Neointimal Formation (neointimal + formation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Different roles of proteolipids and 70-kDa subunits of V-ATPase in growth and death of cultured human cells

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 6 2003
Hong Zhan
Background: The vacuolar-type proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) plays important roles in cell growth and tumour progression. V-ATPase is composed of two distinct structures, a hydrophilic catalytic cytosolic sector (V1) and a hydrophobic transmembrane sector (V0). The V1 sector is composed of 5,8 different subunits with the structure A3B3C1D1E1F1G1H1. The V0 sector is composed of 5 different subunits with the structure 1161381191166. The over-expression of 16-kDa proteolipid subunit of V-ATPase in the perinuclear region of the human adventitial fibroblasts promotes phenotypic modulation that contributes to neointimal formation and medial thickening. A relationship between oncogenicity and the expression of the 16-kDa proteolipid has also been suggested in human pancreatic carcinoma tissue. Results: We found that the mRNA levels of the 16-kDa proteolipid but not of the 70-kDa subunit of V-ATPase in human myofibroblasts were more abundant in serum-containing medium (MF(+) cells) than serum-free medium (MF(,) cells). In HeLa cells, the levels of mRNA and protein of the 16-kDa, 21-kDa or 70-kDa were clearly suppressed when the corresponding anti-sense oligonucleotides were administered to the culture medium. The growth rate and viability (mostly due to necrosis) of HeLa cells were reduced markedly by the 16-kDa and 21-kDa anti-sense, but little by the 70-kDa anti-sense, and not at all by any sense oligonucleotides. The localization of 16-kDa/21-kDa proteolipid subunits was different from that of the 70-kDa subunit in HeLa cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that the 16-kDa and 21-kDa proteolipid subunits of the V0 sector play crucial roles in growth and death of cultured human cells. Our results may provide new insights into the mechanism and therapeutic implications for vessel wall hyperplasia and tumorigenesis. [source]

Progenitor cells in vascular disease

Neil Roberts
Abstract Stem cell research has the potential to provide solutions to many chronic diseases via the field of regeneration therapy. In vascular biology, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been identified as contributing to angiogenesis and hence have therapeutic potential to revascularise ischaemic tissues. EPCs have also been shown to endothelialise vascular grafts and therefore may contribute to endothelial maintenance. EPC number has been shown to be reduced in patients with cardiovascular disease, leading to speculation that atherosclerosis may be caused by a consumptive loss of endothelial repair capacity. Animal experiments have shown that EPCs reendothelialise injured vessels and that this reduces neointimal formation, confirming that EPCs have an atheroprotective effect. Smooth muscle cell accumulation in the neointimal space is characteristic of many forms of atherosclerosis, however the source of these cells is now thought to be from smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs) rather than the adjacent media. There is evidence for the presence of SMPCs in the adventitia of animals and that SMPCs circulate in human blood. There is also data to support SMPCs contributing to neointimal formation but their origin remains unknown. This article will review the roles of EPCs and SMPCs in the development of vascular disease by examining experimental data from in vitro studies, animal models of atherosclerosis and clinical studies. [source]

Smooth muscle cell proliferation but not neointimal formation is dependent on alloantibody in a murine model of intimal hyperplasia

B. Soleimani
Summary Transplant coronary artery disease is the pre-eminent cause of late cardiac allograft failure. It is primarily characterized by a concentric intimal hyperplasia, which we designate transplant intimal hyperplasia (TIH). Although the pathogenesis of TIH is predominately immune driven, the specific role of alloantibodies in the disease process remains undefined. In this study we investigated the contribution of alloantibodies to the development of TIH in a murine model. Orthotopic, carotid artery transplantation was performed between B10A(2R) (H-2h2) donor mice and B-cell deficient ,MT,/, knockout or wild-type C57BL/6 (H-2b) recipients in the absence of immunosuppression. Grafts were harvested at 35 days and subjected to planimetry and immunohistochemistry. Alloantibodies were detectable in wild-type recipients within 7 days of transplantation and recipients developed marked TIH at 35 days. Allografts harvested from B-cell deficient recipient mice also developed TIH, which was comparable in severity with wild-type recipients. However, whereas allografts from wild-type recipients showed marked intimal smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, the neointima in B-cell deficient recipients lacked SMCs. Post-transplantation administration of anti-donor serum to ,MT,/, recipients restored neointimal SMC population but did not influence the severity of TIH. Significant neointimal formation occurs in the absence of alloantibodies but lacks a SMC component. Therefore, SMC migration and proliferation is antibody dependent. [source]


Huguette Louis
SUMMARY 1Smooth muscle cells (SMC) participate in both inflammatory and dedifferentiation processes during atherosclerosis, as well as during mechanical injury following angioplasty. In the latter, we studied medial SMC differentiation and inflammation processes implicated early after de-endothelialization in relation to mechanical stresses. We hypothesized that activation of a subpopulation of SMC within the media plays a crucial role in the early phase of neointimal formation. 2For this purpose, we used a rabbit model of balloon injury to study activation and differentiation of medial SMC in the early time after denudation and just before neointima thickening. Inflammation was evaluated by the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, integrin a4b1 and nuclear factor (NF)-kB. Myosin isoforms and 2P1A2 antigen, a membrane protein expressed by rabbit dedifferentiated SMC, were used as markers of differentiation. 3On day 2 after de-endothelialization, VCAM-1, a4b1 and NF-kB were coexpressed by a well-defined subpopulation of SMC of the internal part of the media, in the vicinity of the blood stream. At the same time, the majority of SMC throughout the media expressed non-muscle myosin heavy chain-B (nm-MHC-B) and 2P1A2 antigen. On day 7, when intimal thickening appeared, SMC of the media were no longer activated, whereas some intimal SMC expressed the activation markers. Thus, after de-endothelialization, early dedifferentiation occurs in most of the medial SMC, whereas activation concerned only a subpopulation of SMC located in the internal media. Using the T-type voltage-operated calcium channel blocker mibefradil (0.1,1 mmol/L) in SMC culture, we showed that this agent exhibited an antiproliferative effect in a dose-dependant manner only on undifferentiated cells. 4In conclusion, the results suggest that the activated SMC represent cells that are potentially able to migrate and participate in the intimal thickening process. Thus, the medial SMC inflammatory process, without any contribution of inflammatory cells, may represent a major mechanism underlying the development of intimal thickening following mechanical stress. In humans, inhibition of T-type calcium channels may be a tool to prevent the early proliferation step leading to neointimal formation. [source]