive than neurons. Ultrastructural cell morphology shows all of the typical hallmarks of autophagy. There is no nuclear chromatin condensation, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria are swollen, and a great number of double-membraned autophagosomes and residual bodies can be shown in the cytoplasm. Autophagosomes and residual bodies contain mitochondria, membranes, and vesicles and remain unabridged until the cell membrane is disrupted and the cell dies. The same results have been found when cells were incubated with high concentrations of 5-methoxytryptamine (0.1,1 mM). Our results establish a possible link between the role of tryptamine derivatives in brain disorders and the presence of autophagic cell death in these kinds of disorders. Anat Rec Part A, 288A:1026,1030, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Morphologies and projections of defined classes of neurons in the submucosa of the guinea-pig small intestine

    THE ANATOMICAL RECORD : ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    John B. Furness
    Abstract Four types of neurons have previously been identified by neurochemical markers in the submucosal ganglia of the guinea-pig small intestine, and functional roles have been ascribed to each type. However, morphological differences among the classes have not been determined, and there is only partial information about their projections within the submucosa. In the present work, we used intracellular microelectrodes to fill neurons of each type with biocytin, which was then converted to a permanent dye, so that the shapes of the neurons could be determined and their projections within the submucosa could be followed. Cell bodies of noncholinergic secretomotor/ vasodilator neurons had Dogiel type I morphology. These neurons, which are vasoactive intestinal peptide immunoreactive, had single axons that ran through many ganglia without providing terminals around other neurons. Cholinergic secretomotor neurons with neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity had Stach type IV morphology, and cholinergic secretomotor/vasodilator neurons had stellate cell bodies. The axons of these two types ran short distances in the plexus and did not innervate other submucosal neurons. Neurons of the fourth type, intrinsic primary afferent neurons, had cell bodies with Dogiel type II morphology and their processes supplied networks of varicose processes around other nerve cells. It is concluded that each functionally defined type of submucosal neuron has a characteristic morphology and that intrinsic primary afferent neurons synapse with secretomotor neurons to form monosynaptic secretomotor reflex circuits. Anat Rec Part A 272A:475,483, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Immunocytochemical Detection of Synaptophysin in Enteric Neurones during Prenatal Development in the Rat Stomach

    ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 3 2004
    M. Asar
    Summary In this study, the localization and appearance of synaptophysin-immunoreactive (IR) nerve cells and their relationships with the developing gastric layers were studied by immunocytochemistry and light microscopy in the embryonic rat stomach. The stomachs of Wistar rat embryos aged 13,21 days were used. The first neuronal bodies and their processes containing synaptophysin-immunoreactivity were observed on embryonic day 13. In contrast, synaptophysin-IR nerve terminals were first observed between mesenchymal cells on embryonic day 14. These results indicate that synaptophysin is expressed in growing neurits and neuronal cell bodies before these neurones have established synaptic connections. The occurrences of mesenchymal cell condensation near synaptophysin-IR neuroblasts on embryonic day 15 reflect an active nerve element-specific mesenchymal cell induction resulting in the morphogenesis of muscle cells. Similarly, the appearance of glandular structures after synaptophysin-IR neuroblasts, on embryonic day 18, suggests that the epithelial differentiation may be closely related to the neuronal maturation as well as other factors. Finally, synaptophysin is functionally important in neuronal development and maturation, together with the establishment of neuroneuronal and neuromuscular contacts and in epithelial differentiation. [source]


    The Intermesenteric Plexus in the Pigeon (Columba livia GM)

    ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 2 2001
    T Kuder
    Using the thiocholine method and histological techniques the intermesenteric plexus of the pigeon was studied. The intermesenteric plexus of this species is a plexo-ganglionic structure with several (five to seven) ganglia and nerve fibres. The ganglia have an oval-, spindle- or star-like shape. Single nerve cells along the nerve fibres were observed. The intermesenteric plexus of the pigeon is situated on the ventrolateral surface of the aorta, between the cranial mesenteric artery and caudal mesenteric artery. The connections between the intermesenteric and other vegetative plexuses (coeliac plexus, mesenteric inferior plexus) and the pelvic nerve were observed. [source]


    My favorite animal, Trichoplax adhaerens

    BIOESSAYS, Issue 12 2005
    Bernd Schierwater
    Trichoplax adhaerens is more simply organized than any other living metazoan. This tiny marine animal looks like a irregular "hairy plate" ("tricho plax") with a simple upper and lower epithelium and some loose cells in between. After its original description by F.E. Schulze 1883, it attracted particular attention as a potential candidate representing the basic and ancestral state of metazoan organization. The lack of any kind of symmetry, organs, nerve cells, muscle cells, basal lamina and extracellular matrix originally left little doubt about the basal position of T. adhaerens. Nevertheless, the interest of zoologists and evolutionary biologists suddenly vanished for more than half a century when Trichoplax was claimed to be an aberrant hydrozoan planula larva. Recently, Trichoplax has been rediscovered as a key species for unraveling early metazoan evolution. For example, research on regulatory genes and whole genome sequencing promise insights into the genetics underlying the origin and development of basal metazoan phyla. Trichoplax offers unique potential for understanding the minimal requirements of metazoan animal organization. BioEssays 27:1294,1302, 2005. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Neuronal FasL Induces Cell Death of Encephalitogenic T Lymphocytes

    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    A. Flügel
    Apoptosis of inflammatory cells plays a crucial role in the recovery from autoimmune CNS disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis induction are as yet ill-defined. Here we report on the neuronal expression of FasL and its potential function in inducing T-cell apoptosis. Using a combination of facial nerve axotomy and passive transfer encephalomyelitis, the fate of CD4+ encephalitogenic T cells engineered to express the gene for green fluorescent protein was followed. FasL gene transcripts and FasL protein were detected in neurons by in situ -hybridization and immunohistochemistry. T cells infiltrating preferentially the injured brain parenchyma were found in the immediate vicinity of FasL expressing neurons and even inside their perikarya. In contrast to neurons, T cells rapidly underwent apoptosis. In co-cultures of hippocampal nerve cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes, we confirmed expression of FasL in neurons and concomitant induction of T-cell death. Antibodies blocking neuronal FasL were shown to have a protective effect on T-cell survival. Thus, FasL expression by neurons in neuroinflammatory diseases may constitute a pivotal mechanism underlying apoptosis of encephalitogenic T cells. [source]