Neighbouring Populations (neighbouring + population)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Detecting local adaptation in widespread grassland species , the importance of scale and local plant community

JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
ARMIN BISCHOFF
Summary 1Adaptation of plant populations to local environments has been shown in many species but local adaptation is not always apparent and spatial scales of differentiation are not well known. In a reciprocal transplant experiment we tested whether: (i) three widespread grassland species are locally adapted at a European scale; (ii) detection of local adaptation depends on competition with the local plant community; and (iii) local differentiation between neighbouring populations from contrasting habitats can be stronger than differentiation at a European scale. 2Seeds of Holcus lanatus, Lotus corniculatus and Plantago lanceolata from a Swiss, Czech and UK population were sown in a reciprocal transplant experiment at fields that exhibit environmental conditions similar to the source sites. Seedling emergence, survival, growth and reproduction were recorded for two consecutive years. 3The effect of competition was tested by comparing individuals in weeded monocultures with plants sown together with species from the local grassland community. To compare large-scale vs. small-scale differentiation, a neighbouring population from a contrasting habitat (wet-dry contrast) was compared with the ,home' and ,foreign' populations. 4In P. lanceolata and H. lanatus, a significant home-site advantage was detected in fitness-related traits, thus indicating local adaptation. In L. corniculatus, an overall superiority of one provenance was found. 5The detection of local adaptation depended on competition with the local plant community. In the absence of competition the home-site advantage was underestimated in P. lanceolata and overestimated in H. lanatus. 6A significant population differentiation between contrasting local habitats was found. In some traits, this small-scale was greater than large-scale differentiation between countries. 7Our results indicate that local adaptation in real plant communities cannot necessarily be predicted from plants grown in weeded monocultures and that tests on the relationship between fitness and geographical distance have to account for habitat-dependent small-scale differentiation. Considering the strong small-scale differentiation, a local provenance from a different habitat may not be the best choice in ecological restoration if distant populations from a more similar habitat are available. [source]


The transferability of distribution models across regions: an amphibian case study

DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Issue 3 2009
Flavio Zanini
ABSTRACT Aim, Predicting species distribution is of fundamental importance for ecology and conservation. However, distribution models are usually established for only one region and it is unknown whether they can be transferred to other geographical regions. We studied the distribution of six amphibian species in five regions to address the question of whether the effect of landscape variables varied among regions. We analysed the effect of 10 variables extracted in six concentric buffers (from 100 m to 3 km) describing landscape composition around breeding ponds at different spatial scales. We used data on the occurrence of amphibian species in a total of 655 breeding ponds. We accounted for proximity to neighbouring populations by including a connectivity index to our models. We used logistic regression and information-theoretic model selection to evaluate candidate models for each species. Location, Switzerland. Results, The explained deviance of each species' best models varied between 5% and 32%. Models that included interactions between a region and a landscape variable were always included in the most parsimonious models. For all species, models including region-by-landscape interactions had similar support (Akaike weights) as models that did not include interaction terms. The spatial scale at which landscape variables affected species distribution varied from 100 m to 1000 m, which was in agreement with several recent studies suggesting that land use far away from the ponds can affect pond occupancy. Main conclusions, Different species are affected by different landscape variables at different spatial scales and these effects may vary geographically, resulting in a generally low transferability of distribution models across regions. We also found that connectivity seems generally more important than landscape variables. This suggests that metapopulation processes may play a more important role in species distribution than habitat characteristics. [source]


HLA allele and haplotype frequencies in the Albanian population and their relationship with the other European populations

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMMUNOGENETICS, Issue 6 2009
G. Sulcebe
Summary Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are very interesting markers in identifying population relationships. Moreover, their frequency distribution data are important in the implementation of donor,recipient registry programs for transplantation purposes and also in determining the genetic predisposition for many diseases. For these reasons, we studied the HLA class I and II allele and haplotype frequencies in 160 healthy, unrelated Albanian individuals originating from all regions of the country. The HLA genotyping was performed through a 2-digit resolution SSOP method. The data were analysed with Arlequin and Phylip programs. No deviation was found from the Hardy,Weinberg equilibrium. A total of 17 A*, 30 B*, 12 Cw*, 13 DRB1* and 5 DQB1* alleles were identified. The six most frequent HLA-A-B-DRB1 haplotypes were A*02,B*18,DRB1*11 (5.60%), A*02,B*51,DRB1*16 (4.74%), A*01,B*08,DRB1*03 (3.48%), A*24,B*35,DRB1*11 (2.77%), A*02,B*51,DRB1*13 (2.21%), A*24,B*35,DRB1*14 (1.89%). Interestingly, 12 HLA-A-B-Cw-DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes occurred at a frequency >1%. When compared with the other populations, a close relationship was found with North Greek, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Romanian, Turkish, Cretan, Serbian, Croatian and Italian populations. A higher differentiation in allele frequency level was found with Western Europe populations. These data are the first report of HLA allele and haplotype distribution in an Albanian population inside this country. When compared with other populations, their distribution frequencies show close similarities with neighbouring populations of the entire Balkan area. [source]


