Nerve Branches (nerve + branch)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Phrenic Nerve Distribution in the Rabbit Diaphragm and Morphometric Analysis of Nerve Branches

ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 6 2006
H. B. Turgut
Summary The best method to evaluate the pathogenesis of diaphragmatic disorders is to demonstrate the distribution pattern of the phrenic nerve in the diaphragm. For this purpose the branching pattern and the microanatomic features of the phrenic nerve were observed in six rabbits. All diaphragms were stained by using Sihler's stain method. The phrenic nerve divided into three to four branches when entering the diaphragm. These branches were classified as sternal, anterolateral, posterolateral and crural. The crural branches were the thickest whereas the anterolateral branches were the thinnest. Knowledge about the distribution pattern of the phrenic nerve may be important in surgical approach to the diaphragm. [source]


Histologic mimics of perineural invasion

JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY, Issue 9 2009
Martin Dunn
Background: Perineural invasion (PNI) by primary cutaneous cancers is an important adverse risk factor. Certain benign conditions may mimic microscopic PNI. Mohs surgery is being performed more frequently on smaller primary cutaneous malignancies. While PNI may be present in these cases, it is likely to be microscopic and asymptomatic, affecting as little as one cutaneous nerve branch. Methods: Review of the literature base regarding PNI as well as contribution of original findings. Results: Four benign entities that could easily be confused with microscopic PNI are presented. Conclusion: At least four benign mimics of microscopic PNI exist, important in the differential diagnosis of microscopic PNI. Knowledge of these entities should help dermatopathologists to correctly distinguish them from PNI and avoid unnecessary additional treatment. [source]


Repair of transected facial nerve with mesenchymal stromal cells: Histopathologic evidence of superior outcome,

THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 11 2009
Bulent Satar MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Despite advanced surgical techniques, clinical results of the transected facial nerve are still far from the desired outcome. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were shown to transdifferentiate into Schwann cells and express some growth factors beneficial in peripheral nerve injury. We aimed to document histopathological improvement obtained from application of the homograft bone marrow-derived MSCs immediately after conventional anastomosis of a transected facial nerve branch in rats, and to compare the results with those nerves anastomosed only. Study Design: Animal, prospective, and controlled study. Methods: The study was performed in 15 rats. The right buccal branch was completely transected and repaired with epineural sutures. The right-side anastomosis was additionally treated with MSCs thereafter. The right marginal mandibular branch was kept intact, but in contact with MSCs. The left buccal branch was transected and repaired in a similar fashion except for MSC application. The left-side marginal mandibular branch was left intact. Rats were sacrificed at month 1, 3, and 6. Four branches of each rat were sampled, and nerve segments distal to the anastomosis were histopathologically examined. Results: The examination revealed that intact nerve segments and nerve segments in contact with MSCs had completely normal appearance regardless of the time interval. Samples from the nerves anastomosed and treated with MSCs did better than those nerves anastomosed only in terms of axonal organization and myelin thickness. Conclusions: This preliminary report witnessed beneficial effects of MSCs application onto the injured facial nerve as evidenced by the histopathological examination. Laryngoscope, 2009 [source]


Fibularis tertius: Revisiting the anatomy

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 8 2007
K. Rourke
Abstract Fibularis tertius (FT) may be used during reconstructive surgery and muscle transposition with retention of function. The muscle was examined in both lower limbs of 41 cadavers. Measurements were made of muscle belly length and width, tendon length and width, and the size of the origin on the fibula. Tendon insertion, nerve and blood supplies were also examined. FT was absent in five (6.1%) lower limbs of three (7.3%) subjects. The size of its origin demonstrated inter- and intra-individual variation. FT arose from the distal fibula and on average occupied (28.4 ± 9.1)% (mean ± S. D.) of the total shaft length. In all cases the tendon inserted into the dorsal surface of the shafts of both the fourth and fifth metatarsals. A small nerve branch consistently arose from the deep fibular nerve near the origin of extensor digitorum longus. The nerve ran parallel to the length of this muscle, between it and extensor hallucis longus, before piercing FT. Anatomy textbooks describe FT as inserting into the fifth metatarsal only. This study, supported by data from previous reports, suggests that the "textbook" accounts of FT should be updated to record that most commonly its tendon reaches both the fourth and fifth metatarsals. Clin. Anat. 20:946,949, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Nerve supply of the brachioradialis muscle: Surgically relevant variations of the extramuscular branches of the radial nerve

