Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Neonatal

  • neonatal abstinence syndrome
  • neonatal behavioral assessment scale
  • neonatal brain
  • neonatal calf
  • neonatal cardiomyocyte
  • neonatal care
  • neonatal care unit
  • neonatal cerebellum
  • neonatal characteristic
  • neonatal chick
  • neonatal cholestasi
  • neonatal complications
  • neonatal convulsion
  • neonatal data
  • neonatal death
  • neonatal development
  • neonatal diabetes
  • neonatal diabetes mellitu
  • neonatal encephalopathy
  • neonatal exposure
  • neonatal factor
  • neonatal fc receptor
  • neonatal foal
  • neonatal health
  • neonatal hepatitis
  • neonatal hypoglycaemia
  • neonatal imitation
  • neonatal intensive care
  • neonatal intensive care unit
  • neonatal jaundice
  • neonatal life
  • neonatal lung
  • neonatal lung disease
  • neonatal lupus
  • neonatal management
  • neonatal morbidity
  • neonatal mortality
  • neonatal mortality rate
  • neonatal mouse
  • neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis
  • neonatal network
  • neonatal nurse
  • neonatal outcome
  • neonatal period
  • neonatal rat
  • neonatal rat cardiomyocyte
  • neonatal rat pup
  • neonatal rat ventricular myocyte
  • neonatal respiratory distress
  • neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
  • neonatal resuscitation
  • neonatal screening
  • neonatal seizures
  • neonatal sepsis
  • neonatal skin
  • neonatal stage
  • neonatal survival
  • neonatal survival rate
  • neonatal treatment
  • neonatal unit
  • neonatal ward

  • Selected Abstracts

    Randomized trial comparing natural and synthetic surfactant: increased infection rate after natural surfactant?

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 5 2000
    AK Kukkonen
    The efficacy of a natural porcine surfactant and a synthetic surfactant were compared in a randomized trial. In three neonatal intensive care units, 228 neonates with respiratory distress and a ratio of arterial to alveolar partial pressure of oxygen <0.22 were randomly assigned to receive either Curosurf 100mgkg,1 or Exosurf Neonatal 5 ml kg,1. After Curosurf, the fraction of inspired oxygen was lower from 15min (0.45 0.22 vs 0.70 0.22, p = 0.0001) to 6 h (0.48 0.26 vs 0.64 0.23,p= 0.0001) and the mean airway pressure was lower at 1 h (8.3 3.2 mmH2O vs 9.4 3.1 mmH2O ,= 0.01). Thereafter the respiratory parameters were similar. The duration of mechanical ventilation (median 6 vs 5 d) and the duration of oxygen supplementation (median 5 vs 4 d) were similar for Curosurf and Exosurf After Curosurf, C-reactive protein value over 40 mg r1 occurred in 45% (vs 12%; RR 3.62, 95%CI 2.12-6.17, p = 0.001), leukopenia in 52% (vs 28%; RR 1.85, 95%CI 1.31-2.61, ,= 0.001) and bacteraemia in 11% (vs 4%; RR3.17, 95%CI 1.05-9.52, p < 0.05). We conclude that when given as rescue therapy Curosurf had no advantage compared with Exosurf in addition to the more effective initial response. Curosurf may increase the risk of infection. [source]

    Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricular Mass in Neonatal and Adult Mice: Accuracy of Different Echocardiographic Methods

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 10 2006
    Alexander Ghanem M.D.
    Echocardiography is an established method to estimate left-ventricular mass (LVM) in mice. Accuracy is determined by cardiac size and morphology and influenced by mathematical models. We investigated accuracy of three common algorithms in three early developmental stages. High-resolution echocardiography was performed in 35 C57/BL6-mice. Therefore, two-dimensional-guided M-mode echocardiography and parasternal short- and long-axis views in B-mode were obtained. LVM was assessed in vivo applying Penn (P), Area Length (AL), and Truncated Ellipsoid (TE) algorithms and validated with histomorphometry. Regression analysis of all mice showed fair estimation of LVM assessed with M-mode-based Penn algorithm (y = 0.6*x , 0.12, r: 0.71). In contrast two-dimensional assessment of LVM revealed close linear relationship with histomorphometry (yAL= 1.21*x , 12.1, r: 0.88, yTE= 1.38*x , 2.88, r: 0.86). Bias was lowest for LVM-AL at diastole underestimating 3.2%. In concordance with the summarized data, LVM-P revealed lower regression coefficients and significant underestimation in all three subgroups. Small hearts (<50 mg, n = 12) correlated best with LVM-AL at systole. Hearts of adolescent (50,75 mg, n = 13) and adult (75,100 mg, n = 10) mice revealed close linear relationship with LVM-AL and LVM-TE at diastole. Echocardiographic assessment of LVM is feasible in hearts weighting less than 50 mg and can be estimated best in systole. Hearts weighting more than 50 mg are estimated most accurately by means of LVM-AL at diastole. [source]