Os incae: variation in frequency in major human population groups

JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 2 2001
TSUNEHIKO HANIHARA
The variation in frequency of the Inca bone was examined in major human populations around the world. The New World populations have generally high frequencies of the Inca bone, whereas lower frequencies occur in northeast Asians and Australians. Tibetan/Nepalese and Assam/Sikkim populations in northeast India have more Inca bones than do neighbouring populations. Among modern populations originally derived from eastern Asian population stock, the frequencies are highest in some of the marginal isolated groups. In Central and West Asia as well as in Europe, frequency of the Inca bone is relatively low. The incidence of the complete Inca bone is, moreover, very low in the western hemisphere of the Old World except for Subsaharan Africa. Subsaharan Africans show as a whole a second peak in the occurrence of the Inca bone. Geographical and ethnographical patterns of the frequency variation of the Inca bone found in this study indicate that the possible genetic background for the occurrence of this bone cannot be completely excluded. Relatively high frequencies of the Inca bone in Subsaharan Africans indicate that this trait is not a uniquely eastern Asian regional character. [source]


Detecting local adaptation in widespread grassland species , the importance of scale and local plant community

JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
ARMIN BISCHOFF
Summary 1Adaptation of plant populations to local environments has been shown in many species but local adaptation is not always apparent and spatial scales of differentiation are not well known. In a reciprocal transplant experiment we tested whether: (i) three widespread grassland species are locally adapted at a European scale; (ii) detection of local adaptation depends on competition with the local plant community; and (iii) local differentiation between neighbouring populations from contrasting habitats can be stronger than differentiation at a European scale. 2Seeds of Holcus lanatus, Lotus corniculatus and Plantago lanceolata from a Swiss, Czech and UK population were sown in a reciprocal transplant experiment at fields that exhibit environmental conditions similar to the source sites. Seedling emergence, survival, growth and reproduction were recorded for two consecutive years. 3The effect of competition was tested by comparing individuals in weeded monocultures with plants sown together with species from the local grassland community. To compare large-scale vs. small-scale differentiation, a neighbouring population from a contrasting habitat (wet-dry contrast) was compared with the ,home' and ,foreign' populations. 4In P. lanceolata and H. lanatus, a significant home-site advantage was detected in fitness-related traits, thus indicating local adaptation. In L. corniculatus, an overall superiority of one provenance was found. 5The detection of local adaptation depended on competition with the local plant community. In the absence of competition the home-site advantage was underestimated in P. lanceolata and overestimated in H. lanatus. 6A significant population differentiation between contrasting local habitats was found. In some traits, this small-scale was greater than large-scale differentiation between countries. 7Our results indicate that local adaptation in real plant communities cannot necessarily be predicted from plants grown in weeded monocultures and that tests on the relationship between fitness and geographical distance have to account for habitat-dependent small-scale differentiation. Considering the strong small-scale differentiation, a local provenance from a different habitat may not be the best choice in ecological restoration if distant populations from a more similar habitat are available. [source]


Comparison of bobuck (Trichosurus cunninghami) demography in two habitat types in the Strathbogie Ranges, Australia

JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
J. K. Martin
Abstract The demographic characteristics of populations are determined by the life-history strategies of their constituent individuals. Habitat characteristics, such as the availability of key resources, shape life-history strategies; thus habitat variation may result in intraspecific variability in demography. We studied two neighbouring populations of bobucks or mountain brushtail possums Trichosurus cunninghami within a fragmented forest system. One population occurred in a forest patch that was selectively logged in the last 40 years; the other occupied narrow strips of linear roadside remnant vegetation that have not been logged for at least 100 years. Many demographic parameters of the two populations were similar, and were consistent with those described previously for a bobuck population living in continuous forest. For example, both sexes were long-lived (at least 12 years), but there were fewer males in the oldest age classes at both sites. Most females produced one young per year and reproduction was highly seasonal. Females in the oldest age classes produced young, but none of these survived to pouch emergence. There were also marked differences between our two study populations: the sex ratio of adults was equal at the forest site but female-biased (1.7:1) at the roadside site. Forest males weighed significantly less than males at the roadside site and females at both sites. The peak of births occurred more than a month later at the roadside than at the forest site. The sex ratio of roadside offspring did not differ significantly from parity; however, the sex ratio of young at the forest site was significantly male-biased (62% of young). This demographic variation may be explained by differences in habitat characteristics (particularly logging history); a detailed investigation of resource availability at the two sites is warranted. Our results highlight the importance of studying multiple populations when attempting to describe the population ecology of a species. [source]