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 7 2005
Maria D. Latev
Abstract The brachioradialis muscle is utilized in tendon-transfer operations, carried out for a variety of purposes. The extramuscular branches of the radial nerve to the brachioradialis were dissected and studied in 43 embalmed cadaveric specimens. The number of primary and secondary branches and the spatial locations of their origins and muscle-entry points was determined for each specimen. All distances were measured relative to the lateral epicondyle. A wide anatomic variation was observed in both the nerve branching pattern as well as the number and locations of muscle-entry points. A single primary nerve branch was found in 20 specimens, or 46.5% of the cases. On an average, single primary nerve branches arose from the radial nerve 30 mm proximal to the lateral epicondyle. In 16 of these cases, the primary branch splits into two to four secondary branches, and in four cases there was only one branch entering the muscle. Seventeen specimens had two primary branches whose origin points were separated by 5 to 40 mm with an average of 15 mm. In seven of these seventeen cases one or both of the primary branches split into secondary branches. Six specimens had three primary branches; the origin points of the most proximal and the most distal branch were separated by up to 30 mm with an average of 13 mm. Excluding the four cases with extensive fanning into multiple thin branches, the number of muscle-entry points ranged from 1 to 4 (mean 2.7). The locations of the muscle-entry points for all specimens were widespread ranging from 50 mm proximal and 40 mm distal to the lateral epicondyle with an average at 6 mm proximal to the lateral epicondyle. The greatest distance between muscle-entry points was 50 mm in a single specimen. In surgical procedures involving dissection of the brachioradialis muscle more proximal than 50 mm distal to the elbow, the extramuscular branch(es) of the radial nerve branches to the brachioradialis may be at risk. Clin. Anat. 18:488,492, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Secondary end-to-end repair of extensive facial nerve defects: Surgical technique and postoperative functional results

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 9 2004
Hildegunde Piza-Katzer MD
Abstract Background. Repair of the transected facial nerve is imperative for restoration of muscle function, including the ability to produce appropriate facial expressions. Injury might involve the main trunk and its several branches. Restoration of function presupposes meticulous repair of all injured nerve branches. Methods. Here we report three cases of secondary tension-free end-to-end coaptation of a transected trunk and branches of the facial nerve by removal of the superficial part of the parotid gland. Results. Facial tone and symmetry at rest and motion were achieved. In two patients, a slight residual synkinesis is observed under stress. Conclusions. Direct end-to-end coaptation of the facial nerve and its branches by the technique described should be considered before deciding on grafts or rerouting procedures to deal with gaps of up to 15 mm. This technique is not recommended in the presence of infection and nerve defects. Intensive postoperative physiotherapy is required for optimal results. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 770,777, 2004 [source]


Changes in a rat facial muscle after facial nerve injury and repair

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 9 2001
Davor Jergovi
Abstract This study describes changes in a rat facial muscle innervated by the mandibular and buccal facial nerve branches 4 months after nerve injury and repair. The following groups were studied: (A) normal controls; (B) spontaneous reinnervation by collateral or terminal sprouting; (C) reinnervation after surgical repair of the mandibular branch; and (D) chronic denervation. The normal muscle contained 1200 exclusively fast fibers, mainly myosin heavy chain (MyHC) IIB fibers. In group B, fiber number and fiber type proportions were normal. In group C, fiber number was subnormal. Diameters and proportions of MyHC IIA and hybrid fibers were above normal. The proportion of MyHC IIB fibers was subnormal. Immediate and delayed repair gave similar results with respect to the parameters examined. Group D rats underwent severe atrophic and degenerative changes. Hybrid fibers prevailed. These data suggest that spontaneous regeneration of the rat facial nerve is superior to regeneration after surgical repair and that immediacy does not give better results than moderate delay with respect to surgical repair. Long delays are shown to be detrimental. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Muscle Nerve 24: 1202,1212, 2001 [source]


Nerve supply of the brachioradialis muscle: Surgically relevant variations of the extramuscular branches of the radial nerve

