Neighbouring Species (neighbouring + species)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Phosphorus uptake, not carbon transfer, explains arbuscular mycorrhizal enhancement of Centaurea maculosa in the presence of native grassland species

C. A. Zabinski
Summary 1Previous studies have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) enhance the growth of the invasive forb Centaurea maculosa when growing with native grass species. Using 13CO2, we tested the hypothesis that this enhancement is explained by carbon transfer from native species to C. maculosa via mycorrhizal hyphal linkages. 2A C. maculosa plant was paired with one of five native species , three grasses (Festuca idahoensis, Koeleria cristata and Pseudoroegneria spicata) and two forbs (Achillea millefolium and Gaillardia aristata) , in pots that separated the plants with either a mesh barrier (28 m, excludes fine roots but not hyphae) or a membrane barrier (045 m, excludes roots and hyphae). 313CO2 was added to the atmosphere of either Centaurea or the native species after 20 weeks' growth. A 25 min pulse application was followed by 7 days' growth and subsequent harvest. 4The biomass response of C. maculosa was consistent with previous experiments: C. maculosa was larger when growing in mesh barrier pots, when hyphae were able to access the opposite side of the pot; in mesh barrier pots only, biomass varied with neighbouring species. Native plant biomass did not vary between mesh- vs membrane-barrier pots. 5There was no evidence of carbon transfer, either from the native plant to C. maculosa or in the reverse direction. 6Centaurea maculosa contained significantly more phosphorus in mesh-divided pots, but this depended on the neighbouring plant. The P concentration in C. maculosa was significantly higher in mesh-divided pots when growing with a grass and not a forb. Native species contained more P in mesh-divided pots than membrane-divided pots, and P concentration differed between species (higher in forbs than grasses), but did not vary between mesh- and membrane-divided pots. 7Our study suggests that C. maculosa is able to exploit its mycorrhizal symbiosis more effectively than the native grassland species. The mechanism for this appears to be luxury consumption of P through efficient utilization of extra-radical hyphae, but that effect is dependent on neighbouring species, and occurs when growing with a grass neighbour. 8Although no single study can disprove the carbon-transfer hypothesis, our work suggests that AM-mediated neighbour effects are the result of mycorrhizal networks that increase species' access to P. Whether the synergistic effects of neighbours are due to complementarity of AM fungal symbionts utilized by different plant species, or have to do with the structure of AM networks that develop more extensively with multiple host plants, remains to be investigated. [source]

Genetic identity of interspecific neighbours mediates plant responses to competition and environmental variation in a species-rich grassland

Summary 1Although outbreeding populations of many grassland plants exhibit substantial genetic and phenotypic variation at fine spatial scales (< 100 m2), the implications of local genetic diversity for community structure are poorly understood. Genetic diversity could contribute to local species diversity by mediating the effects of competition between species and by enhancing species persistence in the face of environmental variation. 2We assayed the performance of three genotypes each of a dominant tussock grass (Koeleria macrantha [Ledeb.] J.A. Schultes) and dominant sedge (Carex caryophyllea Lat.) derived from a single 10 10 m quadrat within a limestone grassland in Derbyshire, UK. Genotypes were grown in monoculture and grass,sedge mixtures of different genetic composition in two environments of contrasting fertility. Species mixtures also included one genotype of the subordinate forb Campanula rotundifolia L. 3When grown without neighbours, intraspecific genotypes responded similarly to environmental treatments. One genotype of the sedge performed worse in both environments than the other two sedge genotypes. 4When grown in species mixtures, genotype performance was significantly influenced by the genetic identity of the neighbouring species for both the sedge and the grass. At high fertility, differential genotype performance was not sufficient to alter the expectation of competitive exclusion of the sedge by the grass. However, at low fertility, the competitive dominant depended on the genetic identity of both the grass and the sedge. In addition, each genotype of the grass performed best next to a different genotype of the sedge, and the identity of the best genotype pairings switched with environment. 5Performance of a single genotype of the subordinate Campanula was not predictable by fertility alone, but by how fertility interacted with different neighbouring genotypes of both the grass and the sedge. 6Results support the hypothesis that the genetic identity of interspecific neighbours influences plant performance in multispecies assemblages and mediates species' responses to environmental variation. Such interactions could be a key factor in the contribution of local intraspecific genetic diversity to species diversity. [source]