    A postnatal switch in GABAergic control of spinal cutaneous reflexes

    Gareth Hathway
    Abstract GABAergic signalling exerts powerful inhibitory control over spinal tactile and nociceptive processing, but during development GABA can be depolarizing and the functional consequences of this upon neonatal pain processing is unknown. Here we show a postnatal switch in tonic GABAA receptor (GABAAR) modulation of cutaneous tactile and nociceptive reflexes from excitation to inhibition, but only in the intact spinal cord. Neonatal and 21-day-old (P21) rats were intrathecally treated with one of the GABAAR antagonists bicuculline and gabazine, with both compounds dose-dependently decreasing hindpaw mechanical and thermal withdrawal thresholds in P21 rats but increasing them in P3 neonates. Intrathecal gabazine also produced an increase in the cutaneous evoked electromyography (EMG) response of the biceps femoris in P21 rates but lowering the response in neonates. Injections of 3H-gabazine in the L4,L5 region at P3 confirmed that gabazine binding was restricted to the lumbar spinal cord. Spinalization of P3 neonates at the upper thoracic level prior to drug application reversed the behavioural and EMG responses to GABA antagonists so that they resembled those of P21 rats. The effects of spinalization were consistent with gabazine facilitation of ventral root potentials observed in isolated neonatal spinal cord. These data show a marked postnatal developmental switch in GABAergic control of neonatal nociception that is mediated by supraspinal structures and illustrate the importance of studying developmental circuits in the intact nervous system. [source]

    Nucleated red blood cell counts and erythropoietin levels in high-risk neonates

    lfet Vatansever
    Abstract Background: The presence of increased numbers of nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) and increased levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in the circulation of neonates has been associated with states of relative hypoxia. The aim of this study is to assess the pattern of NRBC counts and EPO levels in a group of high-risk neonates under stress conditions and determine the short-term outcome for these babies by using these parameters. Methods: There were 69 high-risk neonates; 14 intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR), 25 preterm infants, 18 term infants with asphyxia and 12 infants of diabetic mothers. Control groups included healthy, term infants delivered either vaginally (n = 18) or with cesarean section (n = 19). Three blood samples were obtained from each infant within 12 h (initial), 3 days and 7 days after birth to measure NRBC counts and EPO levels. Neonatal and short-term outcomes at 3 and 6 months of age were determined. Results: There was no significant difference among the groups with regard to the initial serum EPO concentrations. The initial NRBC counts were significantly lower in the control groups compared with the study groups (P = 0.002). While there was no significant difference between patients with good and poor outcome in terms of EPO concentrations of initial samples, a significant difference existed in terms of NRBC counts (P = 0.038). Conclusions: Both serum EPO level and NRBC count provide limited clinical benefit in the detection of pathological conditions of the neonatal period, but NRBC count determination seems to be especially helpful in predicting short-term neurodevelopmental outcome. [source]

    The Measurement of the QT and QTc on the Neonatal and Infant Electrocardiogram: A Comprehensive Reliability Assessment

    B.S., Robert M. Gow M.B.
    Background: An electrocardiogram has been proposed to screen for prolonged QT interval that may predispose infants to sudden death in the first year of life. Understanding the reliability of QT interval measurement will inform the design of a screening program. Methods: Three pediatric cardiologists measured the QT/RR intervals on 60 infant electrocardiograms (median age 46 days), from leads II, V5 and V6 on three separate occasions, 7 days apart, according to a standard protocol. The QTc was corrected by Bazett's (QTcB), Fridericia's (QTCFrid), and Hodges' (QTcH) formulae. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), limits of agreement and repeatability coefficients for single, average of two and average of three measures. Agreement for QTc prolongation (> 440 msec) was assessed by kappa coefficients. Results: QT interval intraobserver ICC was 0.86 and repeatability coefficient was 25.9 msec; interobserver ICC increased from 0.88 for single observations to 0.94 for the average of 3 measurements and repeatability coefficients decreased from 22.5 to 16.7 msec. For QTcB, intraobserver ICC was 0.67, and repeatability was 39.6 msec. Best interobserver reliability for QTcB was for the average of three measurements (ICC 0.83, reproducibility coefficient 25.8 msec), with further improvement for QTcH (ICC 0.92, reproducibility coefficient 16.69 msec). Maximum interobserver kappa for prolonged QTc was 0.77. Misclassification around specific cut points occurs because of the repeatability coefficients. Conclusions: Uncorrected QT measures are more reliable than QTcB and QTCFrid. An average of three independent measures provides the most reliable QT and QTc measurements, with QTcH better than QTcB. [source]

    First-year survival of infants born with congenital heart defects in Arkansas (1993-1998): A survival analysis using registry data

    Mario A. Cleves
    BACKGROUND In the United States and other developed nations, birth defects are the leading cause of infant mortality. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are among the most prevalent and fatal of all birth defects. Here we report the survival probability of infants born with CHDs in Arkansas and examine the impact of multiple malformations on survival. METHODS Birth and death certificate records were linked to birth defects registry data for infants born with CHDs from January 1993 through December 1998 in Arkansas. Both neonatal and first-year survival probabilities were estimated. These were computed non-parametrically using Kaplan-Meier's product limit method. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate the relative importance of additional malformations on survival. RESULTS A total of 1,983 infants with CHDs were included in this study. The neonatal survival probability for this cohort was 94.0% (95% CI: 93.0%, 95.1%), and the first-year survival probability was 88.2% (95% CI: 86.8%, 89.6%). The presence of hypoplastic left heart syndrome conferred the greatest reduction in survival, whereas infants with pulmonic valve stenosis and infants with ventricular septal defects had the highest first-year survival. Infants with multiple CHDs had decreased survival compared to those with isolated heart defects. Survival was also adversely affected by the presence of congenital abnormalities in other body systems. CONCLUSIONS Neonatal and first-year survival of infants with CHDs varies by both the type of cardiac malformation and the presence of additional cardiac and non-cardiac malformations. Further work will focus on the effects of maternal and infant characteristics on survival. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 67:662,668, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Twelve-month neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants with and without intrauterine growth restriction