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 7 2005
Maria D. Latev
Abstract The brachioradialis muscle is utilized in tendon-transfer operations, carried out for a variety of purposes. The extramuscular branches of the radial nerve to the brachioradialis were dissected and studied in 43 embalmed cadaveric specimens. The number of primary and secondary branches and the spatial locations of their origins and muscle-entry points was determined for each specimen. All distances were measured relative to the lateral epicondyle. A wide anatomic variation was observed in both the nerve branching pattern as well as the number and locations of muscle-entry points. A single primary nerve branch was found in 20 specimens, or 46.5% of the cases. On an average, single primary nerve branches arose from the radial nerve 30 mm proximal to the lateral epicondyle. In 16 of these cases, the primary branch splits into two to four secondary branches, and in four cases there was only one branch entering the muscle. Seventeen specimens had two primary branches whose origin points were separated by 5 to 40 mm with an average of 15 mm. In seven of these seventeen cases one or both of the primary branches split into secondary branches. Six specimens had three primary branches; the origin points of the most proximal and the most distal branch were separated by up to 30 mm with an average of 13 mm. Excluding the four cases with extensive fanning into multiple thin branches, the number of muscle-entry points ranged from 1 to 4 (mean 2.7). The locations of the muscle-entry points for all specimens were widespread ranging from 50 mm proximal and 40 mm distal to the lateral epicondyle with an average at 6 mm proximal to the lateral epicondyle. The greatest distance between muscle-entry points was 50 mm in a single specimen. In surgical procedures involving dissection of the brachioradialis muscle more proximal than 50 mm distal to the elbow, the extramuscular branch(es) of the radial nerve branches to the brachioradialis may be at risk. Clin. Anat. 18:488,492, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Penetration of muscles by branches of the mandibular nerve: A possible cause of neuropathy

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 1 2004
Takashi Shimokawa
Abstract We carried out detailed dissections of the branches of the mandibular nerve and muscles innervated by these branches to investigate their positional relationships. We made the following observations: 1) small branch of the auriculotemporal nerve penetrated the lateral pterygoid muscle; 2) the entire lingual nerve penetrated the medial pterygoid muscle; and 3) branch of the mylohyoid nerve penetrated the mylohyoid muscle and communicated with the submandibular ganglion. No detailed descriptions of these nerve branches have been reported previously. The existence of these nerve branches that penetrate muscles might result in the neuralgic pain in the trigeminal region when such pain is of unknown origin. Clin. Anat. 17:2,5, 2004. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Intramuscular innervation of the human soleus muscle: A 3D model

CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 5 2003
Eldon Y. Loh
Abstract The purpose of this study was to document the neural distribution patterns within the human soleus muscle using 3D computer modelling. Through serial dissection, pinning, and digitization, nerve distribution and muscle volume of a human cadaveric soleus muscle were documented and a detailed 3D computer model of neural distribution within the muscle volume was generated. Branching patterns demonstrated divisions that parallel architectural partitions within the soleus; that is, into anterior, posterior, and marginal soleus. Additionally, branching patterns demonstrated further partitioning of the posterior soleus into five distinct regions and the anterior soleus into two regions. Communication between nerve branches of the five regions of posterior soleus and between the anterior and posterior soleus were recorded. Knowledge of these anatomical partitions and their interaction is important as it will aid in the development of functional muscle models and in the understanding of normal and pathological muscle function. Clin. Anat. 16:378,382, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE INTERACTION OF SUBSTANCE P AND GLUTAMATE ON A, AND C AFFERENT FIBRE ACTIVITY IN RAT HAIRY SKIN

CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 12 2006
Qi Zhang
SUMMARY 1The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether there was a cooperative interaction between substance P (SP) and glutamate (GLU) administered subcutaneously on A, and C primary afferent fibre activity in dorsal hairy skin of the rat in vivo. The single unit activities of A, and C afferent fibres were recorded by isolation of fibre filaments from the dorsal cutaneous nerve branches and the effects of subcutaneous injections of low doses of SP, GLU and SP + GLU on activity were determined. 2Sub-threshold doses of SP (1 µmol/L, 10 µL) administered subcutaneously into the dorsal hairy skin had no effect on the afferent discharges of either A, or C units. 3The afferent discharges of 35% (11/31) of A, fibres and 33% (6/18) of C fibres were increased by local injection of the submaximal doses of GLU (10 µmol/L, 10 µL) into the receptive fields. 4The GLU-induced excitatory response was significantly enhanced by coinjection of subthreshold doses of SP. The mean discharge rates of A, fibres and C fibres were increased from 5.84 ± 1.54 and 5.02 ± 2.65 impulses/min to 19.91 ± 4.35 and 17.58 ± 5.59 impulses/min, respectively, whereas the excitatory proportions of A, and C fibres were increased from 35 and 33% to 84 and 83%, respectively. The duration of the excitation for A, fibres and C fibres was also significantly increased after coinjection of SP + GLU compared with that observed when either substance was given alone. 5The present study provides electrophysiological evidence for an interaction between receptors for SP and GLU on the fine fibres activities in rat hairy skin, which may be involved in the mechanisms of hyperalgesia. [source]