Hydrogen bonding and ,,, interactions in 1-benzofuran-2,3-dicarboxylic acid and its 1:1 cocrystals with pyridine, phenazine and 1,4-phenylenediamine

Hatem M. Titi
The structure of 1-benzofuran-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (BFDC), C10H6O5, (I), exhibits an intramolecular hydrogen bond between one ,COOH group and the other, while the second carboxyl function is involved in intermolecular hydrogen bonding to neighbouring species. The latter results in the formation of flat one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded chains in the crystal structure, which are ,,, stacked along the normal to the plane of the molecular framework, forming a layered structure. 1:1 Cocrystallization of BFDC with pyridine, phenazine and 1,4-phenylenediamine is associated with H-atom transfer from BFDC to the base and charge-assisted hydrogen bonding between the BFDC, monoanion and the corresponding ammonium species, while preserving, in all cases, the intramolecular hydrogen bond between the carboxyl and carboxylate functions. The pyridinium 2-carboxylato-1-benzofuran-3-carboxylic acid, C5H6N+C10H5O5,, (II), and phenazinium 3-carboxylato-1-benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid, C12H9N2+C10H5O5,, (III), adducts form discrete hydrogen-bonded ion-pair entities. In the corresponding crystal structures, the two components are arranged in either segregated or mixed ,,, stacks, respectively. On the other hand, the structure of 4-aminoanilinium 2-carboxylato-1-benzofuran-3-carboxylic acid, C6H9N2+C10H5O5,, (IV), exhibits an intermolecular hydrogen-bonding network with three-dimensional connectivity. Moreover, this fourth structure exhibits induction of supramolecular chirality by the extended hydrogen bonding, leading to a helical arrangement of the interacting moieties around 21 screw axes. The significance of this study is that it presents the first crystallographic characterization of pure BFDC, and manifestation of its cocrystallization with a variety of weakly basic amine molecules. It confirms the tendency of BFDC to preserve its intramolecular hydrogen bond and to prefer a monoanionic form in supramolecular association with other components. The aromaticity of the flat benzofuran residue plays an important role in directing either homo- or heteromolecular ,,, stacking in the first three structures, while the occurrence of a chiral architecture directed by multiple hydrogen bonding is the dominant feature in the fourth. [source]

Assessing the dominance of Phleum pratense cv. climax, a species commonly used for ski trail restoration

Francis Isselin-Nondedeu
Abstract Questions: (1) Are some species used for ski trail restoration too dominant to allow native species to re-establish? (2) What plant traits can be used to predict which species are good competitors? We tested the hypothesis that limited native species establishment on ski trails is caused by (1) the dominance of Phleum pratense cv. climax (PPC) and (2) the asymmetry of competitive interactions. Location: Sub-alpine area in the northern French Alps. Methods: PPC was cultivated outdoors over 2 years with 15 alpine species in a systematic design with high- and low-nutrient soil conditions. For each species relative survival, competitive performance and relationships with plant traits were measured. Results: PPC exerted strong dominance on most of its neighbouring species. Survival performance of Anthyllis vulneraria, Luzula sudetica and Lotus alpinus were dramatically reduced. Results of above-ground competition showed that species were trapped in asymmetric competition. Festuca rubra, Trifolium repens, Alchemilla xanthochlora, Trifolium pratense and Plantago alpina best counteracted PPC. Below-ground competition was more symmetric, particularly at the high nutrient level. Plant traits such as biomass, canopy size and specific leaf area were positively correlated with competitive performance of the species. Conclusion: The study has implications for the management of restored ski trails since PPC may hinder the establishment of native sub-alpine species. Consequently, recommendations should focus on (1) maintaining a low proportion or decreasing the proportion of PPC seeds in the revegetation mix and (2) reducing soil fertilization. Plant traits and competition experiments can help to predict changes in restored grasslands. [source]