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 10 2010
    Nelly Padilla
    Abstract Aim:, To evaluate the neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months' corrected age in preterm infants with and without severe intrauterine growth restriction. Methods:, This prospective follow-up study included 37 infants with severe intrauterine growth restriction and 36 appropriate-for-gestational-age infants born between 26 and 34 weeks. Neonatal and infant data were prospectively recorded. Infants were assessed at 12 2 months' corrected age with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination and the Bayley Scale for Infant Development version-II. Results:, Both groups were similar in demographic characteristics and perinatal status. No significant differences in neurodevelopmental performance were found. The mental development index was 98.8 (SD 9.0) vs 98.4 (SD 13.1) (p = 0.9) and the psychomotor development index was 91.7 (SD 9.9) vs 95.5 (SD 13.4) (p = 0.2) for the study and reference groups respectively. Neurological assessment showed no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion:, Although the study group showed a non-significant trend towards a lower score in the psychomotor development index than the reference group, significant differences at 12 months could not be demonstrated. IUGR infants continued to have significantly lower weight, length and head circumference at 1 year. [source]

    Neonatal and paediatric clinical neurophysiology

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 1 2009
    Carl Lindgren
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Early and Midterm Results of an Alternative Procedure to Homografts in Primary Repair of Truncus Arteriosus Communis

    Pedro Curi-Curi MD
    ABSTRACT Background., Repair of truncus arteriosus communis (TAC) in the neonatal and early infant period has become a standard practice. We report our experience on primary repair of TAC with a bovine pericardial-valved woven Dacron conduit as an alternative procedure to homografts, with a focus on early and midterm results. Methods., From January 2001 to December 2007, 15 patients with mean age 1.5 years (range 3 months to 8 years), underwent primary repair of simple TAC. Cases with cardiogenic shock, complex-associated cardiac lesions, or adverse anatomy of the truncal valve were excluded. The Collett and Edwards anatomical type classification of TAC was as follows: type I, 13 (87%); and type II, 2 (13%). Right ventricular outflow tract was reconstructed in all the cases with a bovine pericardial-valved woven Dacron conduit. Results., Overall mortality was 6.6% (1 death due to severe pulmonary hypertension). At a mean follow-up of 31 months (range 6,51), there were no deaths (5-year actuarial survival 93.4%). Out of the 14 midterm survivors, three developed stenosis of the pericardial-valved woven Dacron conduit, but only one underwent interventional procedure including percutaneous balloon dilation with stenting for associated left pulmonary artery hypoplasia. The rate of patients with no surgical or percutaneous reinterventions performed because of obstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction in the midterm (5 years) was 86%. Conclusions., Truncus arteriosus communis repair with a bovine pericardial-valved woven Dacron conduit can be performed with a very low perioperative mortality and satisfactory midterm morbidity, favorably compared with that reported for the use of homografts. Interventional cardiac catheterization may delay the time of reoperation for inevitable conduit replacement due to stenosis. [source]

    Lumps and bumps in neonates and infants

    Davis Farvolden
    ABSTRACT:, There are many developmental abnormalities that may appear in the neonate and in infants when critical steps in embryogenesis fail. These steps are often not fatal but can lead to signifi-cant morbidity for those patients affected. A logical approach is needed in addressing both the diagnostic and therapeutic issues that arise when caring for these patients, as various lesions will warrant an observational approach, and others may require imaging studies or definitive surgical intervention. Additionally, there are other "lumps and bumps" that are seen in the neonatal and infantile age groups that include malignancies and cutaneous neoplasms with associated systemic sequelae. [source]

    Chronological gene expression of ADAMs during testicular development: Prespermatogonia (gonocytes) express fertilin , (ADAM2)

    Carolina Rosselot
    Abstract Immediately after birth, primordial germinal cell-derived prespermatogonia (PSG), located in the center of the testicular cords, migrate between adjacent Sertoli cells to establish contact with the cord basal lamina. PSG migration suggests continued assembly and disassembly of cell,cell contacts by a molecular mechanism that may involve integrins and their ligands, the disintegrin domain of spermatogenic cell-specific plasma membrane proteins called ADAMs. We have analyzed the temporal gene expression of selected ADAMs in intact fetal, early postnatal, and pubertal rat testis and Sertoli,spermatogenic cell cocultures by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry. We report that several ADAM transcripts are expressed in fetal, neonatal, and prepubertal testes. Cyritestin (ADAM3), ADAM5, ADAM6, and ADAM15 are expressed in day 17 fetal testes. In contrast, no expression of fertilin , (ADAM1) and fertilin , (ADAM 2) was detected in fetal testes. Fertilin , gene expression starts after postnatal day 2, subsequent to the expression of fertilin ,, which occurs on postnatal day 1. After postnatal day 2, all the indicated ADAMs, including the fertilin , and fertilin ,, continue to be expressed. Transcripts of spermatogenic cell-specific fertilin ,, fertilin ,, ADAM3, and ADAM5 were detected during the coculture of PSG with Sertoli cells for up to 72 hr after plating. The presence of fertilin , mRNA and protein in cocultured PSG was visualized by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, respectively. These observations indicate that PSG in coculture with Sertoli cells provide a suitable approach for analyzing cell,cell adhesive responses involving spermatogenic cell-specific ADAMs. Development Dynamics 458,467, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Factors affecting vocabulary acquisition at age 2 in children born between 23 and 28 weeks' gestation