A broad transition zone between an inner Baltic hybrid swarm and a pure North Sea subspecies of Macoma balthica (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
RAISA NIKULA
Abstract The populations of the bivalve clam Macoma balthica in the low-salinity Northern Baltic Sea represent an admixture of two strongly diverged genomic origins, the Pacific Macoma balthica balthica (approx. 60% genomic contribution) and Atlantic Macoma balthica rubra (40%). Using allozyme and mtDNA characters, we describe the broad transition from this hybrid swarm to the pure M. b. rubra in the saline North Sea waters, spanning hundreds of kilometre distance. The zone is centred in the strong salinity gradient of the narrow Íresund strait and in the adjacent Western Baltic. Yet the multilocus clines show no simple and smoothly monotonic gradation: they involve local reversals and strong differences between neighbouring populations. The transitions in different characters are not strictly coincident, and the extent of introgression varies among loci. The Atlantic influence extends further into the Baltic in samples from the southern and eastern Baltic coasts than on the western coast, and further in deeper bottoms than at shallow (< 1 m) sites. This fits with the counterclockwise net circulation pattern and with a presumably weaker salinity barrier for invading Atlantic type larvae in saline deeper water, and corresponding facilitation of outwards drift of Baltic larvae in diluted surface waters. Genotypic disequilibria were strong particularly in the shallow-water samples of the steepest transition zone. This suggests larval mixing from different sources and limited interbreeding in that area, which makes a stark contrast to the evidence of thorough amalgamation of the distinct genomic origins in the inner Baltic hybrid swarm of equilibrium structure. [source]


Fine-scale phylogeographical analysis of Mediterranean Anacamptis palustris (Orchidaceae) populations based on chloroplast minisatellite and microsatellite variation

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 10 2003
S. Cozzolino
Abstract The phylogeographical history of the rare marsh orchid Anacamptis palustris (Orchidaceae) was reconstructed using highly polymorphic chloroplast minisatellite and microsatellite loci. Allelic variation at chloroplast microsatellite loci was due to length variation in poly(A/T) repeats and was informative on a regional scale, but was not sufficient to unravel relationships among populations on a local geographical scale. The minisatellite locus, however, was found to be highly variable. Nine distinct repeat types were found and variation in repeat number occurred in five repeat types. The distribution of chloroplast haplotypes, combining microsatellite and minisatellite repeat type variation, provided a clear phylogeographical picture on a large geographical scale, whereas length variation in one highly polymorphic minisatellite repeat type provided fine-scale phylogeographical information. Mediterranean populations could be divided into four main lineages, a western European lineage, a northern and central Italian lineage, a well-isolated southern Italian (Apulian) lineage, and an eastern European lineage. Variation at the most variable minisatellite repeat type N revealed 19 alleles and allowed the study of seed-mediated gene flow and an estimation of the ratio of pollen to seed flow among neighbouring populations. [source]


Microsatellite variation and fine-scale population structure in the wood frog (Rana sylvatica)

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2001
Robert A. Newman
Abstract We investigated genetic population structure in wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) from a series of Prairie Pothole wetlands in the northern Great Plains. Amphibians are often thought to exist in demographic metapopulations, which require some movement between populations, yet genetic studies have revealed strong subdivision among populations, even at relatively fine scales (several km). Wood frogs are highly philopatric and studies of dispersal suggest that they may exhibit subdivision on a scale of , 1,2 km. We used microsatellites to examine population structure among 11 breeding assemblages separated by as little as 50 m up to , 5.5 km, plus one population separated from the others by 20 km. We found evidence for differentiation at the largest distances we examined and among a few neighbouring ponds, but most populations were strikingly similar in allele frequencies, suggesting high gene flow among all but the most distant populations. We hypothesize that the few significant differences among neighbouring populations at the finest scale may be a transient effect of extinction,recolonization founder events, driven by periodic drying of wetlands in this hydrologically dynamic landscape. [source]


