Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation (neoadjuvant + chemoradiation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Neoadjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer: A current review

Daniel E. Abbott MD
Abstract The optimal therapy for pancreatic cancer continues to evolve. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation is a key component of current treatment regimens, and evaluation of previous treatment options will help guide future trials. Here the authors present a review of the current literature with discussion of future directions. J. Surg. Oncol. 2010; 101:315,320. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Esophageal cancer: Outcomes of surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and three-dimension conformal radiotherapy

FRCS(C), Éric Fréchette MD
Abstract Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation are being utilized with increasing frequency in the multimodal treatment of esophageal cancer, although their effects on morbidity, mortality, and survival remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the outcome of multimodal treatment in patients with localized esophageal cancer treated at a single institution. Between 1995 and 2002, 118 patients underwent treatment for localized esophageal cancer, utilizing surgery alone, chemoradiation alone, or surgery following neoadjuvant chemoradiation. There was no statistically significant difference in morbidity, mortality, or length of stay between the patients who received multimodal therapy when compared to surgery alone. A surgical resection after down-staging was possible in 9 out of 28 patients (32%) with a clinically non-resectable tumor (T4 or M1a). Forty-seven percent of the patients who received neoadjuvant therapy had a complete pathologic response with a 3-year survival of 59% as compared to only 20 months in those patients who did not achieve a complete response (P,=,0.037). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy administered concomitantly with conformal radiotherapy can be performed safely in the treatment of esophageal cancer, without increasing the operative morbidity, mortality, or length of stay. The higher complete response rates to neoadjuvant treatment (as compared to other reports) may be due to the use of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or the novel use of weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel. J. Surg. Oncol. 2004;87:68,74. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Liver transplantation for non,hepatocellular carcinoma malignancy: Indications, limitations, and analysis of the current literature

Eric J. Grossman
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is currently incorporated into the treatment regimens for specific nonhepatocellular malignancies. For patients suffering from early-stage, unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), OLT preceded by neoadjuvant radiotherapy has the potential to readily achieve a tumor-free margin, accomplish a radical resection, and treat underlying primary sclerosing cholangitis when present. In highly selected stage I and II patients with CCA, the 5-year survival rate is 80%. As additional data are accrued, OLT with neoadjuvant chemoradiation may become a viable alternative to resection for patients with localized, node-negative hilar CCA. Hepatic involvement from neuroendocrine tumors can be treated with OLT when metastases are unresectable or for palliation of medically uncontrollable symptoms. Five-year survival rates as high as 90% have been reported, and the Ki67 labeling index can be used to predict outcomes after OLT. Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare tumor of vascular origin. The data from single-institution series are limited, but compiled reviews have reported 1- and 10-year survival rates of 96% and 72%, respectively. Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary hepatic malignancy in children. There exist subtle differences in the timing of chemotherapy between US and European centers; however, the long-term survival rate after transplantation ranges from 66% to 77%. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma is a distinct liver malignancy best treated by surgical resection. However, there is an increasing amount of data supporting OLT when resection is contraindicated. In the treatment of either primary or metastatic hepatic sarcomas, unacceptable survival and recurrence rates currently prohibit the use of OLT. Liver Transpl 16:930-942, 2010. © 2010 AASLD. [source]

Magnetic resonance imaging in rectal cancer downstaged using neoadjuvant chemoradiation: accuracy of prediction of tumour stage and circumferential resection margin status

T. Kulkarni
Abstract Objective, The aim was to examine the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement, T- and N-stage in patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the rectum, who had undergone long-course downstaging chemoradiation (CRT). Method, Patients with rectal cancer were selected for long-course downstaging CRT if their tumour was considered to threaten (,1 mm) or involve the CRM on MRI. Eighty such patients had a repeat MRI at a median of 6 weeks post-CRT followed by surgical excision soon thereafter. The findings on the post-CRT MRI were compared with histological examination of the surgical specimen. Results, For CRM involvement, post-CRT restaging MRI had an accuracy of 81% (65/80) a sensitivity of 54% (7/13), a specificity of 87% (58/67), a positive predictive value of 44% (7/16) and a negative predictive value of 91% (58/64). Accuracy for T- and N-staging was 43% (34/80) and 78% (62/80), respectively. 38% of T-stages were overstaged and 20% understaged. 4% of N-stages were overstaged and 19% understaged. The 13 patients with histological positive CRM had worse clinical outcomes than the 67 patients with negative CRM in terms of disease-free survival (relative risk of reduced DFS 4.6, P = 0.001) and overall survival (relative risk of death 3.6, P = 0.016). Conclusion, Magnetic resonance imaging has good specificity and negative predictive value for predicting an uninvolved CRM post downstaging CRT in locally advanced rectal cancer although sensitivity and positive predictive value for an involved CRM were unsatisfactory. The shortcomings of MRI stem from poor differentiation of viable tumour from posttreatment changes and inability to identify small nodal and tumour deposits. Clinical correlates in this group of patients have confirmed the importance of achieving a clear CRM at surgery. [source]