    Louise Marston MSc
    Language development is often slower in preterm children compared with their term peers. We investigated factors associated with vocabulary acquisition at 2 years in a cohort of children born at 28 weeks' gestation or less. For children entered into the United Kingdom Oscillation Study, language development was evaluated by using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories score, completed by parents as part of a developmental questionnaire. The effect of demographic, neonatal, socioeconomic factors, growth, and disability were investigated using multifactorial random effects modelling. Questionnaires were returned by 288 participants (148 males, 140 females). The mean number of words vocalized was 42 (SD 29). Multifactorial analysis showed only four factors were significantly associated with vocabulary acquisition. These were: (1) level of disability (mean words: no disability, 45; other disability, 38; severe disability, 30 [severe disability is defined as at least one extreme response in one of the following clinical domains: neuromotor, vision, hearing, communication, or other physical disabilities]; 95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference between no and severe disability 7- 23); (2) sex (39 males, 44 females; 95% CI 0.4-11); (3) length of hospital stay (lower quartile, 47; upper quartile, 38; 95% CI -12 to -4); and (4) weight SD score at 12 months (lower quartile, 39; upper quartile, 44; 95% CI 1,9). There was no significant association between gestational age and vocabulary after multifactorial analysis. There was no significant effect of any socioeconomic factor on vocabulary acquisition. We conclude that clinical factors, particularly indicators of severe morbidity, dominate the correlates of vocabulary acquisition at age 2 in children born very preterm. [source]

    Laminin and fibronectin modulate inner ear spiral ganglion neurite outgrowth in an in vitro alternate choice assay

    Amaretta R. Evans
    Abstract Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules have been shown to function as cues for neurite guidance in various populations of neurons. Here we show that laminin (LN) and fibronectin (FN) presented in stripe micro-patterns can provide guidance cues to neonatal (P5) inner ear spiral ganglion (SG) neurites. The response to both ECM molecules was dose-dependent. In a LN versus poly- L -lysine (PLL) assay, neurites were more often observed on PLL at low coating concentrations (5 and 10 ,g/mL), while they were more often on LN at a high concentration (80 ,g/mL). In a FN versus PLL assay, neurites were more often on PLL than on FN stripes at high coating concentrations (40 and 80 ,g/mL). In a direct competition between LN and FN, neurites were observed on LN significantly more often than on FN at both 10 and 40 ,g/mL. The data suggest a preference by SG neurites for LN at high concentrations, as well as avoidance of both LN at low and FN at high concentrations. The results also support a potential model for neurite guidance in the developing inner ear in vivo. LN, in the SG and osseus spiral lamina may promote SG dendrite growth toward the organ of Corti. Within the organ of Corti, lower concentrations of LN may slow neurite growth, with FN beneath each row of hair cells providing a stop or avoidance signal. This could allow growth cone filopodia increased time to sample their cellular targets, or direct the fibers upward toward the hair cells. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2007 [source]

    Effects of neonatal handling and maternal separation on rough-and-tumble play in the rat

    Jennifer L. Arnold
    Abstract The extent to which brief daily handling and longer periods of separation from the mother during the first 2 weeks of life can affect play behavior in juvenile rats was assessed. Rat pups were separated from the mother for either 15 min daily (handling) or for 3 hr daily (maternal separation), and play was observed as juveniles. Overall levels of playfulness were not affected by either manipulation, although certain aspects of playful responsiveness were affected in males, but not females. In particular, the pattern of responsiveness to playful contacts was feminized in both handled and separated male rats. Activity in a novel open field at 15 days of age was increased in both males and females from the separated group, but not in the handled animals, as were the number of rears exhibited during the play bouts. These data suggest that early rearing experiences can have subtle gender-dependent effects on some aspects of play in juvenile rats and that the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for these effects may differ from those associated with other effects reported for handling and maternal separation. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 41: 205,215, 2002. Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/dev.10069 [source]

    Human fetal and neonatal movement patterns: Gender differences and fetal-to-neonatal continuity

    C. Robert Almli
    Abstract Longitudinal quantification of leg movements per minute for human subjects during both fetal and neonatal periods was accomplished from videotapings conducted antenatally (ultrasonography 30, 34, and 37 weeks gestational age) and postnatally (birth and 6 weeks of age). Fetal/neonatal subjects displayed decreasing numbers of leg movements per minute during antenatal development (30 to 37 weeks), followed by increasing numbers of leg movements per minute during postnatal development (birth to 6 weeks of age). Male subjects displayed greater numbers of leg movements per minute than female subjects during both antenatal and postnatal development. Fetal-to-neonatal continuity for numbers of leg movements per minute was found for comparisons between fetal (37 weeks gestational age) and neonatal (during sleep states at birth) measures, and females displayed a stronger and different movement continuity pattern than males. These results indicate a differential time course for neurobehavioral development of male and female fetuses/neonates, and the findings have implications for the clinical assessment of fetal neurobehavioral development and well-being. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 38: 252,273, 2001 [source]

    "My Two-week-old Daughter Is Throwing up Blood"