Limited Distribution of a Cardiomyopathy-Associated Variant in India

ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 2 2010
Tatum S. Simonson
Summary Heart failure is a leading cause of death of people in South Asia, and cardiomyopathy is a major cause of heart failure. Myosin binding protein C (MYBPC3) is expressed in the heart muscle, where it regulates the cardiac response to adrenergic stimulation and is important for the structural integrity of the sarcomere. Mutations in the MYBPC3 gene are associated with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathies. A 25-base-pair deletion in intron 32 causes skipping of the downstream exon and is associated with familial cardiomyopathy. To date, this deletion is found primarily in India and South Asia, although it is also found at low frequency in Southeast Asia. In order to better characterise the distribution of this variant, we determined its frequency in 447 individuals from 19 populations, including 10 populations from India and neighbouring populations from Pakistan and Nepal. The deletion frequency is over 8% in some of our Indian samples, and it is not present in any of the populations we sampled outside of India. The differences in the deletion frequencies among populations in India are consistent with patterns of variation previously reported and with patterns we observed among Indian populations based on high-density SNP chip data. Our results indicate that the MYBPC3 deletion is primarily found among Indian populations and that its distribution is consistent with genome-wide patterns of variation in India. [source]


Population Structure in Contemporary Sweden,A Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 1 2009
T. Lappalainen
Summary A population sample representing the current Swedish population was analysed for maternally and paternally inherited markers with the aim of characterizing genetic variation and population structure. The sample set of 820 females and 883 males were extracted and amplified from Guthrie cards of all the children born in Sweden during one week in 2003. 14 Y-chromosomal and 34 mitochondrial DNA SNPs were genotyped. The haplogroup frequencies of the counties closest to Finland, Norway, Denmark and the Saami region in the north exhibited similarities to the neighbouring populations, resulting from the formation of the Swedish nation during the past millennium. Moreover, the recent immigration waves of the 20th century are visible in haplogroup frequencies, and have led to increased diversity and divergence of the major cities. Signs of genetic drift can be detected in several counties in northern as well as in southern Sweden. With the exception of the most drifted subpopulations, the population structure in Sweden appears mostly clinal. In conclusion, our study yielded valuable information of the structure of the Swedish population, and demonstrated the usefulness of biobanks as a source of population genetic research. Our sampling strategy, nonselective on the current population rather than stratified according to ancestry, is informative for capturing the contemporary variation in the increasingly panmictic populations of the world. [source]


Diversity of mtDNA lineages in Portugal: not a genetic edge of European variation

ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 6 2000
L. PEREIRA
The analysis of the hypervariable regions I and II of mitochondrial DNA in Portugal showed that this Iberian population presents a higher level of diversity than some neighbouring populations. The classification of the different sequences into haplogroups revealed the presence of all the most important European haplogroups, including those that expanded through Europe in the Palaeolithic, and those whose expansion has occurred during the Neolithic. Additionally a rather distinct African influence was detected in this Portuguese survey, as signalled by the distributions of haplogroups U6 and L, present at higher frequencies than those usually reported in Iberian populations. The geographical distributions of both haplogroups were quite different, with U6 being restricted to North Portugal whereas L was widespread all over the country. This seems to point to different population movements as the main contributors for the two haplogroup introductions. We hypothesise that the recent Black African slave trade could have been the mediator of most of the L sequence inputs, while the population movement associated with the Muslim rule of Iberia has predominantly introduced U6 lineages. [source]


Male and female effects on fertilization success and offspring viability in the Peron's tree frog, Litoria peronii

AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
CRAIG D. H. SHERMAN
Abstract There is increasing theoretical and empirical evidence that genetic compatibility among partners is an important determinant of fertilization success and offspring viability. In amphibians, females often actively choose partners from among a variety of males and polyandry is common. Genetic compatibility among partners may therefore be an important determinant of fertilization success and offspring viability in some amphibians. Amphibians also show some of the highest levels of genetic differentiation among neighbouring populations known in vertebrates, and as such, populations may have evolved different co-adapted gene complexes. This means that offspring from among-population crosses may have reduced fitness. It is therefore essential to understand to what extent crossings between and within populations may interfere with successful fertilization and offspring viability. Here, we test whether crossing individuals within and between two different populations of the Australian Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii) using artificial fertilizations affect fertilization success and offspring viability. Fertilization success per se is strongly influenced by male identity, which is likely to depend at least to some extent on the experimental procedure (e.g. resulting in variation in sperm number per ejaculate), whereas there was no fertilization effect of female identity. More importantly, male and female identity, independently of each other, explained significant variation in offspring viability, whereas no such effect could be linked to population of origin. Thus, our experiments suggest that crossing populations may not always be the most significant factor affecting fertilization success or offspring viability, but may be more influenced by the genetic quality or the genetic compatibility of partners. [source]