    M.H. Moustafa MD
    Abstract Swallowed maternal blood at the time of delivery or from cracked nipples during breastfeeding is the most common cause of suspected gastrointestinal bleeding in the neonate. In this case, the Apt,Downey test is a useful diagnostic tool. The Apt,Downey test can effectively differentiate neonatal from maternal hemoglobin based on the conversion of oxyhemoglobin to alkaline globin hematin when mixed with alkali. [source]

    Epileptiform Activity Induced by Pharmacologic Reduction of M-Current in the Developing Hippocampus in Vitro

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2006
    Fernando Pea
    Summary:,Purpose: Benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNCs), an inheritable epilepsy that occurs in neonates but not in adults, is caused by hypofunctional mutations in genes codifying for the M-type K+ current. In an attempt to develop an in vitro model of this disease, we tested whether blocking M-current with linopirdine induces epileptiform activity in brain slices from animals of different ages. Methods: Horizontal hippocampus,entorhinal cortex slices were obtained from neonatal (1,2 weeks after birth) and adult (8,9 weeks after birth) rats. Extracellular field recordings of the CA1 region were performed. After recording control conditions, linopirdine was added to the bath, and field activity was recorded continuously for 3 h. 4-Aminopyridine, a drug commonly used to induce epileptiform activity in vitro, was used as a control for our experimental conditions. Results: Bath perfusion of linopirdine induced epileptiform activity only in slices from neonatal rats. Epileptiform activity consisted of interictal-like and ictal-like activity. In slices from adult rats, linopirdine induced erratic interictal-like activity. In contrast, 4-aminopyridine was able to induce epileptiform activity in slices from both neonatal and adult rats. Conclusions: We demonstrated that blockade of M-current in vitro produces epileptiform activity with a developmental pattern similar to that observed in BNFCs. This could be an in vitro model that can be used to study the cellular mechanisms of epileptogenesis and the developmental features of BFNCs, as well as to develop some therapeutic strategies. [source]

    Hypertrophy and physiological death of equine chondrocytes in vitro

    Y. A. Ahmed
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Equine osteochondrosis results from a failure of endochondral ossification during skeletal growth. Endochondral ossification involves chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy and death. Until recently no culture system was available to study these processes in equine chondrocytes. Objective: To optimise an in vitro model in which equine chondrocytes can be induced to undergo hypertrophy and physiological death as seen in vivo. Methods: Chondrocytes isolated from fetal or older (neonatal, growing and mature) horses were cultured as pellets in 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) or 10% horse serum (HS). The pellets were examined by light and electron microscopy. Total RNA was extracted from the pellets, and quantitative PCR carried out to investigate changes in expression of a number of genes regulating endochondral ossification. Results: Chondrocytes from fetal foals, grown as pellets, underwent hypertrophy and died by a process morphologically similar to that seen in vivo. Chondrocytes from horses age >5 months did not undergo hypertrophy in pellet culture. They formed intramembranous inclusion bodies and the cultures included cells of osteoblastic appearance. Pellets from neonatal foals cultured in FCS resembled pellets from older horses, however pellets grown in HS underwent hypertrophy but contained inclusion bodies. Chondrocytes from fetal foals formed a typical cartilage-like tissue grossly and histologically, and expressed the cartilage markers collagen type II and aggrecan mRNA. Expression of Sox9, collagen type II, Runx2, matrix metalloproteinase-13 and connective tissue growth factor mRNA increased at different times in culture. Expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA decreased with time in culture. Conclusions: Freshly isolated cells from fetal growth cartilage cultured as pellets provide optimal conditions for studying hypertrophy and death of equine chondrocytes. Potential relevance: This culture system should greatly assist laboratory studies aimed at elucidating the pathogenesis of osteochondrosis. [source]

    PRECLINICAL STUDY: Different effects of chronic phencyclidine on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neonatal and adult rat brains

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    Jun'ichi Semba
    ABSTRACT The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are both known to play major roles in the normal development of the brain. We have hypothesized that the chronic blockade of NMDA with phencyclidine (PCP) may have a different effect on BDNF synthesis at different stages of development. In an acute experiment, rat pups and adult rats were injected with PCP (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg) at postnatal day (PD) 15 or 49, respectively. In a chronic experiment, rat pups were injected daily from PD 5 to PD 14 with PCP (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg), while adult rats were injected daily with the same dose from PD 39 to PD 48. BDNF levels in the hippocampus, striatum and frontal cortex were determined by ELISA assay 24 hours after the last injection. Chronic PCP treatment of neonatal rats induced a dose-dependent decrease in BDNF in the hippocampus but not in the frontal cortex and striatum. Single injection of PCP to rat pups showed a slight reduction of BDNF in the hippocampus but only at higher doses. In contrast to neonatal brain, neither acute nor chronic injection of PCP influenced BDNF in adult brain. These findings suggest that chronic blockade of NMDA receptor in the early neonatal period has an inhibitory effect on BDNF synthesis in the hippocampus and may impair normal neurodevelopment in rat pups. [source]

    The clinical outcomes of neonatal and childhood stroke: review of the literature and implications for future research

    C. Hrtel
    A detailed assessment of clinical outcomes after ischemic stroke in childhood is necessary to evaluate prognostic factors. Previous studies are difficult to compare because of differences in test instruments, study design, heterogeneity of cohorts and number of included cases. Depending on neurodevelopmental assessment methods, major and subtle/minor disabilities, especially in infants, may not have been detected. Most outcome studies reveal only limited information about behavioral changes and quality of life in children with ischemic stroke. Thus the assumption that children make a better recovery from stroke than adults due to the immature brain's capacity to reorganize function is not evidence-based. We systematically review the current literature with regard to the neurological and psychosocial development of affected children as well as their quality of life. Implications for future research strategies follow the review to encourage further clinical study of the neurobehavioral trajectory of childhood stroke. [source]

    Environmental manipulations early in development alter seizure activity, Ih and HCN1 protein expression later in life

    Ulrich Schridde
    Abstract Although absence epilepsy has a genetic origin, evidence from an animal model (Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk; WAG/Rij) suggests that seizures are sensitive to environmental manipulations. Here, we show that manipulations of the early rearing environment (neonatal handling, maternal deprivation) of WAG/Rij rats leads to a pronounced decrease in seizure activity later in life. Recent observations link seizure activity in WAG/Rij rats to the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) in the somatosensory cortex, the site of seizure generation. Therefore, we investigated whether the alterations in seizure activity between rats reared differently might be correlated with changes in Ih and its channel subunits hyperpolarization-activated cation channel HCN1, 2 and 4. Whole-cell recordings from layer 5 pyramidal neurons, in situ hybridization and Western blot of the somatosensory cortex revealed an increase in Ih and HCN1 in neonatal handled and maternal deprived, compared to control rats. The increase was specific to HCN1 protein expression and did not involve HCN2/4 protein expression, or mRNA expression of any of the subunits (HCN1, 2, 4). Our findings provide the first evidence that relatively mild changes in the neonatal environment have a long-term impact of absence seizures, Ih and HCN1, and suggest that an increase of Ih and HCN1 is associated with absence seizure reduction. Our findings shed new light on the role of Ih and HCN in brain functioning and development and demonstrate that genetically determined absence seizures are quite sensitive for early interventions. [source]

    Long-range oscillatory Ca2+ waves in rat spinal dorsal horn

    Ruth Ruscheweyh
    Abstract Synchronous activity of large populations of neurons shapes neuronal networks during development. However, re-emergence of such activity at later stages of development could severely disrupt the orderly processing of sensory information, e.g. in the spinal dorsal horn. We used Ca2+ imaging in spinal cord slices of neonatal and young rats to assess under which conditions synchronous activity occurs in dorsal horn. No spontaneous synchronous Ca2+ transients were detected. However, increasing neuronal excitability by application of 4-aminopyridine after pretreatment of the slice with blockers of (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate, ,-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A and glycine receptors evoked repetitive Ca2+ waves in dorsal horn. These waves spread mediolaterally with a speed of 1.0 0.1 mm/s and affected virtually every dorsal horn neuron. The Ca2+ waves were associated with large depolarizing shifts of the membrane potential of participating neurons and were most likely synaptically mediated because they were abolished by blockade of action potentials or N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptors. They were most pronounced in the superficial dorsal horn and absent from the ventral horn. A significant proportion of the Ca2+ waves spread to the contralateral dorsal horn. This seemed to be enabled by disinhibition as primary afferent-induced dorsal horn excitation crossed the midline only when GABAA and glycine receptors were blocked. Interestingly, the Ca2+ waves occurred under conditions where AMPA/kainate receptors were blocked. Thus, superficial dorsal horn NMDA receptors are able to sustain synchronous neuronal excitation in the absence of functional AMPA/kainate receptors. [source]

    The murine neurokinin NK1 receptor gene contributes to the adult hypoxic facilitation of ventilation

    Krzysztof Ptak
    Abstract Substance P and neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1) modulate the respiratory activity and are expressed early during development. We tested the hypothesis that NK1 receptors are involved in prenatal development of the respiratory network by comparing the resting respiratory activity and the respiratory response to hypoxia of control mice and mutant mice lacking the NK1 receptor (NK1,/,). In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted on neonatal, young and adult mice from wild-type and NK1,/, strains. In the wild strain, immunohistological, pharmacological and electrophysiological studies showed that NK1 receptors were expressed within medullary respiratory areas prior to birth and that their activation at birth modulated central respiratory activity and the membrane properties of phrenic motoneurons. Both the membrane properties of phrenic motoneurons and the respiratory activity generated in vitro by brainstem-spinal cord preparation from NK1,/, neonate mice were similar to that from the wild strain. In addition, in vivo ventilation recordings by plethysmography did not reveal interstrain differences in resting breathing parameters. The facilitation of ventilation by short-lasting hypoxia was similar in wild and NK1,/, neonates but was significantly weaker in adult NK1,/, mice. Results demonstrate that NK1 receptors do appear to be necessary for a normal respiratory response to short-lasting hypoxia in the adult. However, NK1 receptors are not obligatory for the prenatal development of the respiratory network, for the production of the rhythm, or for the regulation of breathing by short-lasting hypoxia in neonates. [source]

    Hippocampal granule neuron production and population size are regulated by levels of bFGF

    Yinghong Cheng
    Abstract Numerous studies of the proliferative effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in culture, including neonatal and adult hippocampal precursors, suggest that the factor plays a ubiquitous and life-long role in neurogenesis. In contrast, in vivo, bFGF is devoid of effects on neurons in mature hippocampus, raising the possibility that bFGF exhibits developmental stage-specific activity in the complex animal environment. To define neurogenetic effects in the newborn, a single subcutaneous injection of bFGF (20 ng/gm) was administered to postnatal day 1 (P1) rats, and hippocampal DNA content was quantified: bFGF elicited an increase in total DNA throughout adulthood, by 48% at P4, 25% at P22, and 17% at P180, suggesting that bFGF increases hippocampal cell number. To define mechanisms, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected at P1 and mitotically labelled cells were assessed at P22: there was a twofold increase in BrdU-positive cells in the dentate granule cell layer (GCL), indicating that bFGF enhanced the generation of neurons, or neuronogenesis, from a cohort of precursors. Moreover, enhanced mitosis and survival led to a 33% increase in absolute GCL neuron number, suggesting that neuron production depends on environmental levels of bFGF. To evaluate this possibility, bFGF-knockout mice were analyzed: hippocampal DNA content was decreased at all ages examined (P3, ,42%; P21, ,28%; P360, ,18%), and total GCL neuron and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cell number were decreased by 30%, indicating that bFGF is necessary for normal hippocampal neurogenesis. We conclude that environmental levels of bFGF regulate neonatal hippocampal neurogenesis. As adult hippocampal neuronogenesis was unresponsive to bFGF manipulation in our previous study [Wagner, J.P., Black, I.B. & DiCicco-Bloom, E. (1999) J. Neurosci., 19, 6006], these observations suggest distinct, stage-specific roles of bFGF in the dentate gyrus granule cell lineage. [source]

    Functional skin adaptation in infancy , almost complete but not fully competent

    Joachim W. Fluhr
    Please cite this paper as: Functional skin adaptation in infancy , almost complete but not fully competent. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: 483,492. Abstract:, Early postnatal life is a period of active functional reorganization and cutaneous physiological adaptation to the extrauterine environment. Skin as the outermost organ of mammalians is endowed of multiple functions such as protection, secretion, absorption and thermoregulation. Birth stimulates the epidermal barrier maturation and the skin surface acidification especially in premature infants. In full-term infants the developed stratum corneum accomplishes competent barrier function, in contrast to prematures. Complete barrier maturation in preterm infants is fulfilled by 2,4 weeks of the postnatal life. However, in preterms with 23,25 weeks gestational age this process takes longer. Versatile regulatory mechanisms, namely skin surface acidity, calcium ion gradient and nuclear hormone receptors/ligands are interrelated in the complex postnatal newborn adaptation. The skin of newborns is adjusting quickly to the challenging environmental conditions of the postpartum. However, certain functions, for example, microcirculation, continue to develop even beyond the neonatal period, that is, up to the age of 14,17 weeks. Different environmental factors (for instance, dry and cold climate, diapers and cosmetic care procedures) influence the postnatal development of skin functional parameters such as stratum corneum hydration and the permeability barrier especially in premature infants. The aim of this article is to summarize the current knowledge on skin physiology in newborn and infants with a practical approach and to discuss the possible clinical consequences. This review offers the readership a critical and practical overview of skin physiology in newborns and infants. It emphasizes possible new research fields in neonatal and infantile skin physiology. [source]

    Enhanced survival of vascular smooth muscle cells accounts for heightened elastin deposition in arteries of neonatal spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Silvia M. Arribas
    Abnormal stiffening and narrowing of arteries are characteristic features of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In this strain, we have previously demonstrated an increased elastin content and abnormal organization of lamellae in conduit and resistance arteries from neonatal rats that preceded the impending inward remodelling, increased vascular stiffness and development of hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanism responsible for such excessive and aberrant elastin deposition in SHR vessels during perinatal development. We compared elastin, collagen and fibronectin production (inmunocytochemistry and quantitative assay of metabolically labelled insoluble elastin), DNA content as well as cell proliferation (proliferative cellular nuclear antigen, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) and death rates (propidium iodide exclusion test, terminal transferase nick and labeling (TUNEL) assay) in cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) derived from neonatal SHR and Wistar,Kyoto (WKY) control rats. Cultures of VSMC derived from neonatal SHR exhibited hypertrophy, produced more elastin, collagen and fibronectin and contained more DNA than equally plated WKY counterparts. Further analysis revealed that the higher net DNA content in SHR-derived cultures was due to increased diploidy, but not to a heightened cell multiplication. The SHR-derived VSMC also exhibited lower rates of cell death and apoptosis, which were associated with increased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein, survivin. We therefore conclude that the peculiar heightened survival of matrix-producing VSMC in neonatal SHR is responsible for accumulation of hard-wearing elastin and other extracellular matrix elements in the growing arteries, thereby contributing to the subsequent development of systemic hypertension. [source]

    Endothelial-Independent Prevention of High Blood Pressure in L-Name-Treated Rats by Angiotensin II type I Receptor Antisense Gene Therapy

    Phyllis Y. Reaves
    It has previously been established that a single systemic administration of retroviral vector containing angiotensin II type I receptor antisense (AT1R-AS) in the neonatal spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) prevents development of hypertension, and in addition cardiac hypertrophy and endothelial dysfunction. However, these studies could not determine whether the effects of AT1R-AS on high blood pressure (BP) and endothelial function were independent. Angiotensin receptor blockers have been shown to reduce BP in the L-NAME (N , -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride)-induced rat model of hypertension. Our objective in the present study was to use the L-NAME model of hypertension to determine whether AT1R-AS treatment would lower high BP and attenuate cardiac hypertrophy under conditions of permanent endothelial damage. A single bolus of LNSV-AT1R-AS viral particles in neonatal Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was without affect on basal BP. Efficacy of the transgene incorporation was assessed by observing a significant reduction in angiotensin-induced dipsogenic response in the AT1R-AS-treated animals. Introduction of L-NAME in the drinking water for 10 weeks resulted in the establishment of hypertension only in the WKY rats treated with vector alone. These hypertensive (BP, 179 4 mmHg) animals showed a 17% increase in heart weight/body weight ratio and a 60% reduction in ACh-induced vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-preconstricted arteries. The L-NAME-induced high BP and cardiac hypertrophy were attenuated in rats expressing AT1R-AS. However, endothelial dysfunction could not be prevented with the antisense therapy. These observations demonstrate that attenuation of endothelial dysfunction is not a prerequisite for the antihypertensive effects of AT1R-AS treatment. [source]

    Neuroendocrine Function and Chronic Inflammatory Stress

    Michael Harbuz
    The factors regulating susceptibility and severity of autoimmune diseases are poorly understood. That neuroendocrine factors are critical modulators in this regard is self-evident. For example, there are major gender differences in susceptibility with women at greater risk than men of, for example, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has rightly attracted a considerable amount of attention. Of particular interest has been the hypothesis that susceptibility to autoimmune disease may be related to an impaired responsiveness of the HPA axis; that is, an inability to mount an appropriate cortisol response with which to down-regulate the immune system might allow the immune system to rampage unchecked and attack self. This hypothesis links regulation of the release from the adrenal gland of the potent anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids to the disease process. Endogenous glucocorticoids are crucial for the regulation of the severity of the disease process. The hypothesis proposing a link between a hyporesponsive HPA axis and susceptibility to disease is compelling. However, evidence from a number of sources has suggested that this may not be the entire story and alterations in the activity of the HPA axis have not been consistently observed in patients with RA. This review will concentrate on recent findings concerning the HPA axis in determining susceptibility to, and in regulating the severity of, inflammatory processes in autoimmune disease. These studies have revealed that a single exposure to endotoxin can confer protection to subsequent development of inflammation in an arthritis model in both neonatal and adult rats. Behavioural differences within a single population of rats are associated with differences in the plasma corticosterone responses to stress. However, relative hyporesponsiveness is not reflected by an increase in the severity of inflammation. In humans with RA the dexamethasone-corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) test has revealed two distinct sub-populations of patients. Studies in patients with MS have shown that this is not related to depression but rather to the severity of the disease. A better understanding of these complex neuroendocrine interactions may lead to novel clinical interventions. [source]

    Low expression of the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor alpha chain and reduced signalling via the IL-4 receptor complex in human neonatal B cells

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Cuixia Tian
    Summary Diminished neonatal antibody responses following infection or immunization may stem in part from intrinsic characteristics of neonatal B cells. In this study, we used B-cell subset sorting combined with gene expression assays to investigate major differences in the expression of host genes in neonatal and adult nave B cells. We discovered significantly reduced expression of the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor alpha chain and reduced IL-4-induced signalling in neonatal B cells. Neonatal nave B cells were susceptible to more rapid and more profound levels of apoptosis when cultured in vitro. They also exhibited a limited response to IL-4 treatment compared with adult cells. The expression level of the IL-13 receptor alpha 1 chain, a key component of the IL-13 receptor/IL-4 type II receptor, and the response to IL-13 treatment for protection against apoptosis in neonatal B cells were similar to those of the adult B cells. These studies suggest a possible mechanism underlying the limited magnitude and durability of neonatal antibody responses. [source]

    DEC-205lo Langerinlo neonatal Langerhans' cells preferentially utilize a wortmannin-sensitive, fluid-phase pathway to internalize exogenous antigen

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Bernadette M. Bellette
    Summary Antigen treatment of neonatal epidermis results in antigen-specific immune suppression. Compared with adult counterparts, neonatal Langerhans' cells (LC) demonstrate an impaired ability to transport antigen to the lymph node (LN). As it is possible that neonatal LC have a reduced ability to endocytose antigen, we evaluated the acquisition of endocytic function, the expression of uptake receptors and the internalization of soluble and small particulate antigens in neonatal, juvenile and adult mice. Although LC from 4-day-old mice were weakly positive for the mannose-type receptor, Langerin, they were capable of internalizing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran, but to a lesser extent than LC from 6-week-old mice. However, when ratio data were calculated to account for variations in fluorescence intensity at 4, it was demonstrated that neonatal LC continued to internalize antigen over a longer period of time than adult mice and, as the ratios were much higher, that neonatal cells were also relatively more efficient in antigen uptake. When receptors for mannan and mannose were competitively blocked, LC from neonatal mice, but not adult mice, could still efficiently internalize FITC,dextran. Consequently, the uptake of FITC,dextran, in part, occurred via alternative receptors or a receptor-independent fluid-phase pathway. A feasible pathway is macropinocytosis, as LC from 4-day-old mice demonstrated a reduction in FITC,dextran internalization by the macropinocytosis inhibitor, wortmannin. Evidence of a functional macropinocytosis pathway in neonatal LC was further supported by internalization of the soluble tracer Lucifer Yellow (LY). We conclude that neonatal LC preferentially utilize a wortmannin-sensitive, fluid-phase pathway, rather than receptor-mediated endocytosis, to internalize antigen. As neonatal LC are capable of sampling their environment without inducing immunity, this may serve to avoid inappropriate immune responses during the neonatal period. [source]